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Full text of "BrickBuilder"

D HDD? lEDSTfl? a 

Calitornia State Library 



CAI^IFORNIA 



State IvIbrary 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 

AN ILLUSTRATED ARCHITECTURAL MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ART. SCIENCE AND BUSINESS OF BUILDING 

NEW YORK ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY, Publishers boston 



Volume Twenty-five 



INDEX FOR 1916 



January to December Inclusive 



Index to Plate Illustrations — According to Subject 

Plates numbered 1-16 in January issue ; 17-32, February; 33-48, March; 49-64, April; 65-80, May; 81-96, lune; 

97-112, July; 113-136, August ; 137-152, September; 153-169, October; 170-185, November; 186-201, December! 

(^Plates ill the February issue were incorrectly numbered 1-16 inclusive, but in the Index they are referred to as 17-32 inclusive. ) 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

Title, Location, and Architect Plate No. 

BANKvS 

Five Cent Savings, Fall River, Mass., William Luther 

Mowll 72,73 

Northampton Institution for Savings, Northampton, Mass., 

Thomas M. James _ 69-71 

BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL 

Farmers' Trust Company, South Bend, Ind., Perkins, 

Fellows & Hamilton 138,139 

Gazette-Telegraph, Pittsburgh, Pa., Edward B. Lee and 

James P. Piper, Associated 147,148 

Hampton Shops, New York, N. Y., W. L. Rouse & L. A. 

Goldstone & Jos. L. Steinam 170,171 

Journal-Courier, New Haven, Conn., Murphy & Dana 149 

Kent, Chicago, 111., Pond & Pond 144 

Pierce-Arrow Service, Long Island City, N. Y., Griffin & 

Wynkoop 151 

Postal Life, New York, N. Y., York & Sawyer 172-174 

Tulane, Chicago, 111., Pond & Pond 144 

FACTORIES 

Blumenthal Bros., Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa., Stearns 

& Castor 150 

Central Bag Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 111., S. Scott 

Joy 143 

Hide House, A. F. Gallun & Sons, Milwaukee, Wis., 

Brust & Philipp 146 

Hump Hairpin Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 111., 

A. S. Alschuler 140 

Liquid Carbonic Company, Chicago, 111., Nimmons & 

Fellows 142 

Printing House, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Chicago, 

111., Howard Shaw . 137 

Saunders Company, W. B., Philadelphia, Pa., John T. 

Windrim 152 

Schoettle Company, Edwin J., Philadelphia, Pa., Day & 

Klauder 15'. 

Silver & Co., M. T., Cleveland, Ohio, J. Milton Dyer 145 

FIRE HOUSES 

Watertown, Mass., Curtis W. Bixby 12 

Weston, Mass., Alexander S. Jenney 11 

Winchester, Mass., Edward R. Wait 10 

HOSPITALS 

Illinois Central, Chicago, 111., Richard E. Schmidt, Gar- 
den & Martin 162-164 

Orthopaedic, New York, N. Y., York & Sawyer 33-36 

MARKETS 
West Side, Cleveland, Ohio, Hubbell & Benes 6,7 

POLICE STATIONS 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y., George M. Bartlett 13,14 

Winchester, Mass., Edward R. Wait 10 

POST OFFICE 

Waukegan, 111., Wyatt & Nolting .. 15 

RECREATION, THEATERS, AND HALLS 

Auditorium, Oakland, Cal. , John J . Donovan, Henry Horn- 

bostel. Consulting 165-169 

Pier, Municipal, Chicago, 111., Charles S. Frost 153,154 

Theater, Motion Picture, Utica, N. Y., Green & Wicks. 
Theater, Olympia, New Bedford, Mass. , VV' illiam L. Mowll 
TRANSPORTATION 

Railroad Station, Santa Fe, San Diego, Cal., Bakewell & 

Brown 

WAREHOUSES 

Binsjham Company, The W., Cleveland, Ohio, Walker & 

Veeks --- - 145 



108 
109-112 



8,9 



Gar 

T 1 

v: ' 

Wall 



.rill Manufacturing Co., The C. A., Baltimore, Md. 

■ kcr, Thomas & Rice — -- 

.nd, Chicago, 111., S. Scott Joy... 143 

Murdock & Company, Chicago, 111., George C. 

;ijrions 

Medical Company, The J. R., Winona, Minn., 



151 



141 



f-ge M'her- 



146 



RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS 

Title. Location, and Architect I'late No. 

CHAPELS 

Ma.sonic Home, Utica, N. Y., H. P. Knowles 197 

St. Simon the Cyrenian, Philadelphia, Pa., Walter H. 

Thomas ._ 54,55 

CHURCHES 
First Congregational, Toledo, Ohio, Mills, Rhines, Bell- 
man & Nordhoff 198-201 

St. Andrew Methodist Episcopal, Philadelphia, Pa., C. E. 

Schermerhorn 56 

St. John's Episcopal, Laurel, Miss., Frank Arnold Colby . 106, 107 

EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS 

COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES 

Dormitory, Central, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass., 

Coolidge & Carlson 21-28 

Dormitory, Martha Cook, University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Mich., York & Sawyer _. 29-32 

Recitation Building, Skinner, Mt. Holyoke College, South 

Hadley, Mass., Putnam & Cox 17-20 

LIBRARIES 
Charlestown Branch, Boston Public Library, Charlestown, 

Mass., Fox & Gale 53 

Emanuel Einstein Memorial, Pompton Lakes, N. J., Slee 

& Hryson 52 

Haddington Branch, The Free Library of Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, Pa., Albert Kel.sey 49-51 

Needham Public, Needham, Mass., James H. Ritchie 97-101 

MUSEUMS 

University, Additions to, Philadelphia, Pa., Wilson Eyre & 

Mcllvaine, Stewardson & Page, Day Brothers & Klauder, 

Associated 65-68 

SCHOOLS 

Grade, Framingham, Mass., Charles M. Baker 42,43 

High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass., Kirkham & 

Parlett 40,41 

High School Group, Santa Monica, Cal., Allison & Allison 37-39 
Maryland State Normal, Towson, Md., Parker, Thomas & 

Rice 1-5 

FRATERNAL AND SECRET ORDER BUII,DINGS 

ELKS CLUBS 

Baltimore, Md., Wyatt & Nolting 195 

Cambridge, Mass., Charles R. Greco_. 193 

Columbus, Ohio, Frank L. Packard, Ralph Snyder, 
(ieorge R. Bassett, and Edward F. Babbitt, Architects 

and Engineers, Associated 191, 192 

Mankato, Minn., Tyrie & Chapman 194 

MASONIC TEMPLES 

Atlanta, Ga. (W. D. Luckie Lodge), Hentz, Reid & Adier 190 

Bennington, Vt., Harding &• Seaver ..- 189 

Salem. Mass., L. S. Couch, Little & Browne, Associated 188 

Worcester, Mass., George C. Halcott 186,187 

PYTHIAN TEMPLE 

Brockton, Mass., James II. Ritchie 196 

RESIDENCE BUILDINGS 

APARTMENT HOUSES 
Allston, Charles Street, Baltimore, Md., Parker. Thomas & 

Rice -- 80 

8.S0 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y., W. L. Rouse & L.A. 

Goldstone.-- - 176 

960 Park Avenue, New York. N. Y., D. Everett Waid and 

J. E. R. Carpenter, Associated 175 

Sheridan Road. Chicago, 111., Perkins. Fellows* Hamilton 16 

CLUB HOUSES 

Fraternity, Phi Delta Theta, Amherst. Mass., Putnam & 

Cox - 76,77 

Psi Upsilon, Amherst, Mass., Putnam & Cox 74,75 



Index to Volume XXV, Jan. — Dec, 1916 



The Brickbvilder 



RESIDENCE BUILDINGS - Continued 

Title, Location, and Arcliitect Plate No. 

COl'NTRV AND SUBURBAN HOUSES 
Brokaw, ClifTord V., Esq., Glen Cove, Long Island, 

N. Y., Charles A. Piatt 85-90 

Burden, Mrs. Arthur Scott, Jericho, Long Island, N. Y., 

John Russell Pope 119-124 

Couzens, James, P'sq., Detroit, Mich., Albert Kahn, 

Architect, Ernest Wilby, As.socialed 63 

Davidge, William H., Esq., Weston, Conn., Murphy & 

Dana 183-185 

Downs, Jere A., Esq., Winchester, Mass., Robert Coit 91,92 

England, Daniel, Esq., Pittsfield, Mass., Albro & Linde- 

berg 46-48 

Farnsworth, Estate of C. K. G. Billings, Esq., Locust 

Valley, Long Island, N. Y., Guy Lowell 81-84 

Frick, James Swan, Esq., Guilford, Baltimore, Md., John 

Rus.sell Pope 125-131 

Goodwin, C. A., Esq., Hartford, Conn., La Fargc & Morris 44,45 
Jacobs, John, Es(j., Merion, Pa., D. Knickerbackcr Boyd 62 

Mills, Ogden L., Esq., Woodbury, Long Island, N. Y., 

John Russell Pope 113-118 

Moore, Hudson, E.sq., Atlanta, Ga., W. T. Downing 64 



RESIDENCE BUILDINGS — Continued 

Title. Location, and Architect I'late No. 

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES— ro«//««frf 
Myers, George Hewitt, Esq., Washington, D. C, John 

Russell Pope --_132-136 

Radnor, Pa., Bissell & Sinkler .__ 61 

Russell, Thomas W., Esq., Hartford, Conn., Parker Morse 

Hooper, Frank C. Farley, Associated 93-96 

Thorp, Mrs. J. G., Cambridge, Mass., A. W. Longfellow 59,60 
Treadway, Town.send G., Esq., Bristol, Conn., Murphy & 

Dana 180-182 

TuUy, Hon. W. J., Locust Valley, Long Island, N. Y., 

Kenneth M. Murchison ,177-179 

FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS 

Stable and Garage, W. D. Straight, Esq., Westbury, Long 

Island, N. Y., Delano & Aldrieh 57,58 

HOTELS 

Bancroft, Saginaw, Mich., Richard E. Schmidt, Garden & 

Martin 159-161 

Robert Treat, Newark, N. J., Guilbert & Betelle 155-158 

William Penn, Pittsburgh, Pa., Janssen & Abbott 102-105 

Winecoff, Atlanta, Ga., W. L. Stoddart 78,79 



Subject Index to Illustrations in Letter Press 

Pages numbered 1-26 in the January issue; 27-52, February; 53-80, March; 81-108, April; 109-134, May; 
135-160, June ; 161-188, July ; 189-216, August; 217-248, vSeptember ; 249-274, October ; 

275-304, November; 305-334, December 



MEASURED DRAWINGS OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 



Title and Location iJrawn by 

DOORWAYS 

Barton-Myers House, Norfolk, Va., J. L. Keister 

Colross Mansion, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, O. J. 

Munson, and J. A. Weber 

Hodges- Webb-Meek House, Salem, Mass., Gordon Robb 
Ilomewood, Main Entrance, Baltimore, Md., Riggin 

Buckler 

House, Prince and St. Asaph Streets, Alexandria, Va., 

J. L. Keister, O. J. Munson, and J. A. Weber 

Johns House, New Castle, Del., Riggin Buckler 

Lafayette House, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, O. J. 

Munson, and J. A. Weber 

Lloyd House, Alexandria, Va., Riggin Buckler 

Robinson House, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, O. J. 

Munson, and J. A. Weber 

Snowden House, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, O. J. 

Munson, and J. A. Weber 

114 South Fairfax Street, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, 

O. J. Munson, and J. A. Weber 

DORMERS 
Colross Mansion, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, O. J. 
Munson, and J. A. Weber 



I'age 

265 

207 
267 

123 

95 
299 

297 
321 

15 

67 

175 



206 



Title and Location Drawn by 

DORMERS — Continued 
Snowden House, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, O. J. 

Munson, and J. A. Weber 

ELEVATIONS 
Front, Colross Mansion, Alexandria, Va., J. L. Keister, 

O. J. Munson, and J. A. Weber 

INTERIORS 

Doorway, Entrance, Braddock House, Alexandria, Va., 

J. L. keister, O. J. Munson, and J. A. Weber 

Doorway, Hall, " Homewood," Baltimore, Md., Riggin 

Buckler 

Doorway, " Homewood," Baltimore, Md., Riggin Buckler 
Hall, Entrance, Crowninshield-Devereux House, Salem, 

Mass., Gordon Robb 

Mantel, Chamber, Crowninshield-Devereux House, Salem, 

Mass., Gordon Robb 

Mantel, Fairfax House, Cameron Street, Alexandria, Va., 

J . L. Keister, O. J. Munson, and J. A. Weber 

Mantel, "Hunington," Baltimore, Md., Riggin Buckler 
Parlor, End of. House at 6 Andover Street, Salem, Ma.ss., 

Gordon Robb 

Stairway, Johnson House, Newburyport, Mass., Gordon 

Robb' 



Page 

45 

208 

319 

97 
157 

43 

65 

155 
173 

13 

125 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

Title. Location, and Architect I'ase 

BANKS 
First National, Montclair, N. J., Crow, Lewis & Wicken- 

hoefer ^ 114 

First National, West Orange, N. J., C. Howard Walker 

and Ralph H. Doane, Associated 116 

Hampden Branch, Provident Savings, Baltimore, Md., 

EUicott & Emmart 118 

Security Trust Company, Rockland, Me., R. Clipston 

Sturgis 115 

Winchester Trust Company, Winchester, Mass., Wait & 

Copeland 117 

BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL 

Albaugh, Chicago, 111., Howard Shaw 223 

Dairy, Sheffield Farms, Slawson-Decker Company, New 

York, N. Y., Frank A. Rooke.. 235 

Dixon, Arthur C, Chicago, 111., Nimmons & Fellows 226 

Ham, Chicago, 111., Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton 226 

Henneberry, Chicago, 111., Howard Shaw 220 

Western Newspaper Union, Chicago, 111., J. C. Llewellyn 219 
FACTORIES 
American Bank Note Company, New York, N. Y., John J. 

Petit 236 

Auerbach Candy, New York, N. Y., Robert D. Kohn 233 

Colton, Arthur, Manufacturing, Detroit, Mich., Mildner 

& Eisen 229 

Eastman, Gardiner & Co., Laurel, Miss., Frank Arnold 

Colby 225 

Hudson Companies Power House, Jersey City, N. J., 

Robins & Oakman 232 

Iron Foundry, Chicago, 111., Richard E. Schmidt, Garden 

& Martin 237 

Jelke, Chicago, 111., Huehl & Schmidt ..- 220 

Jewel Tea Company, Chicago, 111., Nimmons & Fellows.. 226 

Kimball, C. P., Chicago, 111., George C. Nimmons 221 

Malleable Iron Foundry, General Electric Works, Erie, 

Pa., Harris & Richards 238 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS - Continued 

Title, Location, and Architect Page 

FACTORIES — Ci; ////;/ //fo' • 

Morgan & Wright, Detroit, Mich., Albert Kahn, Ernest 

Wilby, Associated 237 

National Biscuit Company, New York, N. Y., A. G. Zim- 
merman 233 

National Candy Company, Minneapolis, Minn., Hewitt & 

Brown 219 

Otis Elevator Company, Buffalo, N. Y., Green & Wicks .. 231 
Richman Bros., Cleveland, Ohio, Christian, Schwarzen- 

berg & Gaede 224 

Rogers & Company, Chicago, 111., Mundie & Jensen 218 

Sehulze Baking Company, Chicago, 111., John Ahlschlager 

& Son 223 

Sears, Roebuck & Company, Administration Building, 

Chicago, 111., Nimmons & Fellows 222 

RECREATION AND THEATERS 

Pier, Municipal, Chicago, 111., Charles S. Frost. __261-264 

Tennis Courts Building, Enclosed, Queen's Boulevard, 

Long Island, N. Y., Walter D. Blair 177-180 

Theater, .Motion Picture, and Store Building, Logan, 

North Philadelphia, Pa., Albert F. .Schenck 303 

EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS 

COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES 
Agricultural Buildings, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., 

New Group of, Green & Wicks 81-88 

Dormitory, Central, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass., 

Coolidge & Carl.son.. 39,40 

Dormitory, Martha Cook, University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Mich., York & Sawyer 41,42 

Stock Judging Pavilion, University of Illinois, Champaign, 

111., W. Carbys Zimmerman '^',90 

INSTITUTIONS 
Roxbury Boys' Club, Roxbury, Mass., Harold F. Kellogg 21,22 
Young Men's Institute and Donahue Library, San Fran 

Cisco, Cal., W. D. Shea 318 



The Brickbvilder 



Index to Volume XXV, Jan. — Dec, 1916 



lU 



FRATERNAL AND SECRET ORDER BUILDINGS 

Title, Location, and Architect 

MASONIC TEMPLES 

Buffalo, N. y., Green & Wicks 

Colon, Panama, H. P. Knowies " ' 

Des Moines, Iowa, Frank E. Wetherell """"y 

East Weymouth, Mass., Arthur H. Vinal and J. Sumner 

Fowler 

Everett, Mass., Loring & Phipps .._.[ 

Nashville, Tenn. (Cumberland Lodge), Asmus & Norton 

New York, N. Y., H. P. Knowies _. 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada, H. P. Knowies 

Yonkers, N. Y., Vollmer & Beersman and Evarts Tracy __ 
MISCELLANEOUS 

Eagles Club House, Buffalo, N. Y., Esenwein & Johnson 
I. O. O. F., Triumph Lodge, Hamburg, N. Y., Lansing, 

Bley & Lyman [ 

Knights of Columbus Hall, Columbus, Ohio, Frank Glei- 

chauf 

Knights of Columbus Hall, San Francisco, Cal., Smith 

O'Brien 

Loyal Order of Moose Temple, Pittsburgh, Pa., U. J. L. 

Peoples 



Page 

314 
309 
312 

315 
308 
313 
311 
307 
312 

317 
314 
317 
315 
318 



RESIDENCE BUILDINGS 

APARTMENT HOUSES 

79th Street and Park Avenue, New York, N. Y., RobertT. 

Lyons 290 

930 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y., Schwartz & Gross. .. 290 
West 55th Street, New York, N. Y., Sommerfeld & Stockier 291 
East 62d Street, New York, N. Y., W. L. Rouse & L. A. 

Goldstone _ 288 

15 West 55th Street, New York, N. Y., Wallis & Good- 

willie 287 

Knickerbocker Chambers, East 62d Street, New York, 

N. Y., Samuel R. T. Very '__ 289 

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES 

Burden, Mrs. Arthur Scott, Jericho, Long Island, N. V., 

John Russell Pope 197 199 

Chalmers, Dr. Thomas C, Forest Hills Gardens, Long 

Island, N. Y., Eugene Schoen 142 

Cleveland, Ohio, Frank B. Meade 102 

Crane, William, Jr., Esq., Watertown, Mass., Robert H. 

Wambolt 35,36 

Frick, James Swan, Esq., Guilford, Baltimore, Md., John 

Ru.ssell Pope 193 196 

Meeker, J. A., Esq., Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island, 

N. Y., Grosvenor Atterbury 141 

Mills, Ogden L., Esq., Woodbury, Long Island, N. Y., 

John Russell Pope 200-204 

Mullen, Hugh, Esq., Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island, 

N. Y., Albro & Lindeberg 149 

Mvers, George Hewitt, Esq., Washington, D. C, John 

Russell Pope 189-192 

Robinson, Boardman, Esq., Forest Hills Gardens, Long 

Island, N. Y., Albro & Lindeberg 150 

Taylor, Miss, Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island, N. Y., 

Grosvenor Atterbury 139 



RESIDENCE BUILDINGS — Continued 

Title. Location, and Architect I'age 

COUNTRY AND SUBURBAN HOUSES- Conhnua/ 

Trowbridge, E. G., E.sq., Forest Hills Gardens, Long 

Island, N. Y., Grosvenor Atterbury 140 

Winchester, -Mass., Allan K. Boone 37 38 

FARM AND OUTBUILDINGS 

Kstate of C. K. G. I'.illings, Esq., Lociisi Vallev, Long 

Island, N. Y., Guv Lowell 146-148 

WORKINGMRN'S HOUSF.S 

Marcus Hook, Pa., Ballinger &• Perrot_, 329,330 

Massena, N. Y., Albert H. Spahr_ 331-333 

GARDENS AND ACCESSORIES 

GARDENS 

Rosemont, Pa., Duhring, Okie iV Ziegler, Architects. 

Oglesby Paul, Landscape Architect, . . .. 154 

Schiff, Mortimer, Ivsq., Oyster Bay, Long Island, N. Y., 

James L. Greenleaf, Landscape Architect 152 

Shepard, Col. Elliott F., Scarborough, N. Y., McKim, 

Mead & White 153 

ACCESSORIES 
Garden House, Rosemont, Pa., Duhring, Okie \- Ziegler 122 

Garden House, Bridge House, Weybridge, England . 122 

Garden Pedestal, Niche and Figure, Italy 151 

Garden Gate, Wa.shington, D. C, Charles A. Piatt . 120 

Garden Gate, Wrought Iron, Roslyn, Long Island, N. Y., 

Delano & Aldrich 120 

Pergola, Grosse Point, Mich., Trowbridge & Ackerman .. 153 

Pergola, New London, Conn., James Gamble Rogers 152 

.Steps and Balustraded Terrace, Glen Cove, Long Island, 

N. Y., Trowbridge & Ackerman 121 

Steps and Terrace, Roslyn, Long Island, N. Y., Delano & 

Aldrich 119 

Steps Leading to Parterre, Newport, R. I., John Russell 

Pope 121 

COMPETITIONS 

Ornamental Street Clock, Competitive Design for an. 104-106 

New York State Architects' Certificates, Designs Sub- 
mitted in Competition for. _ 131,132 

One-Family Hollow Tile House, Prize and Mention Designs 

Submitted in Competition 182-186 

ANCIENT, RENAISSANCE. AND MODERN ARCHITEC- 
TURE 

Alhambra, Granada, .Spain, Hall of Two Sisters in the 292 

Dome of S. Maria del Fiore, F"lorence 209-215 

Dome of St. Paul's, London 276-280 

Dome of St. Peter's, Rome 249-254 

Farnese Palace, Rome, Ban(|uet Room 294 

Fontainebleau Palace, France, Francis I Gallery 293 

Italian Doors . 47-51 

Plasterwork and Ceilings, Old English. 127-130,196,296 

Plaster Reliefs, Rome and Pompeii — 269-272 

Spada I'alace, Rome, Court of 295 

Temi)ietto of Bramante in S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome 2H0 

Vatican, Rome, " Loggie " 293 



Index to Articles 



May 



Pages numbered 1-26 in the January issue; 27-52, February; 53-80, March; 81-108, April; 109 134, 
135-160, June; 161-188, July ; 189-216, August ; 217-248, vSeptember ; 249-274, October ; 

275-304, November; 305-334, December 

I'aKe 

Housing in England, Co-partnership. Robert Randal 323 

Housing Scheme, An Ivnglish ; Duchy of Cornwall Estate, 

Kennington, London. R. Randal Phillips 69 



Page 
81 



Agricultural Buildings at Cornell University, New Group of.. 
Architectural Design, An Experiment in Co-Operative Train- 
ing in 103 

"As He Is Known." Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 
Messrs. Howard Van Doren .Shaw, Austin W. Lord, David 

Knickerbacker Boyd, William G. Nolting 23 

Bank Vaults, Modern Practice in the Design of — Two Parts. 

Fredericks. Holmes 109, 143 

College Buildings, Three New 39 

Skinner Recitation Building, Mt. Holyoke College; Central 
Dormitory, Wellesley College; Martha Cook Building, 
University of Michigan 
Does It Pay to Improve Manufacturing and Industrial Build- 
ings Architecturally ? George C. Nimmons 217 

Dome of S. Maria del Fiore, Florence. Richard Franz Bach _ 209 

Dome of .St. Paul's, London. Richard Franz Bach — 275 

Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Richard Franz Bach 249 

Domestic Architecture from the Designs of John Russell Pope, 

Recent. H.D.Smith 189 

Editorial Comment and Notes for the I 26, 52, 80, 108, 134, 160, 

'Month ) 188, 216, 248, 274, 304, 334 

Fireplaces in Tattershall Castle, England. J. W. Overend 11 

■" From Twenty-Third Street Up." The Architectural Devel- 
opment of Fifth Avenue and Intersecting Streets in New 

York City — Two Parts. Aymur Embury II 255, 281 

Garden, Architectural Features of the — Two Parts. John T. 

Fallon 119. 151 

High School, The— Two Parts. Walter H. Kilham .. 27, 57 

House, Competition for a One-Family. (Report of Jury and 

Winning Designs) 1*^1 



Industrial Village at Marcus Hook, Pa., An 329 

Italian Doors, Some. John II. Scarff 47 

Lighting of Manufacturing Buildings, Natural. O. M. Becker 239 

Manufacturing Building, The Modern. John J. Klaber 231 

Masonic Temples. H. P. Knowies — 305 

New York State Architects' Certificates, Competition for 131 

Observations of a Draftsman, The. Filui>o Brunollcschi _ _ . 301 
Orthopaedic Hospital and Dispensary, The, New York Lind- 

lev M. Franklyn - --- 62 

Pier, The Chicago Municipal. Ira W.Hoover. 261 
Plaster Work, Decorative —Two Parts. A. D. F. Hamlin. .269, 292 

Plaster Work, Old English. J. W. Overend 127 

Progress Schedules, Diagrammatic — Four Parts. Charles 

A. Whittemorc », 31. 53. 91 

Roxburv Bovs' Club, Roxbury, Mass 21 

Sanitarv Equipment of Industrial Buildings, The. Harold 

L.Alt 243 

School Building as a Social Center. The. 11. (Continued 

from Vol. XXIV, No. 12.) Dwighl H. Perkins 1 

•School Power Plant, The. Harold L. Alt . - 99 

School Sanitation. Harold L. Alt. 167 

Selection of a Heating System, The. Charles L. Hubbard . 17 

Stock Judging Pavilion at University of Illinois 89 

Tennis Court Buildings. Enclosed. Walter I). Blair 177 

Theater, Olvmpia, New Bedford, Mass 171 

Trade and Industrial School Buildings, The Planning of- 

T wo Parts. Lewis Gustafson -- 135,161 

Ventilation of Special Rooms. The. Charles L. Hubbard .. 75 



1^4971 



IV 



Index to Volume XXV, Jan. — Dec, 1916 



The Brickbvilder 



Index to Frontispieces 

PORTRAITS OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTS 



Title Month 

Filippo Brunelleschi January 

Donate D'Angnolo Bramante February 

Baldassare Peruzzi March 

Jacoppo Tatti Sansovino April 

Giulio Romano May 

Giuliano Da San Gallo June 



Title Month 

Michele San Michele July 

Andrea Palladio August 

Michelangelo Buonarroti September 

Domenico Fontana October 

Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini November 

Leon Battista Albert! December 



Index to Plate and Page Illustrations— According to Author 



Architect Home Address 

Ahlschlager&Son, John, Chicago, 111. 
Albro & Lindeberg, New York, N. Y. 
Allison & Allison, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Alschuler, A. S., Chicago, 111. 

Asmus & Norton, Nashville, Tenn. . 
Atterbury, Grosvenor, New York, 

N. Y. 

Baker, Charles M., Boston, Mass 

Bakewell & Brown, San Francisco, 

Cal 

Ballinger & Perrot, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bartlett, George M., New York, N. Y. 
Bissell & Sinkler, Philadelphia, Pa. _ 

Bixby, Curtis \V., Boston, Mass. 

Blair, Walter D., New York, N. Y. . 

Boone, Allan E., Boston, Mass. 

Boyd, D. Knickerbacker, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Brust & Philipp, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Carpenter, J. E. R., New York, N. Y. 
Christian, Schwarzenberg & Gaede, 

Cleveland , Ohio 

Coit, Robert, Boston, Mass. 

Colby, Frank Arnold, New York, N.Y. 
Coolidge & Carlson, Boston, Mass... 

Couch, L. S., Boston, Mass. 

Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer, New 

York, N. Y 

Day Brothers & Klauder, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Delano & Aldrich, New York, N. Y. 

Doane, Ralph H., Boston, Mass 

Donovan, John J., Oakland, Cal. 

Downing, W. T., Atlanta, Ga 

Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Dyer, J. Milton, Cleveland, Ohio _._ 
EUicott & Emmart, Baltimore, Md. . 
Esenwein & Johnson, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Eyre & Mcllvaine, Wilson, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Farley, Frank C, New York, N. Y.. 
Fowler, J. Sumner, Boston, Mass. _. 

Fox & Gale, Boston, Mass. 

Frost, Charles S., Chicago, 111 

Gleichauf, Frank, Columbus, Ohio. 

Greco, Charles R., Boston, Mass ' 

Green & Wicks, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Greenleaf, James L., New York, N.Y. 
GrilTin & Wvnkoop, New York, N. Y. 

Guilbert & Betelle, Newark, N. J 

Halcott, George C, Worcester, Mass. 
Harding & Seaver, Pittsfield, Mass.. 
Harris & Richards, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Hentz, Reid & Adler, Atlanta, Ga 
Hewitt & Brown, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Hooper, Parker Morse, New York, 

N. Y. 

Hornbostel, Henry, New York, N. Y. 
Hubbell & Benes, Cleveland, Ohio.. 

Huehl & Schmidt, Chicago, 111 

James, Thomas M.. Boston, Mass. .. 
Janssen & Abbott, Pittsburgh, Pa. .. 
Jenney, Alexander S., Boston, Mass. 

Joy, S. Scott, Chicago, 111 

Kahn, Albert, Detroit 

Kellogg, Harold Field, Boston, Mass. 
Kelsey, Albert, Philadelphia. Pa. — 
Kirkham & Parlett. Springfield, Mass. 
Knowles, H. P., New York, N. Y. __ 
Kohn, Robert D., New York, N. Y 
La Farge & Morris, New York, N. Y 
Lansing, Bley & Lyman, Buffalo 

N. Y. 

Lee, Edward B., Pittsburgh, Pa 

Little & Browne, Boston, Mass 

Llewellyn, J. C. Chicago, 111 

Longfellow, A. W., Boston. Mass. .. 
Loring & Phipps, Boston, Mass 



46-48 
37-39 
140 



42, 43 

8, 9 

13, 14 

61 

12 



62 

146 

175 



91, 92 
106,5107 

21-28 
188 



65-68, 152 
57, 58 

165-169 
64 



145 



65-68 
93-96 

53 

153, 154 

■193 
108 

151 

155-158 
186, 187 
189 

.190 



93-96 
165-169 
6, 7 

69-71 

102-105 

11 

143 

63 

49-51 
40, 41 
197 



.44, 45 



147, 148 
188 

59, 60 



Page Architect Home Address I'late Page 

223 Lowell, Guy, Boston, Mass 81-84 146-148 

149, 150 Lyons, Robert T„ New York, N. Y. 290 

Maher, George, Chicago, 111 ...146 

McKim, Mead & White, New York, 

313 N.Y 153 

Meade, Frank B., Cleveland, Ohio.. 102 

139, 141 Mildner & Eisen, Detroit, Mich 229 

Mills, Rhines, Bellman & Nordhoff, 

Toledo, Ohio 198-201 

Mowll, William L., Boston, Mass 72, 73, 109-112 171, 172 

329,330 Mundie & Jensen, Chicago, 111 218 

Murchison, Kenneth M., New York, 

N. Y. 177-179 

Murphy & Dana, New York, N. Y.-_149, 180-185 
177, 180 Nimmons, George C, Chicago, 111... 141 221 

37,38 Nimmons & Fellows, Chicago, 111 142 217,222,226 

O'Brien, Smith, San Francisco, Cal. 316 

Packard, Frank L., Columbus, Ohio 191. 192 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Boston, 

Mass. 1-5, 80, 151 

Peoples, U. J. L., Pittsburgh, Pa 318 

224 Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Chi- 

cago, 111 ... 16,138,139 226 

225 Petit, John J., New York, N. Y 236 

39, 40 Piper, James P., Pittsburgh, Pa... 147, 148 

310 Piatt, Charles A., New York, N. Y.. 85-90 120,159 

Pond & Pond, Chicago, 111 144 

114 Pope, John Russell, New York, N. Y. 113-136 121, 189-204 

Putnam & Cox, Bo.ston, Mass. 17-20, 74-77 

Ritchie, James H., Boston, Mass 97-101, 196 

119, 120 Rogers, James Gamble, New York, 

116 N. Y 152 

Rooke, Frank A., New York, N. Y... 235 

Rouse & Goldstone, W. L. & L. A., 

New York, N. Y 170, 171, 176 288 

122, 154 Schenck, Albert F., Philadelphia, 

Pa 303 

118 Schermerhorn, C. E., Philadelphia, 

317 Pa. 56 

Schmidt, Richard E., Garden & Mar- 
tin, Chicago, 111. 159, 164 237 

Schoen, Eugene, New York, N. Y. . 142 

315 Schwartz & Gross, New York, N. Y. 290 

Shaw, Howard, Chicago, 111. :..137 220, 223 

261-264 Shea, W. D., San Francisco, Cal 318 

317 Slee & Bryson, Brooklyn, N. Y 52 

Sommerfeld & Steckler, New York, 

81-88.231,314 N.Y. 291 

152 Spahr, Albert H., Pittsburgh, Pa. _. 331-333 

Stearns & Castor, Philadelphia, Pa. .150 
Steinam, Joseph L., New York. N. Y. 170, 171 
Stewardson & Page, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 65-68 

238 Stoddart, W. L., New York, N. Y.-.78,79 

Sturgis, R. Clipston, Bo.ston, Mass. . 115 

219 Thomas, Walter H., Philadelphia, 

Pa 54, 55 

Tracy, Evarts, New York, N. Y 312 

Trowbridge & Ackerman, New York, 

N. \" __ 121, 153 

220 Tvrie & Chapman, Minneapolis, 

Minn 194 

Very, Samuel R. T., New York, N. Y. 289 

Vinal, Arthur H., Boston, Mass 315 

Volmer & Beersman, New York, 

237 N.Y. 312 

21, 22 Waid, b' EverettrNew'YorkrN' y'i75 

Wait, Edward R., Boston, Mass 10 

Wait & Copeland, Boston, Mass 117 

307, 309, 311 Walker. C. Howard, Boston, Mass... 116 

233 Walker & Weeks. Cleveland, Ohio .. 145 

Waliis& Goodwillie. New York, N.Y. 287 

Wambolt, Robert H., Boston. Mass. 35, 36 

314 Wilby, Ernest H., Detroit, Mich 63 237 

Windrim, John T., Philadelphia, Pa.l52 

310 Wvatt cS: Nolting, Baltimore, Md.-._15, 195 

219 York & Sawyer, New York, N. Y.___29-36, 172-174 41, 42, 62-64 

Zimmerman, A. G., Chicago, 111. ___ 233 

308 Zimmerman, W. Carbys, Chicago, 111. 89, 90 



THE BRICKE^^LDER 

AfiARCHlTECrVRAL 

MONTHLY 




JANVARY 

1916 



DEVOTED TO THE ARTAND SCIENOEOFBVIUMNG 
ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY PVBLISHERS 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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TIFFANY 



THE GUARANTEED 



ENAMEL BRICK 



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1203 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
Chicago 



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ST. LOUIS 
TERRA GOTTA CO. 

Manufactxirera of 

Architectural 

AND 

Ornamental 

TERRA COTTA 

IN ALL COLORS 



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BRICK, TERRA COTTA 
AND TILE COMPANY 



If. E. GREGORY, Proprietor 



CORNING 



NEW YORK 






Manufacturers of 

Architectural 
TERRACOTTA 



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EtUbluhed 1856 

Henry Maurer & Son 

Manufactureri of 

HOLLOW TILE 

Fireproofing Materials 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

Flat and Segment Arches 
Partitions, Furring, Etc. 

Hollow WaU Blocks for Buildings 



GENERAL OFFICE 

420 East 23d Street - New York 

Philadelphia Office, Penna Building 
Worka Maurer. New Jersey 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



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I "HE use of North western Terra Cotta by 
* Marshall 6- Fox in the Marshall Apartment 
Building, Chicago, illustrates the adaptability of this 
material to fulfill the combined requirements of color, 
rich ornamentation and the successful treatment of 
plain surfaces. 

On the top of the parapet are imitation bay trees of 
terra cotta in heavy vaises, a striking example o^ our 
ability to carry out the most individual ideas of 
the architect. 

The building is French Renaissance; the color 
scheme — Bedford grey with French grey iron work. 



N^mnHWEsiriEiRN 

Grey Standard Terra 
Cotra Manufactured 
and set by The 
Northwestern Terra 
Cotta Co., Chicago 



The Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. 

Chicago 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 






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THE combination of bright Atlantic 
faience colors with an unglazed 
silver gray is an unusual and very 
successful use for Atlantic Terra Cotta. 

Atlantic Gray No. 115 is the basic color in the example 
illustrated. In the background of the modeled ornament 
of the lower part the color is light blue, the rosettes are 
dark ivory, and in the upper part green leaves alternate 
with gray. 

The color glazes are slightly lustrous, as indicated by 
the high lights; not brilliant enough to be gaudy but with 
sufficient life to prevent dry, dead monotony. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta made for the interior of the Post Office at Mobile, Alabama, 
designed in the office of the Siipervising Architect of the Treasury Department. In 
addition to gray, cream, ivory, green and three shades of blue icere used. 




We shall be glad to send ;i Terra ColU pate like 
the one illustrated to any Architect who is interested. 



Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 

1170 l^roadway, New York 

Copyri;;!!!. 1016. Atlantic Terra Cotta Co. 



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Central Branch Y. M.C. A. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Whitney Company 




The trimmings above the 
second story, including the 
main cornice and roof 
garden work, are executed 
in New Jersey's architec- 
tural terra cotta, standard 
limestone color No. 19. 



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TROWBRIDGE & ACKERMAN. Architects 






' I 'HE architects are well pleased with the execution and general effect of the 
architectural terra cotta used on this building. 

THE- NEW-JEI^SEY-TEIiRACOTTA- COMPANY 

OFHCE. SINGER. BVILDfNG, NEW YORK. CITY established 1888 WORKS. PERTH AMBOY. NEW JERSEY 



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A Versatile Material 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 



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TTH new tendencies evident in tlie archi- 
tecture of our commercial structures, the 
architect feels the need of a modern material 
in which to express modern ornament. The 
material that fulfils this need is 



"IT'S TIME TO RETIRE' 
Fair Mercantile Building, Chicago 
C. W. & G. L. Rapp, Architects 



AMERICAN TERRA COTTA 

What could be more appropriate on a manu- 
facturing building than a reproduction of some 
emblem or trade-mark associated with the 
product and made known to millions of people 
through national advertising as in the example 
illustrated herewith ? 



American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Co. 



Office : Peoples' Gas Building. Chicago. 111. 
Factory: Terra Cotta, 111. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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TERRA COTTA and the 

SMALL COMMERCIAL BUILDING 




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Building at left 

Hanan Shoe Store. Pliiladelpliia. Pa. 

BiBsell & Sinkler. Arihiteits 



Building in center 

Hnyler Candy Store, Pliiiadelphia. Pa 

Harris * Richards. ArcliileclB 



BiiiJding at right 

* and Lunch R ti. Pliiladel|.lii.i, Pi 

Charles W. Dennv. Architect 



'T'HE architect who is called upon to design a small com- 
mercial building with a narrow frontage is immediately 

beset with the necessity of choosing some material for its street facade which 
will create distinction and enable it to stand out from surrounding structures. 
The three small buildings above show how effectively 

KETCHAM TERRA COTTA 

"The material of dependable quality" 

meets the difficulty. Terra cotta has a clean, bright surface, which can be 
easily kept so; it combines well with large glass areas and can be readily 
produced in any form to meet architectural requirements, and its use will 
further be found to serve every mercantile requirement. 

0. W. KETCHAM TERRA COTTA WORKS 

MASTER BLIILDEKS' EXCHANGE, IMIILADELI'IIIA, PA. 

BRANCH OFFICES^ 



NEW YORK, 1170 Broadway WASHIN(;T()\. Home [,if.- liiiil.lin^ 

BOSTON, George Kendall, 4 P. O. Square BALTIMOHi;. Haltimorr Aineri.an Bl.ln. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA WORKS AT CHI M l.)Ni\E, PA. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 




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N?m ^ork Arrlittertural 
Sfrra-OIotta Qlmn^anit 

THE doorway here illustrated is one 
of four furnished for the Fried- 
man Construction Company at 
160th Street to 161st Street on River- 
side Drive, New York City, according 
to plans of Young & Wagner, Archi- 
tects. 

We desire to call attention to the 
peculiar effectiveness of Granite Terra- 
Cotta for ornamental features of this 
nature, particularly in Gothic design. 

The Architectural Terra-Cotta starts 
at top of base blocks, which are of 
Gray Granite, and has the same sur- 
face texture and general tone as the 
natural material, without sacrificing 
any sharpness of moulding profiles or 
detail of ornament. 

ONE FACTORY ONE MANAGEMENT 

FOR TWENTY-NINE YEARS 

Main Office and Works : 

401 Vernon Avenue, Borough of Queens 

NEW YORK CITY. N. Y. 

i'illsburgh Sales Oflirp : Keenan iiiiilding 





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cream enamel terra 
an effectual decorative 



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^MIDLAND 

cotta as 

medium for apartment buildings 

is vigorously presented here. 

MIDLAND 

TERRA COTTA 

COMPANY 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



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The Winkle 
Terra Cotta Company 

St. Louis, Missouri 

Manufacturers of 

In All Colors and Finishes 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 










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Seal of the Slate of New York 

Executed in Terra Cotta 

Armory and Stable of Troop B, Albany, I\. Y. 

L. Pilcher, Architect 



WE present the above piece of 
modeling as one which shows 
the artistic quality that charac- 
terizes our work. The development 
of models from architects' sketches 
and drawings can be safely entrusted 
to us with the assurance that the 
work will have a finished architec- 
tural quality. 

Our wide experience has perfected us in 
not only the modeling of low relief and 
of conventionalized ornament, but also 
the difficult modeling of the human 
figure. 

Our careful attention to detail does not 
stop with the model, but extends to the 
execution of the finished terra cotla and 
every detail necessary to make the work 
a credit to the architect and ourselves 
alike. 



Conkling- Armstrong Terra Colta 
Company 

MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS 

NICETOWN, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



NEW YORK 

347 FIFTU AVENUE 



BOSTON 

45 BArrERYMARCll ST. 



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I';inol ill I'iers 



OMVKR S'l'. SCHOOL 
NKWARK. N.J. 



K. F. GUILBKRT, Arrhitect 
FRKDKKICK TATZMCR CO.. Huiklers 



A I-J- Terra Cotta Trim to tlii.s 
hiiildinn^ Is of a Deep Cream 
Matte (;la/.C(i color. 

Attention is calli-i! to the ^'eiieral 
excellence of niodellntr illustrated. 




jiU,:!^ 



Cheneati i>ver M.iiii C'»inice 



®l|f ^nittl) Amlioif SIrrra (Eutta (En. 



11 150 Nassau Street, N.Y. 



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South Amboy, N.J. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER, 




ii<w<<<<gg3:<<<w<w<<<<^<<<<<<<iffl^???>iaa^>>>>>>>>vvvvv>»v>»»»TOyyy 



■ INDEX OF ■ 
ADVERTISING 

ANNOVNCEMENTS 





American Enameled Brick and Tile Co 12 

American Lead Pencil Co. 54 

American Luxfer Prism Co 60 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co 3d Cover 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co. 4 

Arkansas Soft Pine Bureau 67 

ArmslronK Cork & Insulation Co 35 

Asbestos Protected Metal Co 37 

Asphalt Ready Roofing Co... 42 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co 3 

Barrett Mfg. Co 21 

Berger Manufacturing Co. _ 55 

B<)st{)n Varnish Co. Back Cover 

Boyle &: Company, Inc., John 48 

Bradford Pressed Brick Co 11 

Brick, Terra Cotta & Tile Co. _.. 2d Cover 

Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co., The 68 

Byers, A. M., Co 38, 39 

Cabot, Inc., Samuel 66 

Carey Co., The Philip 52 

Columbus Brick 6c Terra Cotta Co 12 

Conkling-Amistrong Terra Cotta Co. 7 

Corbin, P. & F 29 

Crane Co. 61 

Crittall Casement Co 49 

Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co. 41 

Decorators' Supply Co 66 

Detroit Lubricator Co 65 

Detroit Steel Products Co 52 

Devoe, F. W. & C. T. Raynolds Co 72 

Electric Cable Co - 56 

Fiske & Co., Inc -.. 9 

Gillis & Geoghegan - -.- 47 

Gorton & Lidgerwobd Co. 62 

Goulds Manufacturing Co., The 47 

Grant Pulley & Hardware Co. 48 

Herla Iron Works 41 

Heinicke, H. R., Inc. 15 

Hicks Nursery 54 

Hocking Valley Products Co 18 

Hope & Son, Henry 49 

Hvdraulic- Press Brick Co 16 

Hy(hex Felt & Engineering Co., The 53 

International Casement Co 49 

Ivanhoe-Regent Works... 59 

Jefferson Glass Co. 58 

Johns-ManvilleCo., H. W 25-28 

Kelsey Heating Co., The 63 

Keppler (jlass Constructions Inc 22 

Ketcham, O. W 5 

Keystone Clay Products Co . 10 

Keystone Varnish Co 3d Cover 

Knoburn Company ''Z 



Lord &■ Burnham Co 73 

Lowe Brothers Company, The 72 

Luminous Unit Co 1 57 

Macbeth-Evans Glass Co. 74 

Majestic Co., The 43 

Master Builders Co., The 51 

Maurer, Henry, & Son 2d Cover 

Midland Terra Cotta Co 6 

Monarch Metal Weather Strip Co 54 

National Fire Proofing Co. 1 

National Lead Co 23 

National Metal Molding Co. 40 

.National .X-Ray Reflector Co 60 

Never Split Seat Co 50 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Co. ._ 4 

New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co .6 

North Carolina Pine Association 68 

Northwestern Expanded Metal Co. 40 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Co 2 

Otis Elevator Co 45 

Pfaudler Company, The . 48 

Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Co. 12 

Polachek Bionze & Iron Co., John 43 

Raymond Concrete Pile Comi)any 31 

Reliance Ball Bearing Door Hanger Co 50 

Ric-wiL Underground Pipe Covering Co. 62 

Rookwood Pottery Co. 10 

Sayre & Fisher Co 15 

Sedgwick Machine Works 46 

Simplex Wire &■ Cable Co. 56 

Smith Co., The H. B. 62 

Smith, Edw., & Co 1 72 

Sonneborn Sons, Inc., L 53 

South Amboy Terra Cotta Co 7 

Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Assn. 71 

Southern Pine Association _. 69 

Standard Stained Shingle Co. 72 

St. Louis Terra Cotta Co.. 2d Cover 

Taylor Co., N. & G 24 

Tiffany Enameled Brick Co 2d Cover 

Toch Brothers 55 

Trenton Potteries Co. 50 

Union Metal Mfg. Co. — 42 

United States Radiator Corp. 64 

Vonnegut Hardware Co 33 

Wadsworth, Howland & Co., Inc 55 

Walker Brick Co., Hay 15 

Watson Mfg. Co 3d Cover 

Western Brick Co.. - -- 13 

Western Electric Co. •'56 

White Pine Bureau .- 70 

Winkle Terra Cotta Co 6 

Zahner Metal Sash and Door Co. 44 






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>>^/vvw/^vv^v^v<<W<^<<<^^<<^^^^iJ^3gIggggg>>>>>>v>>^v>>>>^ 




THE BRICKBVILDER. 



CHANNEL READY FOR MORTAR 

OPEN VERTICAL 
AIRSPACE 



INTERIOR PLA5TtR 
APPLIED DIRECTLY 
TO THE WALL 



INTERLOCK AND 
MOISTURE CHECK 



2 inch horizontal 
airspace, giving 
insulation again5t 
heat, cold and 
moisture: 




channel filled 
With mortar 
PREPARATORY TQ 
LAYING THE NEXT 
'FI5KL0CK" 



FINISHED EXTERIOR 
OF WALL THE FACE 
OF EACH UNIT IS OF 
REGULAR BRICK 5lZE 
.c 8" ..2/4" 

WEB CONNECTING 
THE DOUBLE WALLS 

TWIN WALLb OF 
50LID 3 INCH 
FIREPROOF MATERIAL 



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FISKLOCK"-" TAPESTRY" BRICK 

Hardoncourt-FisKe Patents 

" Fisklock " is the last word in building construction. 

" Fisklock " is not a hollow tile — it is an interlocking channel brick. 

Fisklock " has many advantages over hollow tile walls or solid walls of common brick. 
" Fisklock " is stronger than either, both vertically and laterally, as shown by actual tests 
at Columbia University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

" Fisklock " is waterproof. It has no " through " mortar joints, an absolutely unique feature in 
brickwork — therefore moisture or dampness cannot strike through. It may therefore be 
plastered directly on the back — furring or lathing is not necessary. 

"Fisklock" has an internal air space, two inches wide; the cells, being horizontal, eliminate 
internal air circulation caused by up and down drafts. The actual tests above mentioned have 
demonstrated that it provides maximum insulation against heat and cold. 

"Fisklock" combines all the beauty, charm, solidity, permanence and low upkeep of solid 
" Tapestry" brickwork with the insulating qualities and low cost of hollow tile. 
" Fisklock " costs much less than any other kind of a face brick wall, either solid or brick veneer, 
less than terra cotta hollow tile covered with stucco and only slightly more than stucco on 
frame. As compared with frame-clapboard construction a " Fisklock " house of moderate 
size costs 3V2"/o to 5% more. Its ultimate cost is far less because of its low upkeep. 
" Fisklock " is made in a wide range of reds and golden buffs. 

" Fisklock " and solid " Tapestry " Brick which are selected to accompany same are sold under 
the " Open Price Policy," which means the same price to all. Whether you buy directly of us 
or of an agent, the price in carload lots f. o. b. cars our Pennsylvania factories is the same, i.e., 

First Quality " Fisklock "-" Tapestry " Brick, $21.00 per M. 

First Quality Solid " Tapestry" Brick, $17.00 per M. 

To the above prices must be added the cost of transportation, which we will gladly quote upon 
application. 

Each " Fisklock " is equivalent to one solid " Tapestry " Brick and one " backing up " brick. 
" Fisklock " is very fully described in a pamphlet, copies of which, together with complete infor- 
mation, will be gladly furnished upon request. 

FISKE & COMPANY, Inc. 

Sole Manufacturers of "Tapestry" BricK 
25 A.rcH St., Boston, Mass, Arena Bld^., Ne>v YorK 



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FAIENCK SI i\ RUUM IN i^RIVATE RKSIDKNCE 

William A. French it Company, Decorators 
Faience in Colored Mat Glazes. \\ alls and Floor in Shades of Green. Recessed Wall Fountain of 

Modeled Oak Design in Autumn Colors 

Made by The Rookwood Pottery Company, Cincinnati, U. S. A. 
New York Office : Architects' Building, 101 Park Avenue 

A- 580 















^^ BRICK 

is the 

a*^?^^ Ideal Material 

for the construction of Modern 
American Homes. Every archi- 
tect should knowr this material in- 
timately. We want you to know 
particularly the rich and varied 
effects to be had from 

Keystone Reds 

the brick which will not discolor under 
any weather conditions and grow more 
beautiful with age. 

Samples will he sent on request 

Keystone Clay Products Co. 

GREENSBURG, PA. 



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THE BRICK HOUSE 
of Moderate Cost 

ANEW publication of 100 pages, 
illustrating 80 original designs 
for brick country houses to cost 
about S7,500, submitted in a recent 
competition, each design com- 
pletely shown with pen and ink 
perspective and floor plans. Inter- 
esting articles on the duties of an 
architect in this type of residential 
work and the story of brick com- 
plete the book. Bound in paper 
with an attractive cover. This 
book should be of great value to 
all architects designing small 
country houses. 

PRICE FIFTY CENTS, POSTPAID 

Rogers and Man son Company 

85 WATER STREET BOSTON 



■SS!^^SS«S!SSi^iS!iSSSiSSS«iSS8Si^^ 



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BRADFORD 

PRESSED BRICK" 

(TRADE MARK REGISTERHD, U.S. PATENT OFFICE) 

Every now and then a Ford Buildin^r is erected 
with the standard red brick of America, 



44 



BRADFORD REDS" 



Thus does the Ford organization maintain its repu- 
tation for efficiency. 

''BRADFORD REDS" are as distinctive in color 
and quaHty as they are unique in name. They are 
indeed the ideal brick for public buildings as well 
as private residences. Sold all over North America by 

''The Rc<l Hrick Pi'ofilc'' 

BRADFORD PRESSED BRICK COMPANY 

WILLIAM HAN LEY, President BRADFORD. PA. 

We also make luirproofi)!^, Ho/Zoic liriek atul Holloiv Hlock 



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What Do You Want 
to Know About 

ENAMELED 
BRICK? 

Our skilled Ceramists are working daily 
developing and perfecting new ideas 
to meet the requirements of prominent 
architects. 

With twenty-two years of experience 
as "exclusive" manufacturers of 
Enameled Brick, we are in a position 
to advise you intelligently on any point 
in connection with this material. 

Why not write us for a set of miniature 
samples of 

"AMERICAN" 

ENAMELED 

BRICK 

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PORTRAIT OF FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI Frontispiece 

THE SCHOOL BUILDING AS A SOCIAL CENTER. PART II. 'Dwight H. Perkins 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

DIAGRAMMATIC PROGRESS SCHEDULES Charles A. Whittemore 

FIREPLACES IN AN OLD ENGLISH CASTLE J. IV. Orerend 

Illustrations from Photographs 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XIII. Measured Drawing of Parlor in House at 6 Andover Street, 
Salem, Mass. Gordon Robb 

XIV. Measured Drawing of Doorway of the Robinson House, 
Alexandria, Va. /. L. Kelster, O. J. Munson, J. A. IVeber 

THE SELECTION OF A HEATING SYSTEM Charles L Hubbard 

THE ROXBURY BOYS' CLUB, ROXBURY, MASS 

Harold F. Kellogg, Architect 

ASHE IS KNOWN -_ 

Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary Members of the Architectural Profession. 
Messrs. Howard Van Doren Shaw, Austin W. Lord, David Knickerbacker Boyd, 
William G. Nolting. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 




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Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Company 



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BORN MCCCLWlll. DIED MCDXUl. NATl\E OF FLORENCE. ARCHI- 
TECT OF THE DOME OF THE CATHEDRAL. PITTI PALACE. PAZZI 
CHAPEL, AND HOSPITAL OF THE INNOCENTS IN FLORENCE 



THE BRICKBVE.DER. 



VOLUME XXV 



JANUARY, 1916 



NUMBER 1 



The School Building as a Social Center. 



PART II. 

By DWIGHT H. PERKINS. 



IN the introductory article in the preceding- issue there 
was described certain types of buildings which must 
be referred to for illustrations of schools especially 
adapted for neighborhood center purposes. 

It will be apparent from a study of those types, as well 
as from a consideration of the 
subject of this article, that 
fi/a/is should constitute the 
principal material for illus- 
tration, and as many of the 
building's to be considered 
have been published previ- 
ously, no particular emphasis 
will be made upon exterior 
design. 

There is no new principle 
of architecture nor marked 
difference in style or method 
evolved by such community 
centers as have been built. 
Only slight suggestions of 
original design have appeared 
as yet. Building processes 
are unchanged ; the subject 
is chiefly one of plan adap- 
tation. This is not saying 
that this will always be so. 
A natural change in archi- 
tectural expression will prob- 
ably develop as the expand- 
ing demands are met by 
architects with intelligence 
and fine feeling, but this arti- 
cle relates to present achieve- 
ments and not to ultimate 
results. 

Many schools of ordinary 
type are being used, more or 
less, as neighborhood centers. 
Many of a developed or improved type, in which the 
assembly halls or gymnasiums have special entrances 
and separate heating apparatus, are also used for com- 
munity purposes. They do not come within the limits of 
this article, however. They are not purposely planned 
and adapted for neighborhood center purposes, and for 
that reason they will not be used as illustrations, although 
many such buildings are interesting architecturally. 

California, with its space and sense of bigness, takes the 
lead in scope of plan, if the two examples here shown are 
to be regarded as typical. Wisconsin leads in community 




First Floor F'lan 



Cordaville School, Southboro, Mass 

Cooper & Bailey, Architects 



organization, while Chicago and its suburbs are advanced 
in the union of schools and playgrounds and in the erec- 
tion of buildings of moderate size and cost especially 
adapted for many functions. 

The Cordaville school at Southboro, Mass., designed 

by Cooper & Bailey, interests 
us first. It is the smallest 
building among those chosen 
for- the purposes of our study 
and will therefore have wide 
application to the neighbor- 
hood school problems in rural 
districts. It is a village 
school. The basement facili- 
ties may be used in connec- 
tion with the playground. 
The office and the three class 
rooms, being on the first 
floor, are in flexible relation 
to the basement, the yard, the 
social hall, and the domestic 
science room. The social 
hall floor is flat so that when 
the seats are cleared away an 
open space is made available. 
The double stair arrangement 
gives either the school or the 
public access to the library 
and to the social hall or cook- 
ing room so that the whole 
or only a i)art of the school 
may be used as circumstances 
re(|uire. The addition of a 
manual training room and a 
couple of shower baths would 
tnakc this tiuite a complete 
center. 

The Fairmount school at 
West Orange, X. .1., designed 
by Dillon, McLellan & Beadel, presents an example for a 
suburban community of a group plan apiilicd to elemen- 
tary and high school needs combined with community 
uses. 

The plans show three divisions, one for each phase of 
the work to be done : the teaching of the younger chil- 
dren, the instruction and drill of those of high school age, 
and the assemblies of children young or old or of adults 
or neighbors. They are ' ' cross connected ' ' ; they can be 
reached by indoor passages and still may be as completely 
isolated as if they were to be entirely separate. In addi- 



Second Floor Plan 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Rear of High School Buildni 

tion the various parts may 
be united for common in- 
struction or entertainment, 
as is often done for the 
purpose of interesting the 
younger children in the 
achievements of their older 
brothers and sisters, and 
for the further benefit to 
the elders coming from 
some knowledge of the 
doings of their juniors. 

The Emerson school at 
Gary, Ind., designed by 
Wm. B. Ittner, shows a 
combination of school and 
playground which has been 
found to be of great value 
to the community. The 
same idea has been followed 
by the same people in the 
case of the Froebel .school. 
In each the buildings and 
grounds are planned as 
parts of the complete whole 
and are so operated. The 
playground is in use at 
all times of the day and 
evening. The children in 
the playground alternate 
with those in the school building, 
one period in and one out, through- 
out the day and evening. By this 
method the capacity of each sec- 
tion of the center is doubled. 

The large or public features of 
the building do not vary materially 
from those in many standard build- 
ings ; but inasmuch as this is a 
community center at all times, 



Entrance Front of Fairmount Grade School 




First Floor Plan 

West Orange School Group, West Orange, N. J. 
Dillon, McLellan & Beadel, Architects 






ETZ 



^ _ ^ ^ 1^ 



Auditorium Buildine 

daytime and evening, there 
is little or no need for sep- 
arate entrances and heating 
apparatus. 

These two schools have 
been in operation for three 
years or more — a period 
long enough to demonstrate 
that the public does use such 
facilities when they are pro- 
vided. These buildings, 
more than any other with 
which the author is fa- 
miliar, show the wisdom 
of uniting schools and play- 
grounds under one man- 
agement ; of combining all 
the grades from kinder- 
garten to senior high school 
in one center ; of providing 
education and entertain- 
ment for adults, and finally 
of "throwing away the 
front door key," opening 
the building for all the 
people for all purposes all 
of the time. 

The La Salle-Peru town- 
ship high school at La 
Salle, 111., is an example of 
combination and management. No 
drawings are at hand for illustra- 
tion, but in this case two adjacent 
cities and the surrounding country 
districts have united in the con- 
struction and maintenance of a high 
school ; to this has been added first 
a manual training and vocational 
training' building, and second a 
recreation building with gymna- 



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Second Floor Plan 



Emerson School, Gary, Ind. 
William B. Ittner, Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



siums, pool, and social rooms of many kinds, all of which 
are open to the public. These with the surrounding 
playgrounds make a conspicuous example of a high school 
group operated to serve many community purposes. 

The Oakton school, in District 
76, Evanston, 111., was designed 
by Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton 
to meet the usual needs of an 
elementary school and those of 
the neighborhood as well. It is 
the first of three or more units 
designed to be built at one end of 
a site of over five acres. This 
first unit will be extended at either 
end by the addition of class rooms 
by which its capacity may be 
doubled ; beyond and further back 
from the street will be placed the 
gymnasium building, and in a 
similar location on the other side 
will be the building for manual 
and domestic arts. A large play- 
ground extends beyond to a dis- 
tance of 750 feet from the front 
street. It is provided with toilet 
and bathing facilities in the school 
basement. 

There are three other elemen- 
tary schools in this district. 
Neighborhood 
activities are 
highly organized 
here. A program 
for the entire 
district and for 
each school is 
arranged by the 
local committees 
and published 
weekly from the 
office of the su- 
perintendent of 
schools. Practi- 
cally every eve- 
ning the use of 




First Floor Plan 




the various auditoriums is spoken for ; it is either a lec- 
ture, a moving picture show, a sociable, a discussion of 
some current iwlitical or municipal subject, a dancing 
lesson, or an athletic game that one sees in the assembly 
halls every aftcrnf)on or evening. 
The plan of the Oakton school 
shows the usual arrangement of 
class rooms, but the assembly hall, 
kindergarten, and offices are more 
prominent than in preceding ex- 
amples. They may be separately 
entered and may be cut off from 
the rest of the building by iron 
gates without separation from the 
stairs or toilets. The kindergarten 
is used as such in the daytime 
when the curtains are drawn ; at 
other times it is the stage of the 
assembly hall, the floor being 30 
inches above the assembly floor. 
The kindergarten toilet rooms 
serve as stage preparation rooms 
in the evening. 

The Edward S. Bragg school at 
Fond-du-Lac, Wis., by the same 
architects as the Oakton school, is 
similar in that it accommodates 
as many pupils and complies with 
the same neighborhood require- 
ments, but is very 
different in size 
and cost, it hav- 
ing been built for 
less than two- 
thirds of the ex- 
])enditure for the 
< )akton school. 

Extreme econ- 
omy had to be 
practised here ; 
therefore the as- 
sembly hall was 
lined with glazed 
brick and is used 
for athletic 



View of Kxttrior from'Strect 




View of Kindergarten Looking Tow 



View of Assembly Hall Looking Toward Stage 



Oakton School, Evanston, 111. 
Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



gfames. The kindergarten-stagfe combination was em- 
ployed as in the Oakton school, but the corridors for the 
second story were built as suspended balconies around 
three sides of the assembly hall. There is one large 
fireplace at the rear 
end of the hall , where- 
as the assembly room 
of the C)akton school 
has one at each side. 
This room is in the 
center of the building 
and extends through 
two stories with light 
from above. Notwith- 
standing the cramped 
space and limited ap- 
propriation, every 
school and neighbor- 
hood need can be met 
here, although they 
would naturally be 
served better if it were 
possible to avoid hav- 
ing quiet and noisy 
functions simultane- 
ously. 

The Lincolnwood 
school, District 75, 
Evanston,Ill., and the 
public school of ( )sseo, 
Wis., are examples of 
the one-story type of 
schools adapted for 
community purposes, 
of which there are 
many being built in 
the Middle West in 
locations where the 
cost of land is not 
prohibitive. The one- 
story idea, when no 
basements are constructed, is in itself very economical. 
The greatest advantage, however, lies in the possibility 
of overhead light for every room, outside rooms as well 
as inside, and in the elimination of risk from fire or panic. 




First Floor Plan 



Bragg School, Fond du-Lac, Wis 



The kindergarten stage is the same in the Lincolnwood 
as in the Oakton school. The assembly room is likewise 
the exercise room and the connecting space between the 
two sides of the building. Whenever a teacher wishes to 

dismiss her pupils 
without interrupting 
the meeting in the 
assembly hall, she dis- 
misses them through 
the^ direct outside 
door, one of which is 
provided for each 
center room. The 
corner rooms are 
at the principal en- 
trances. The kinder- 
garten is separated 
by either a curtain or 
folding doors from the 
hall. Special en- 
trances from corridor 
admit kindergartners 
in the daytime and ac- 
tors, when dramatics 
are put on, in the 
evening. The main 
corridors can be ex- 
tended indefinitely to 
the rear for additional 
class rooms when 
needed. The site is 
an entire block 300 by 
550 feet in a heavily- 
wooded area. A play- 
ground is provided at 
the south of the build- 
in."- 

The arrangement of 
rooms is shown by the 
reproduction of the 
plan. One of the illus- 
trations shows the interior room as it is in daily use ; a 
second illustration shows a neighborhood gathering at 
Christmas time, the children taking part in a pageant, 
with their elders looking on from their elevation on the 



-Second Kioor Plan 





\ iew of Assembly Hall Looking Toward Stairway 



View of Assembly Hall Looking Toward Kindergarten 



Bragg School, FondduLac, Wis. 
Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 






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CLA55 
B.W, 



Stage. The neighborhood seized upon this building as 
soon as it was opened and has kept the engineer busy 
ever since. It is not uncommon to see 450 people in 
this hall, which has come to be used socially, even for 
private parties as well as for every kind of public meeting. 

The plan of the Osseo school differs from that of the 
Lincolnwood in that it includes high 
school space with the elementary 
rooms for a very small villag-e, and 
further in that the stag-e-kindergarten 
combination is not employed. As the 
community in which the school is lo- 
cated is a farming one, the exercise 
room is placed near the front doors 
so that the men who are self-con- 
scious may more easily slip into the 
building- and congregate around the 
open fire. The library serves a simi- 
lar purpose for the women. 

The New Trier township high 
school at Kenilworth, 111., has been 
built in three sections and there are 
more to follow. The first section com- 
prising the main central building- with 
the tower was designed by Patton &• 
Miller. 

The last section and the alterations 
in the original building were designed by Perkins, Fel- 
lows & Hamilton. The group plan has been used. The 
central building with its wings is devoted to academic 
and scientific work ; the west units to assembly and 
luncheon purposes ; the east units to physical culture, 
and the north division to shops and power plant. The 
dotted lines on the plan show the reser- 
vations of space for further building. 




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JTUDY HALL 



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Main Floor Plan 
Public School Building, Osseo, Wis 
Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Architects 



This high school is open the year around, and in summer 
time age limits are ignored. One may see children of 
kindergarten age in the swimming pool and at other times 
the fathers and grandfathers of the district swimming 
under the eye of an expert instructor. The two gymna- 
siums as well as the shops are also thrown open, under 
proper instruction, to the citizens in 
accordance with a resolution passed 
by the board of education, opening 
all parts of the buildings and grounds 
to the public at all times when they 
will not interfere with the regular 
work of the high school students. 

The division most used by the pub- 
lic is the section comiuising the 
assembly and mess halls. The as- 
sembly hall seats 1,000 persons in the 
main part and 200 on the stage. The 
width of the stage opening may be 
reduced from 48 feet to 32 feet by 
swinging partitions built of steel 
and asbestos and hinged at either 
side. By this means the stage may 
be used for dramatic performances, 
for conimencement exercises, or calis- 
thenics exhibitions. When the fire- 
proof doors are swung and the 
asbestos curtain lowered, the stage is completely sepa- 
rated from the hall and becomes the music room for 
band, orchestra, and chorus drills and for club sessions 
and class conferences. 

The social home room of the school as well as of the 
neighborhood is the mess hall, or lunch room. It is lined 
with pressed brick and finished with 
antioue oak. A large fireplace is at 







lOxterior View from Streel 

Lincolnwood School, Evanston, III. 
Perkins. Fellows & Hamilton, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




First Floor Plan 



one end, the faculty balcony lunch space at the other end, 
and along one side the cafeteria counter. Four hundred 
people may be seated at 
the tables at one time, 
yet in a few minutes 
the tables may be put 
in storage under the 
assembly hall stage, 
thus making the floor 
clear for dancing. Three 
double doors at the side 
of the hall lead directly 
to the social lunch room 
so that the two are used 
together. A lecture in 
the hall followed by re- 
freshments and dancing 
in the lunch room is not 
an infreciuent evening 
occurrence, and even in 
the daytime the most 
distracting program or 
expressive crowd cannot 
disturb the school ses- 
sions in the main build- 
ing. 

The fourteen-acre site 
constitutes one of the 
chief features of this 
school plant. A football 
field, a four-lap running 
track, a baseball dia- 
mond, seven tennis 
courts, an exclusive field 
for girls, experimental 
gardens, a bit of the 
original grove, and the 
forecourt are all features 
provided for school and 
public alike. 

The St. Joseph high 
school at St. Jo.seph, 
Mich., is designed to 



comprise as many of the features 
as can be given on a restricted 




Second Floor Plan 



High School Building, St. Joseph, Mich. 
Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton. Architects 




of the New Trier school 
area for a small atten- 
dance and for a sum 
about one-fourth of that 
expended at Kenil worth. 
Site and funds com- 
pelled a single building 
of most compact ar- 
rangement, which will 
be satisfactory on the 
theory that the entire 
building, rather than 
separate parts, is to be 
used as a community 
center. A study of the 
plans will reveal the 
methods adopted for 
providing for the vari- 
ous school and neigh- 
borhood activities. 

The Emerson school 
at Oakland, Cal., de- 
signed by John Galen 
Howard and John J. 
Donovan, and the Oak 
Park school at vSacra- 
mento, Cal., designed 
by Mr. Donovan , present 
the most noteworthy 
examples of modern 
schoolhouse planning 
which have come to the 
author's attention. We 
understand that they are 
not exceptional in Cali- 
fornia, in fact, they are 
typical there. If this is 
so, boards of education, 
educators, and archi- 
tects must not fail to 
study these examples if 
they desire information 
in regard to the latest 



ownship High School, Kenllvvorth, 111. 



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Bird's-eye Perspective View of Buildings and Plot. New Trier Township High School, Kenilworth, 111. 

Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



developments in the plan of school buildings and grounds. 
Both schools have large sites ; each is planned without 
limit of property boundaries. Each includes facilities for 
all or most of the functions which we have found in the 
other examples men- 
tioned in this article and 
in the preliminary state- 
ment which we made of 
the requirements of a 
modern school. The 
Oakland school has such 
advantages as pertain 
to the one-story scheme, 
although, being imder 
California sunshine, the 
architect has probably 
considered it unwise to 
use overhead light. The 
Sacramento school gives 
better separation to the 
public portions; the 
assembly hall and li- 
brary have special entrances which the author considers an 
advantage. It is believed also that separate kindergarten 
access is advisable. A novel feature is included in the 
Sacramento building; it is the "upstairs" playground. 
Presumably it is to provide outdoor play space when too 
much sunshine and heat as well as the heavy down- 
pours of that country make the earth's surface unde- 

prrr 'tt' i 

1 ll : 



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H 



JCALt;'fflHJ-t>U-i*<HfttI '^ 

Main Floor Plan 

Emerson School, Oakland, Cal. 

John J. Donovan, Supervising Architect. John Galen Howard, Associate Architect 



—^ 







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First Floor Plan 



UQ- —i 



sirable for play. One can easily imagine the use of 
the large courts for pageantry which a progressive 
teacher would inaugurate, ahd no imagination at all is 
recjuired to conceive of the many uses which a guided 

public could and prob- 
ably does make of these 
structures. 

In conclusion, tlic 
author would state as his 
o]iinion that there are 
no schools, including 
even the best which have 
been selected for the il- 
lustrations of this article 
that are planned with 
the main purpose of 
adapting them to the 
iises of neighborhood 
centers. Instead, we find 
an encouraging number 
of good schools. These, 
as was stated in the in- 
troduction, automatically becoine good neighborhood or 
community centers because they are modern and are skil- 
fully planned. This after all is, the author believes, the 
best way to arrive at the desired result, because it links 
the center with the most permanent and deeply rooted 
civic institution yet conceived, namely, the public 
school. 



M 



M 



PfiiAl , 

i 









SlcuiuI KIdot I 'Ian 



*». _ » •■ V 




Biril'seye Perspective View 

Oak Park School, Sacramento, Cal. 

John J. Donovan, Architect 



Diagrammatic Progress Schedules. 



By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



THE difiference between the practice of architecture 
to-day and fifty years ago is as great as the difference 
between the building methods of the same periods. 
Each new material or appliance renders the problem more 
complex and, in addition to a new adaptation of the prin- 
cii)les of design, requires new business methods on the 
part of the architect as well as the builder. The archi- 
tects and builders have in a large measure kept abreast of 
the times; but in some particulars the methods used to-day 
are the methods of the dead past. The architects, as a 
rule, will much more readily adopt a new type of archi- 
tectural treatment than a new idea in business adminis- 
tration, and many think that a systematic, businesslike 
office is incompatible with the free, untrammeled spirit of 
the profession. A more erroneous idea would be difficult 
to conceive. Business methods have so radically changed 
and the status of the architect, in relation to the owner 
and builder, is so widely different that each architect 
must daily face problems of which his predecessors knew 
nothing. 

In the construction of a modern building whether it be 
a residence or an office building, the architect is spending 
not his own money but that of a client. It is, therefore, 
necessary that he spend it wisely and that he eliminate all 
unnecessary expenditures. To do this requires attention 
to detail, investigation of materials, and the power to 
deliver results. In order to follow the intricacies of an 
architect's work, it is essential that he be systematic and 
that he organize his oflfice force along systematic, coherent 
lines. 

No office system which does not become an efficient 
servant is worthy of consideration, and a system which 
imposes multiplicity of detail is worse than useless. The 
fact remains, however, that a certain amount of system 
and routine records absolutely must be maintained in 
order to correctly and intelligently supervise and control 
the commissions at hand and to properly protect the 
client's interest. 

No architect's office can be reduced to the terms and 
conditions of a factory, and that office which, without 
being subservient to it, maintains an effective and intelli- 
gent system of office record, is in an enviable position. 

With all the progress in other departments of the work, 
the building superintendence has shown less of the sys- 
tematic spirit than the drafting room. A simple daily or 
weekly report does not suffice unless it is verbose and full 
of detail. A superintendent's report to be worthy of the 
name should be complete without undue length, and 
should be of such a character as to enable the architect to 
visualize the conditions at the building without the neces- 
sity of a personal investigation. The exact material con- 
tained in the report would of necessity vary with the kind 
of building, but in each element of constructive work 
the report should indicate relative progress. Some offices 
check weather, temperature, number of workmen on vari- 
ous parts of the work, etc., but few carry along a concise 
graphic record of the building progress, although this is of 
vital importance. 



So it is with the contractor. It is essential that he 
should have a graphic check on the performance of his 
workmen and sub -contractors. He mxist know at once if 
there is a " slowing up " on the labor, if there is a likeli- 
hood of delay in delivery of material. The most effective 
method of " nipping in the bud " the tendency to retard 
the progress of the building is by a graphic diagram. 
Some contractors make an effort at program schedule, but 
few have a careful progress schedule. The difference 
between these is the difference between " promise " and 
"performances," the difference between "we agree" 
and ' ' we did." To eliminate this condition, which might 
be quite troublesome at times, the progress schedule pre- 
sents itself as of especial value. 

Diagrammatic progress schedules present a graphic de- 
tailed description of the progress of construction of a 
building under consideration. The importance of such a 
progress schedule has possibly been overlooked to some 
extent. This is evidenced by the fact that there is no 
established uniform progress schedule in common use 
among the various professions and trades interested in 
building construction. 

This may possibly be due also to the fact that each 
individual office condiicts its affairs along different lines, 
and it may be that a standard form of progress schedule 
would not be advisable. 

Some of the larger offices in this country which have 
already adopted the progress schedules have adopted them 
because of the value which the schedules have dem- 
onstrated in assisting in the solving of problems after 
the completion of the work, as well as in the increased 
efficiency of the superintendence. 

The importance of a progress schedule will be obvious 
upon investigation. From the time of signing the con- 
tract for a building through the process of demolition, 
excavation, foundation work, and through the various 
building stages, up to the time that the last shade is hung 
in the building or the last brushful of paint applied, the 
progress schedule is a continual, visible reminder of the re- 
lation of the status of the work at any one time to the con- 
dition the work should be in in order to have the building 
completed in accordance with the prearranged contract. 

The effect of the progress schedule in regulating the 
work of the contractor so that the building may be com- 
pleted " on time "is in itself a sufficient warrant for its 
existence, and a detailed description of the exact working 
out of the progress schedule in relation to possible delays 
will be given to substantiate this contention. 

The progress schedule is not confined in its usefulness 
alone to the architect or to the contractor, but is eciually 
valuable to the sub-contractors, material men, foundry 
men, mill men, and all whose efforts are toward the com- 
pletion of a building. It is also a valuable guide to the 
owner. 

No standardized form has yet been devised which would 
be suitable to all branches of the contractor's organization, 
since the materials and workings of the various sub-con- 
tractors differ so widely. The same underlying principle. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



however, follows through each schedule and is uniform for 
all various trades. Illustration of the method of working- 
out a progrress schedule and the application to foundry, 
mill, and shop will be given later, and while these are not 
taken from actual schedules, the principle will be obvious. 

Where each contractor and sub-contractor is interested in 
employing- and in operatingr the progress schedule, there is 
no doubt but that the various portions of the work are 
kept under better control, and each contractor endeavors 
to so execute the work entrusted to his care that there 
shall be no question about his ability to live up to his 
promises in the performance of his work. Each sub-con- 
tractor also, knowing that the general contractor has a 
check on his work, will see to it with far greater care that 
his work is installed ciuickly, efficiently, and promptly, so 
that the general contractor will have no possibility of a 
claim for delay by virtue of lack of proper installation or 
lack of installation at the proper time. The general con- 
tractor also, knowing that the architect and the owners are 
keeping- an accurate record of his work by means of the 
progress schedule, will use every effort, possibly to a 
degree beyond the ordinary, in maintaining the status of 
his work at the point to which it should be maintained in 
accordance with the prearranged schediile. 

The importance of a progress schedule is emphasized in 
the construction of buildings in crowded portions of the 
city or on streets where traffic regulations im])ose s]iecial 
restrictions as to blockading traffic or stopping teams. 
Here problems must be solved which are not encountered 
in any other locality, and on thoroughfares of this char- 
acter it is so important to conduct the work in such a man- 
ner that traffic will not be disturbed, that extraordinary 
precautions and considerations must be taken into account 
to avoid this necessity. 

It is here that the efficiency of the modern builder is 
shown to perhaps the greatest advantage ; it is here that 
one can make or mar the construction of the building along 
scientific and economical lines, and it is here that the vari- 
ous builders differ greatly in submitting their escimates, 
some builders having been particularly familiar with this 
kind of work, others approaching a problem of this char- 
acter possibly for the first time. 

In such locations a progress schedule is not only advisa- 
ble but is imperative, and any attempt to conduct a build- 
ing operation without some such method would have 
disastrous results. The building wrecker must begin the 
program by arranging to have teams at the site at the 
right minute to receive the debris which is to be carted 
away. The riggers for derricks and for constructional 
work of a like character must be at the building at just 
the proper time to erect their derricks. If the derricks 
arrive too soon, the property is encumbered and delay is 
the result ; if they arrive too late, workmen who are de- 
pending upon their installation are standing around with 
idle hands. 

When the excavation is commenced, teams arc arranged 
according to the program to arrive at certain times. 
Large chutes are constructed, which contain a certain 
amount of material. A team drives in under the chute ; 
the gates are opened ; the team filled ; the gates are closed 
and everything is ready for the next team. In this man- 
ner a continuous stream of teams can be loaded without in 
any wise disturbing the traffic. 



When cement, stone, sand, etc., are required for founda- 
tion work, the exact time of their arrival is determined in 
advance, and the teams are on the site with their stone, 
sand, cement, or whatever is required, at the right time 
for it to be used without unnecessary delay or without the 
necessity of storage on the property. 

The erection of the steel is carried along in the same 
manner. The column bases are delivered at a certain 
time. The first length of columns and the first floor 
beams are delivered at a certain date, and deliveries are 
arranged a certain number of days apart for all the other 
columns and beams throughout the building, the exact 
interval between deliveries depending upon the time re- 
quired to erect the various stories. 

Very frequently the masonry is commenced before the 
steel work is entirely finislied, and in some instances 
buildings have been constructed where the mason work of 
the exterior walls was started at four elevations at the 
same time. It is obvious that the brick and cement and 
mortar must all be delivered in accordance with the pre- 
arranged program, otherwise the property would be so 
encumbered that no other construction could be carried 
on until such time as the masons had completed their work. 

So it is with the material for the floors, with the blocks, 
etc., for interior partitions, with the plastering, carpenter 
work, and until the final finish coat of paint has been ap- 
plied ; at the same time the plumber, steamfitter, elec- 
trician, and other mechanics of a like character carry on 
their work, the program having been predetermined and 
their work laid out so as not to be in advance of the other 
construction nor yet behind so as to cause a delay, but to 
maintain the same speed throughout the entire operation 
as that of the other contractors. 

Before commencing work the contractor, in consulta- 
tion with the architect, arranges a graphic schedule of 
the dates and duration of his work, as well as of each sub- 
contract coming imder his control. Under such condi- 
tions the relation between the schedule and the actual 
work may be checked from day to day. 

Delays are bound to occur at various stages of the work, 
many times due to conditions beyond the control of the 
general contractor. A schedule of this nature, however, 
serves as a continual watchman on the operation and tends 
to check delays in their incipiency. 

The value of the progress schedule in case of unavoid- 
able delay or unintentional delay on the part of the con- 
tractor is almost inestimable. Reference to this record 
shows at once whether the excavation were prosecuted in 
the best possible manner and without delay. If a delay 
occurs in the excavation, both the cause and the delay are 
at once apparent and also weather conditions which may 
be responsible for this delay and in which case the liability 
of the contractor would cease. 

If, on the other hand, the excavation and foundation 
work proceed in due course with proper speed and there 
is a delay in setting steel work, this record shows at a 
glance whether or not the fault is in the delivery of the 
steel, and if so whether the fault is in the mill work or 
drafting room work, and the responsibility for the delay 
may be i>roperly placed. 

If, on the other hand, the general tendency is evidenced 
from the commencement of the work until the time of 
completion of a gradual lagging behind the prearranged 



10 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



schedule, it demonstrates bej-ond reasonable doubt that 
the contractor is either working' under obvious disadvan- 
tages or else is not competent to execute a contract of this 
character. If the former assumption be correct, then the 
responsibility for disadvantages under which the contractor 
is working may readily be placed. 

In this way it is possible for the owners of a building to 
predict the date of completion to such an extent that ten- 
ants may be engaged and leases drawn up with but very 
little chance of the necessity of revising these dates of 
completion and occupancy. 

The progress schedule then becomes an inanimate arbi- 
trator of disagreements as to delays between the contrac- 
tor, the owner, and the architect and, assuming the records 
to be correctly kept, is an arbitrator whose decision 
cannot be gainsaid. 

There are two types of diagrammatic progress schedules 
in use. Advantages are claimed for each type and it is 
a question which best fits the personal use rather than 
which is the better type. 

One type is on cross section paper in which the horizon- 
tal lines represent the different materials. The vertical 
lines represent the extent of work, while the heavy subdi- 
visions of vertical lines represent months or weeks as the 
case may be. In using a schedule of this character a 
straight horizontal line is drawn opposite the subdivision 
of the contract in the case of the general contractor, 
showing the starting time and the finishing time. The 
straight line drawn between these points passing the ver- 
tical divisions represents the projiortionate part of the 
contract which will be completed at certain dates. A cut 
of this type will be given in a later article. 

In another type concentric circles represent proportion 
of work accomplished while radial lines represent month 
and week divisions. In this type of schedule the relative 
progress of the work is much more clearly shown than in 
the former type, in that any departure from the time, 
which in this case is a parabola rather than a straight 
line, shows to quicker and better advantage. An advan- 
tage of this particular type is that any small subdivision 
of contract or any new sub-contracts can be added without 
increasing the size of the schedule,' while in the first type, 
as must be obvious, the addition of various contracts or 
sub-contracts would mean an addition of so many lines. 

Another distinct advantage which this type has over 
the other type is that proportionate work and relative 
speed are so much more clearly shown ; for example, if 
the excavation is to start on the first of May and is to be 
completed on the first of August, assuming a regular rate 
of progress, a definite proportion is already established 
for the amount of work to be done during each week. If, 
then, this contract is illustrated by a straight line and the 
progress record is illustrated by a parallel straight line, 
there is little chance of checking over the rate of progress 
and the actual proportion of work done during a jiarticular 
interval. 

The question may arise as to the value of this feature, 
but upon investigation it will be clearly shown that by 
the progress rate and proportion of work done, one can 
at a glance check a possible delay. This matter will be 
further discussed in the article in which the cuts of the 
different types of progress schedules are given, but from 
the actual experience of working out and working with 



progress schedules the point above mentioned has been of 
great value. 

The two types above mentioned are not necessarily the 
only types of progress schedule which are available, but 
represent the result of considerable study on ' the part 
of contractors and architects. The important feature in 
any progress schedule is not the exact form nor the exact 
method of recording the progress ; but the first considera- 
tion in making a progress schedule should be that the 
progress schedule shall be easy to maintain, that it shall 
not require any special effort, and that it may show at a 
glance the details of progress of the building. 

In one office where a progress schedule is maintained, 
the superintendents visit the various buildings and at a 
stated time during the day report at the office, or, if the 
building is out of town, make a daily written report and 
dictate a resume of the general conditions of the building. 
At the same time the progress schedule is extended ac- 
cording as the work has advanced from the date of the 
last report. 

It is not, however, advisable in any instance to endeavor 
to subdivide a progress schedule into units smaller than 
weekly units except in special and specific cases, so that 
in conducting a progress schedule record the superin- 
tendent indicates by a dot in the correct relative position 
the progress of the work from day to day, and by a line 
through these dots the respective weekl\- work. 

In this manner it is ])ossible to keep the progress sched- 
ule up to date without devoting to it more than a few 
minutes at a time, and without any special ofiice work. 

In any large contracting firm, or any large sub-contract- 
ing firm, or any large architect's office, there is one man 
in the office, as a rule, who is vitally interested in the 
progress of the building and who seldom has an opportu- 
nity by personal investigation to see the actual condition 
of the work on the site. To him, therefore, a progress 
schedule is of vital importance and it must be a schedule 
of a character that will not require a great deal of time in 
figuring out from calculation the status of the work. 

The progress schedule has been found of great assis- 
tance in checking over contractors' requisitions for pay- 
ment. Usually a contractor on the first of the month 
sends in a statement to the architect of the amount of 
work completed or installed on the site during the preced- 
ing thirty days. The architects in examining this ap- 
proximate in their own minds the relative proportion of 
the work completed, and as a rule the amount of money 
necessary to complete the remaining portion of the work. 
This is at times quite difficult to do. With a progress 
.schedule, however, one can tell at a glance the amount of 
work completed during the preceding month and calculate 
the total proportion of the work done to the amount of 
money involved, with a high degree of accuracy. By 
having the contractors agree to the progress schedule 
report which the architect maintains, there is likely to be 
no disagreement on the amount of money allowed on con- 
tractors' re<iuisitions. 

A further discussion will be given of the direct merits 
of the different types of progress schedules and their ap- 
plicability to the uses of the contractor, sub-contractor, 
architect, and owners, and outlines will be shown along 
which lines the general principle of progress schedules 
would ordinarily proceed. 



Fireplaces in an Old Englisli Castle. 



By J. W. OVEREND. 



FROM the standpoint of the architect interested in the 
appropriate use of local materials, England is a won- 
derful country from the fact that it has from time to 
time adopted the materials for building' according to the 
g-eolog-ical character of particular districts ; hence we find 
in some localities the buildings are of stone, in another 
of open timber and rough cast, while in a great many 
cases brick has been, and still is, the chief medium used 
for construction. One of the finest examples of ancient 
brickwork is Tattershall Castle in Lincolnshire, England, 
which has been recently restored, due to the efforts of 
Lord Curzon, who has thus saved this building for the 
pleasure and instruction of future generations. 

The part of the castle now remaining is the keep, a 
massive brick building of charming and exquisite work- 
manship, i-ectangular in plan, measuring externally 61 
by 48 feet, with an octagonal tower at each of the angles 
118 feet in height. It is divided into four stories, reached 
from the ground by a circular stone staircase. The whole 
building is most substantially built of red brick, with stone 
heads to the doors and windows. The external faces of 
the walls are relieved by patterns of black bricks in various 
designs. As in all old English castles, the walls are of 
tremendous thickness, some portions measv;ring more 
than 15 feet in depth, as may be seen in the illustration 
showing arches on each side of the fireplace on page 12. 
The chambers in three of the towers are vaulted in brick 
and are lighted by small windows, while a passage in 
the east wall of the second story extends the full length of 
the building and is vaulted in the most perfect style. 

No article on the castle at Tattershall would be complete 
without a reference to its glorious fireplaces. They are 
carefully bonded into the brickwork, and in order to pre- 



serve the alignment of the beautifully carved lintels over 
each there was built a relieving arch to take the weight 
and distribute the pressure of the massive brickwork 
above. Many of the fireplaces in the old halls and home- 
steads of England are charming and Tattershall Castle 
contains examples of the finest. These chimneypieces are 
most elaborate on the ground floor, being very rich in 
detail, and while the others are in no sense less beautiful, 
they are much plainer. The stone and brick in the fire- 
places have bonded together perfectly and have kei)t the 
whole intact during the four centuries through which the 
castle has stood. 

One of the finest of the elaborately carved stone fire- 
places is shown on page 12. It is located on the ground 
floor and shows the influence of the French (iothic in its 
detail. It is ornamented alternately with the arms of the 
various families connected with the history of the castle 
and treasury purses bearing the motto, " Nay je droit." 

In the illustration of another fireplace, the stone carv- 
ings of which are in the best state of preservation, the 
holes in the brickwork immediately below the level of the 
fireplace are pockets which carried two timber girders for 
the floor, that had fallen away at the time this photo- 
graph was taken. 

The castle was built in 1440. Its grandeur and strength 
have come down to the present age through nearly five 
centuries but little impaired. During the last tliree years 
the work of restoration has proceeded and is now com- 
plete ; the two moats surrounding it which had been filled 
in have been re-excavated and, with the building itself, re- 
stored to their original condition. The whole presents a 
unique example of domestic and military architecture of the 
early fifteenth century. 




Two P^ireplaces in Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, England 
11 






12 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




.v«3* 









TWO FIREPLACES IN TATTERSHALL CASTLE. LINCOLNSHIRE, ENGLAND 

BUILT IN 1440 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION. 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 

PLATE THIRTEEN. 




7^///;' interest in this interior lies mainly in the line proportion ot the iMvielinn and in the sinifdie- 
itv and restraint ol' the mantel. The color of the soapstone 7ehieh 7eas used for the faeinii ol the 
lireplaee as ivell as for the lire back\ sides, and hearth is nnnsiially rich in its contrast ~eith the pure 
white of the wood'a'orh. All of the 7cood:eork is of pine, the larx'c panel in the overman td fuinff ol 
one solid piece. The fad that the rail over this /nuiel is "wider than the one behnc is probably due to a 
scttlini; of the lehole -work rather than to any intention on the part of the designer. The cornice 
monldinff is very interestin,i; in prolile and takes its place -well as a capping to the ivoodwork below. 
The lining; in of the spaces above the doors -with panels of (ieoraian character adds gieally to the dis- 
tingnished appearance of the -wall and leads one to place the date of the construction of the room in the 
latter half of the eiiihteenth century, althouiih the mantel mioht be considered of later date. The 
name of the architect or buiUhr is unkno-:i'n. 



END OF PARLOR, 
HOUSE AT 6 ANDOVER STREET, SALEM, MASS. 

MEASURED DRAWING ON FOLLOWING PAGE. 



13 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




DETAIL -OF -MANTEL JcALE-i'i"-r-o 



MOVLDINGS- Adr^AL ■ J/Z£ 



PLATE-13 

JAKVARY -13? 16 



END -OF -PARLOR -HOVSE- AT- 
6 -ANDOVER -ST- SALEM-MAS5' 



MEASVRED-(S' 
DRAWN- BY 
C ORDON-ROBB 



14 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE FOURTEEN. 




rmS channiiia doorxcay is a ffood ixanipic of tin- line early '.^'ork to he found i)t . Ucxaiidria. 
J'/ic panels of f/ir fii/asfcrs air fi/hd -ti'it/i snia/l vertical reeds -,eliieli \iive an interesting surface, 
■tehile the delicately carved detail of the architrave gives an added charm of tine shado7vs. The cover- 
hoards over the pediment are cut to imitate the effect of shingles. Built in 1796, both the brickwork 
and the -a'ood'a'ork are in an excellent state of preservation . The form of the kneer step indicates that 
originally an iron rail on either side ivas part of the scheme. 

DOORWAY, ROBINSON HOUSE, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 

MEASURED DRAWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 



16 



VOL. 25. NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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WEST SIDE MARKET HOUSE. CLEVELAND, OHIO 
IIUBBELL & BENES, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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Hl'BBELL & BENES. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 1 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 8. 




VOL. 25, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 9. 




INTEKKJK OK MAIN WAITI.NC; ROOM 



SANTA FK RAILROAD STATION, SAN DIEGO, CAL. 

IJAKKWELL &. liKOWN, AKCfilTECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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VIEW OF REAR SHOWING HOSE TOWER 



FIRE STATION, WESTON, MASS. 
ALEXANDER S. JENNEY, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 1. 



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U. S. POST OFFICE BUILDING. WAUKEGAN. ILL. 
WYATT & NOLTINC. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25. NO. 1. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 16. 





BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 



APARTMENT BUILDING. SHERIDAN ROAD. CHICAGO. ILL. 
PKRKINS. FKLLOVVS & HAMILTON. AKCHITKCTS 



The Selection of a Heating System. 



By CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 



THE following: article takes up briefly the various 
methods of heating- in common use, showing- the ad- 
vantag-es and disadvantages of each when applied to 
different types of buildingfs, and how to overcome the 
disadvantag^es to the greatest extent. The object is to 
assist the architect in selecting- a system, or a combina- 
tion, which will best meet the requirements in any given 
case, taking- into account first cost, convenience, and econ- 
omy of operation. 

Dwelling- houses may be satisfactorily heated by warm 
air, steam, or hot water, provided the systems are prop- 
erly desig-ned and adapted to the size, location, and special 
requirements of a given building. 

For houses of six to eight rooms the warm air furnace 
may be made to give very satisfactory results and pos- 
sesses a number of decided advantages over steam and 
hot water. The first cost is considerably less, it is simple 
to operate, and all parts are easily accessible in case of re- 
pairs. A furnace system warms up the rooms quickly, as 
the heat passes through the pipes and registers as soon 
as generated and continues to flow into the rooms as long- 
as the fire is maintained. Steam and water both require 
a longer time for heating up, especially the latter, where 
a large volume of water must be warmed through a con- 
siderable range of temperature before an appreciable 
amount of heat is given off by the radiators. 

While a steam system is quicker in action than water, 
the radiators cool off as soon as the pressure drops, un- 
less equipped with vacuum air valves, and practically no 
heat is furnished to the rooms. The effect of a low fire 
in the case of a water system is similar to that with a fur- 
nace — a reduced quantity of heat being furnished ; but 
it does not respond so quickly to changes in draft as the 
latter, owing to the larger body of water to be heated or 
cooled. A furnace system is especially adapted to cases 
where it is desired to close certain roorns or the entire 
house during the winter, since there is nothing to freeze 
when the fire is allowed to go out. With steam or water 
the entire system must be drained when the house is 
closed and water radiators must be kept turned on slightly 
at all times in unused rooms in cold weather to kec]) up 
sufficient circulation to prevent freezing. 

The objection sometimes raised regarding the dryness of 
air with a furnace system may be entirely avoided by in- 
stalling a furnace of sufficient size so that the warm air may 
be admitted to the rooms at a moderate temperature (about 
120 degrees maximum) and by keeping the evaporating 
pan inside the casing supplied with water. 

As a matter of fact, the air in a furnace-heated house 
is no drier than when steam or hot water is used. Neither 
system adds or removes moisture from the air unless spe- 
cial provision is made for it. The feeling of dryness often 
noticed is due to overheating the air, thus causing any 
dust which may have collected in the pipes and registers 
to burn and produce a slight smoke which causes a sense 
of dryness in the throat and nose. This effect is also in- 
creased by overheating, in another way, as it is likely to 



warp the plates, thus allowing gases from the fire to mix 
with the air before passing to the rooms. By using a fur- 
nace of proper construction and suitable size, this difTicuUy 
may be avoided. 

The two most important objections to warm air heating, 
as compared with steam and water, are the difficulty of 
forcing heat into certain rooms in windy weather, and the 
cost of operation due to the large amount of cold outside 
air which must be warmed to the normal inside tempera- 
ture of 70 degrees before any heat can be stored for 
transmission to the various rooms for purely heating 
purposes. 

Both of these difficulties may be largely overcome and 
entirely eliminated in many cases by the use of return 
flues for returning a part of the air from the hoiise to the 
furnace instead of taking in the entire supply from out of 
doors. 

Under ordinary conditions the amount of air taken in 
from outside is several times greater than is rec|uired for 
good ventilation for the average number of occupants, 
which simply results in a waste of fuel. When there are 
high winds the supply of fresh air is still further increased 
by in-leakage around doors and windows; or, if the wind 
is in certain directions, the in-leakage may cause sufficient 
pressure within the building to prevent the usual supply 
from entering through the cold air box. In either case it 
will cut down the heat supply in proportion to the surplus 
air, due either to in-leakage or to cutting off the normal 
flow through the furnace casing and registers on account 
of the increase in pressure in the rooms above. This ex- 
plains why certain rooms fail to heat projierly in windy 
weather. It may be either dilution of the normal hot air 
supply or an increase in the cold air supply through leak- 
age and a corresponding reduction in the hot air supply 
due to an increased back pressure in the rooms. All of these 
unfavorable conditions may be largely overcome by re-cir- 
culation of air within the building. 

Under normal conditions the fuel cost may be greatly 
reduced by taking from one-half to two-thirds the air sup- 
ply tt) the furnace from within the building, which will 
still provide sufficient outside air for good ventilation. In 
the case of winds, the supply through the cold air box 
may be reduced and the re-circulated air increased until, 
in the case of high winds, the entire amount may be taken 
from inside the building. Under these conditions we are 
simply utilizing fresh air which leaks into the building, 
that is, adapting the heating system to the reversal nf 
conditions instead of trying to work against them. With 
both outside and return ducts, the proportion of outside and 
inside air may be varied, as desired, by means of a suitable 
mixing damper. Details of construction will depend uixm 
local conditions; but, in general, the return flue should 
draw its supply from two or three separate rooms, and 
preferably from points near the outer walls. 

In the case of small dwellings, a single return register 
in the front hall is usually sufficient, while in larger build- 
ings one may be added in the living room, and at other 



17 



18 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



points as may be needed to equalize the circulation. Care 
should be taken to keep the two supply ducts separate 
until a point near the furnace is reached, and then the 
connection should be such that the outside air cannot by 
any chance blow into the inside duct. 

In comparing the fuel cost of furnace heating with that 
of direct steam and hot water, the estimate should always 
be made on the assumption that the entire air supply to 
the furnace is to be taken from the inside of the building 
in order to place the warm air system on a common basis 
with the other two systems. 

Direct steam is not well adapted to the heating of dwell- 
ings unless some special provision is made for tempera- 
ture regulation. It is evident that the size of radiator for 
a given room must be proportioned for the coldest weather, 
and with steam at practically constant temperature the 
amount of heat given off will be practically the same at all 
time, regardless of the outside temperature. This condi- 
tion calls for a frequent closing and opening of the radia- 
tor valves, or the opening of windows, which is usually 
undesirable on account of cold drafts and uneven tempera- 
ture in different parts of the room. 

The various vapor and vacuum systems upon the market 
have been designed to overcome this ditTiculty by varying 
the steam pressure within the radiator and consequently 
its temperature. These have proved more or less success- 
ful, according to their design and thoroughness of con- 
struction. Arrangements in which the pressure in the 
entire system is made to vary are necessarily limited in 
their range, owing to the difficulty of maintaining a high 
vacuum in the pipes and radiators without the use of a 
mechanically operated pump, or other similar device, 
which is not usually desirable in connection with dwelling 
house work. 

When the joints are especially tight, sufficient steam 
pressure may be raised to drive otit the air from the radia- 
tors, after which the pressure may be allowed to fall to 
a point considerably below that of the atmosphere, result- 
ing in a corresponding lowering of the temperature of the 
radiating surface. The length of time between the periods 
of forcing out the air will, of course, depend upon the 
tightness of the joints and' the packing around valve 
stems. With a well constructed system once or twice a 
day, say at morning and night, when more heat is re- 
quired, should prove sufficient. An ordinary steam heat- 
ing plant equipped with vacuum air valves may be oper- 
ated in this way. When investigating a vapor or vacuum 
system for dwelling house condition, its simplicity should 
be carefully considered, as all work of this kind should be 
made as nearly automatic as possible, free from adjust- 
ments, and not likely to get out of order. 

A simple way of obtaining a fairly good degree of regu- 
lation is to divide each radiator into two sections, in the 
proportion of one to two, separating thern by a blind bush- 
ing which gives in effect two radiators having the appear- 
ance of one. H)ach should be separately valved, having a 
single connection. By turning on the smaller section, one- 
third of the surface comes into use, while the larger section 
gives two-thirds and both sections three-thirds, or the 
whole capacity of the radiator. Such an arrangement is 
free from complications and gives a sufficiently wide 
range for most conditions. 



Steam heating is especially adapted to buildings of large 
size where the horizontal distances from the furnace to 
the bases of the uptake flues is too great for the successful 
operation of hot air. Steam can be carried any distance, 
the pipes are much more easily installed than air flues, 
and, furthermore, outside weather conditions have no 
effect upon the action of a direct radiator. 

An advantage of steam over hot water is the ability to 
shut off the radiators in closed rooms without danger of 
freezing in extremely cold weather, and in case it is desired 
to close the house temporarily in winter time, it is a com- 
paratively easy matter to drain the water from the boiler 
and return mains. 

A disadvantage of direct steam as compared with hot 
air is the lack of ventilation. This may often be gotten 
around satisfactorily by combining it with indirect heat- 
ing. In rooms which are not crowded, such as stair halls, 
corridors, etc., there is usually sufficient in-leakage of 
fresh air for the necessary ventilation. This may be taken 
as one complete change of air per hour in buildings of 
average construction. Sleeping rooms are comfortably 
heated by direct steam alone, as the in-leakage of air is 
sufficient during the day and ventilation by open windows 
at night is commonly practised at the present time. For 
living rooms and others where better ventilation is desired, 
indirect stacks may be used. 

The advantage of indirect steam over hot air comes 
from the fact that the stacks may be placed at or near the 
bases of the flues leading to the different rooms, thus 
doing away with long horizontal ducts and avoiding to a 
large extent the effect of wind pressure upon exposed 
rooms. 

Among the minor objections to steam maybe mentioned 
inaccessibility of pipes in case of repairs, snapping or 
water hammer in the pipes, leakage of water through air 
valves, unsightly appearance of direct radiators and pipe 
risers, and danger of boiler explosions. These, however, 
may be disposed of for the most part without difficulty. 

The pipe risers may often be run where they are easily 
reached in case of repairs, as in corners of rooms, behind 
doors, in closets, and other locations where, if painted to 
harmonize with the walls, they will not prove unsightly. 
When it is necessary to conceal them completely, extra 
heavy pipe should be used and all joints tested under pres- 
sure before closing in. Risers installed in this way should 
last for thirty years or more without need of repairs. 

vSnapping, or water hammer, after the pipes and radi- 
ators are once warmed up, is entirely unnecessary in a well 
designed system and can always be av^oided by proper 
drainage and the use of pipes of suitable size. It is not 
important for the architect to be familiar with the details 
of construction necessary to obtain this result, but he 
should thoroughly understand that a cjuietly working sys- 
tem is possible and insist upon securing it. 

Leakage of water, in any amount, through air valves, 
is due either to improper drainage or to closing the steam 
valve and leaving the return valve open, thus allowing the 
water to back into the radiator from the boiler. If the 
difficulty is due to poor drainage, the fault should be 
located and corrected. Troubles of this kind may lie 
either in the grading of the radiator itself or in the pipe 
connections. In the case of new systems it is best to use 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



19 



the one-pipe radiator connection, which makes it impossible 
to overlook the return valve. If the trouble occurs in an 
old building:, equipped with the two-pipe system, it will be 
necessary to remember always to close both valves when 
shutting: off a radiator. A slight dripping- or spitting at 
the air valve may often be stopped by proper adjustment. 
If this does not prove effective, a better grade of valve 
should be employed ; those projecting- a short distance into 
the radiator or i>rovided with a capillary strip are less 
likely to give trouble in this way. 

The unsightly appearance of direct radiators may be 
avoided to a considerable extent by selecting a plain pat- 
tern of symmetrical proportions, as regards length and 
height, and decorating it according to the color scheme of 
the room. 

Danger of boiler explosion is so slight as to be practi- 
cally negligible. The type of cast-iron boiler commonly 
used for house heating has a large factor of safety for the 
low pressures carried, and explosion is amply guarded 
against by an automatic safety valve and check damper. 
Furthermore, the construction of most boilers is such that 
a fracture is confined to a single section and simply results 
in the water leaking out of the boiler. Suitable care, 
however, should be taken to see that the safety valve and 
automatic damper regulator are kept in good order. 

While steam may be better adapted to certain types of 
biiildings than either hot air or hot water, the two latter 
are the standard systems of heating for dwelling houses. 
Under ordinary conditions hot air has the advantage in 
small houses of six to eight rooms, while direct hot water, 
supplemented by indirect stacks for one or more of the 
most important rooms, is better adapted to buildings of 
larger size. 

The great advantage of hot water over steam is in the 
matter of temperature regulation, it being possible to 
vary the temperature of the water circulated according to 
the outside weather conditions, in which way it closely 
resembles the hot air system. Hot water heating is better 
adapted to larger buildings than furnace heating, because 
the action of a radiator is not affected by its horizontal 
distance from the boiler or by the strength and action of 
the winds, except as it is necessary to offset the effects of 
the in-leakage of cold air, which is common to any system 
of heating. Although it does not provide abundant ven- 
tilation, it has already been shown that in many rooms a 
sufficient amount of fresh air may be obtained by leakage 
and through open windows, and when indirect heating is 
provided for the living room, or other rooms requiring 
especially good ventilation, it probably makes the best 
arrangement, eveiything considered, for buildings of a 
medium or large size. 

Mention has already been made of the danger of freez- 
ing in extremely cold weather. This may be guarded 
against by locating the expansion tank in a warm room, 
close to a chimney in the attic, or by the use of circulation 
pipes which keep the water constantly moving through 
the tank. All radiator valves should be provided with a 
small hole (Vs to'-Yw, inch) drilled through the gate, which 
will allow a slight circulation through the radiator suffi- 
cient to prevent freezing even when the valve is closed. 
It is true that hot water requires a greater length of 
time for warming up than either a furnace or steam. 



On the other hand, the temperature of a house heated with 
hot water does not fluctuate so readily as when either of 
the other two systems is used, because the large body of 
heated water contained in tlie system acts as a regulator 
or "balance wheel." The proper and most economical 
way is to run as even a fire as possible continuously and 
not allow the house to cool down too much at night. The 
forcing of a fire for an hour or two in the morning for 
warming up the house takes practically as much fuel as 
to carry a moderate fire during the night, to say nothing 
of the added comfort secured by the latter method. 

The cost of installing a hot water system is somewhat 
greater than for steam, owing to the larger amount of 
radiating surface required. This, however, can be re- 
duced by the use of a hot water "generator," which 
makes it possible to carry much higher water temperatures 
than with the open tank system. The cost of operating a 
hot water plant is less than for steam, owing to the bet- 
ter regulation of temjierature, the amount of .saving 
varying with the skill and care exercised in running the 
boiler. 

While the present article is intended primarily to cover 
the heating of dwelling houses, a few other types of 
buildings will be included, outlining briefly some of the 
systems, or combinations, which have been found to oper- 
ate successfully in different cases. 

School buildings of four to six rooms may be heated 
satisfactorily by means of hot air by providing a separate 
furnace for each pair of class rooms, locating them so that 
the connections with the inlet registers are very direct and 
without horizontal runs of piping. The best results are 
obtained by supplying the furnaces from cold air chambers, 
which take their supply from at least two sides of the 
building, each inlet being of sufficient size to furnish the 
full amount of air in still weather and provided with cloth 
checks for preventing a reversal of flow. If four inlets 
are available, any two should be capable of supplying the 
maximum ciuantity of air. The best arrangement of air 
distribution will depend somewhat upon the plan of the 
building. Sometimes each furnace is made independent, 
while in other cases it is more convenient (o place the fur- 
naces in separate chambers and supply them all from a 
trunk line, taking its supply from a number of inlets 
located in different sides of the building. 

Furnace-heated schoolrooms require generous vent flues 
provided with means for supplying artificial heat for 
accelerating the outward flow. This may often be done 
by using an iron smoke pipe from each furnace, carrying 
it to the roof through a brick vent flue, which shall take 
the exhaust ventilation from a pair of rooms. When this 
is not possible it will be necessary to place small stoves or 
flue heaters in each vent shaft. 

For buildings of larger size it is best to employ steam, 
as the multiplication of furnaces makes a large plant which 
is difficult to care for. When steam is used, the jentire 
heat supply may be obtained from a single boiler or 
battery of boilers, thus greatly simplifying the work of 
firing and the removal of ashes. 

For buildings containing from eight to ten class rooms 
very good results may be obtained by means of the indi- 
rect gravity system, although a fan is recommended for 
ten rooms when the available funds will allow. A simple 



20 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



arrangement for this size of building is to lay out the 
plant the same as for a gravity system, so far as the stacks 
and warm air flues are concerned, and accelerate the cold 
air flow by means of an electrically driven disc fan. This 
type of fan is not expensive, and when the resistance is 
low, as in the above arrangement, the power requirements 
are small. For over ten rooms the regular blower system, 
employing the centrifugal fan, should be provided if pos- 
sible. With this type of fan higher air velocities may 
be employed, thus reducing the size and cost of flue 
construction. 

One of the best methods is to heat the air to a tempera- 
ture of 70 to 72 degrees by means of a main heater at the 
fan, and provide the necessary heat for warming the rooms 
by means of an independent system of direct coils placed 
along the outer walls beneath the windows. This gives 
greater flexibility, as the building may be warmed inde- 
pendently of the ventilating system and the fan need only 
be run while school is in session. 

Many systems are installed in which the heating is done 
by indirect 07- secondary stacks placed at the bases of 
the flues. While this may be made to give satisfactory 
results, the system employing direct coils seems to be 
growing in favor and a majority of the latest school build- 
ings have been e(iuipped with this system, especially in 
the East. 

When a system of indirect gravity heating is employed, 
special aspirating coils or heaters should be placed in the 
vent flues. This detail, however, is not necessary in case 
of a fan system, as the pressure within the room is suffi- 
cient to cause an outward flow. 

Hot water is not often used for the warming of school 
buildings, except in large plants under forced circulation. 
Buildings of this type are usually equipped with automatic 
temperature regulation, so there is no especial advantage 
in adding the necessary equipment for hot water heating 
under these conditions. In industrial schools where power 
is required, the exhaust from the engines is frequently 
used for heating water for warming the building, and 
power generated upon the premises for driving the circu- 
lating pumps. In many cases, however, even under these 
conditions, it will be simpler to turn the exhaust directly 
into the heating coils and employ automatic temperature 
regulation. 

In general, the choice of a system in buildings of this 
kind lies between a vacuum system and forced hot water, 
as it is necessary in either case to use automatic regula- 
tion in order to secure an even temperature in the differ- 
ent rooms. As between steam and water, under these 
conditions, there is but little difference in results, and 
personal choice and small variations in cost are the govern- 
ing factors in most cases. Hot water requires a special 
heater, circulating pumps, and motors, while vacuum steam 
calls for vacuum pumps and thermostatic valves upon the 
coils and radiators. 



Churches are heated by furnaces, indirect gravity steam, 
or by fan systems, according to size and the results de- 
sired. For auditoriums seating up to about 300 people, 
furnaces may be made to give good results by using a 
type especially designed for handling large volumes of 
air at moderate temperature. Much of the success of a 
furnace system depends upon the provision made for 
the removal of foul air, as the resistance to an in- 
flow of outside air must be made as slight as possible. 
This calls for vent flues of ample size, heated by special 
stoves or iron chimney flues. For larger buildings, in- 
direct steam may be used, although it is much better to 
employ a fan for cases where the seating capacity is 
above 500. 

Both furnace and indirect steam systems should be pro- 
vided with flue arrangements for the re-circulation of air 
for quick warming, or for use when ventilation is not de- 
sired. When the auditorium is in use the full supply of 
air should be taken from out of doors. A disc fan may 
often be used to advantage with both of these systems 
without adding very much to the cost of construction, 
thus making them more independent of the strength and 
direction of the wind. Churches of large size should al- 
ways be provided with a centrifugal fan, the air being 
distributed to the auditorium through a large number of 
small openings either in or near the floor. The vent out- 
lets in this case should be largely in the ceiling, as the 
object is to maintain a constant upward current of air. 
The admission of air may be through long narrow slots 
along the lower edge of the pew seats, through registers 
in the pew ends, or through mushroom ventilators in the 
floor beneath the pews. 

Assembly halls should be heated much the same as 
churches, except in the method of introducing the air, 
which must be done largely through wall registers, as the 
floor must be kept clear for dancing or other purposes. 
The usual arrangement is to place the inlet registers 
from 7 to 8 feet from the floor and take off the greater 
part of the foul air either at or near the floor, providing 
ceiling vents for summer use or when the room is crowded 
and it is desired to cool it quickly. 

Theaters should always be furnished with a fan system 
of the pressure type, the air being introduced through 
mushroom ventilators beneath the seats or specially de- 
signed chair legs. The vent should be from the ceiling 
and through wall registers beneath the galleries. Heat 
for the auditorium is best provided by a main or primary 
heater at the fan, controlled by a thermostat in the room. 
Chilling of the floor may be guarded against by means of 
a second thermostat placed in the air duct beyond the 
fan, and set to prevent a drop in temperature to less 
than 62 to 65 degrees. All the other rooms should be 
heated by direct radiation or by supplementary stacks 
placed at the bases of the fresh air flues when the rooms 
are ventilated. 




Roxbury Boys' Club, Roxbury, Mass. 



HAROLD F. KELLOG, ARCHITECT. 



THIS building: was recently dedicated as the head- 
quarters of both the Roxbury Boys' Club and the 
Boys' Institute of Industry. The Boys' Institute of 
Industry was founded in 1884 by Edward Everett Hale 
and has been in continuous existence and operation since 
that time. Dr. Hale was the president of the Institute 
for over twenty years. The Boys' Club was 
organized in 1910, but due to serious handi- 
caps was forced to give up its operation 
until the combination of the two associa- 
tions made it possible to erect the present 
building. 

The organization is entirely and strictly 
non-sectarian. It has been fortimate enough 
to receive the very enthusiastic support of 
the business men ot the neighborhood as 
well as of other prominent citizens. 

The design of the building, which fol- 
lows general classic precedent, is carried 
out by the use of Harvard brick with lime- 
stone trimmings. The quality of the brick- 
work is particularly noticeable, since its 
texture owes its interest to the irregular setting of the 
bricks and to the fact that the usual black headers were 
laid as stretchers, thus giving a range of color from very 
dark to quite light. No effort was made to obtain any 
regularity of spotting or gradation. 

The club, as its name implies, is devoted entirely to the 




Bubbler Fountain in Corridor 



uses of the boys in the neighborhood and there arc, there- 
fore, not only the rooms for amusements but also rooms 
for classes where various trades are taught and prac- 
tised. 

The basement contains the swimming pool, which is 30 
feet wide by 70 feet long. Adjoining this are the filters 
used to keep the water constantly pure. 
There is also a gallery overlooking the pool 
which is for the use of visitors. The large 
locker room is separated from the pool by 
a room of shower baths, while a laundry 
immediately adjoining the locker room pro- 
vides each boy with a clean suit without 
cost each time he swims. There is also 
in the basement four bowling alleys and 
a large billiard room besides the room for 
the carpentry class and a room for the 
printing class. The boiler room contains 
not only the heating plant but also tanks 
where the water for the pool is heated. 

On the first floor, conveniently arranged 
on one side of the vestibule, is a reception 
room for visitors and the oflRce of the superintendent. On 
the other side of the entrance is the reading room, with 
an attractive fireplace and bookcases. This reading room 
is in direct connection with the Boston Public Librar\ , 
by means of daily automobile service, so that practically 
all of the conveniences of a large library are to be had. 



21 



22 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



Directly on the main axis is the en- 
trance to the game room. The two 
wing-s of the building: are occupied by 
the two main features of the building', 
the gymnasium and the assembly hall, 
or dining room. Each of these rooms 
is 30 feet wide by 75 feet long and ex- 
tends through two stories. The gym- 
nasium is well equipped with the latest 
apparatus and is large enough for 
games of basket ball, squash, or hand 
ball. The assembly hall has a stage 
at one end so that amateur perform- 
ances or lectures may be given. A 
conveniently large serving room be- 
tween the assembly hall and game 
room makes it possible to turn either 
into a dining room when so desired. 
The serving room is connected by a 
dumb waiter with the kitchen on the 
floor above. 

On the second floor, besides the 
space occupied by the upper parts of 
the assembly hall and the gymnasium, 
there are also rooms for the cobbling 
and drafting classes, and a music 
room. Another recreation or game 
room and a kitchen with a small pan- 
try occupy the remainder of the floor. 
The roof has been kept flat in order 
that the boys may use it as a play 
ground or ojien air gymnasium during 
the summer months. 



J_ 


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mu c«ii 7 Jiwc 




v»p:bPht 
.Uicntniuii 


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Second Floor Plan 




First Floor Plan 




Basement Floor Plan 



The interior finish and decorations 
are extremely simple. A dado of hard 
pine was carried around nearly every 
room in order to avoid the battered 
appearance plaster would have after a 
few months' abuse by children. The 
floors throughout are of maple. The 
swimming pool is lined with glazed 
brick, and the gymnasium walls are 
also of white brick. 

In the first floor corridor is the un- 
usual fountain illustrated herewith. It 
is an interesting decorative treatment 
of the usual ugly bubbler fountain and 
was modeled by the architect. 

The assembly hall is extremely sim- 
ple, decoration being limited to the 
openings, — the proscenium, the doors, 
and the windows. The architectural 
effect, however, is cjuite dignified. 
The reading room has a good deal of 
character with the simple use of a 
beamed ceiling, a decorative fireplace, 
and plain bookcases. 

The cost of the building was kept 
extremely low by study and considera- 
tion, in an efi'ort to meet the large 
re(iuirements with the limited money 
available. On the basis of cubic meas- 
urement, the building cost 16% cents 
a cubic foot. The construction 
throughout the interior is second 
class. 





Detail of Entrance Doorway 



Delail of Kiid Windows 



As He Is Known, Being Brief Sketches of Contemporary 
Members of the Architectural Profession. 




HOWARD VAN DOREN SHAW 

HOWARD SHAW'S strong and lovable nature was 
tuned by well chosen ancestry to the finer things in 
life, and the ruder winds sweep by and do not dis- 
turb the poise nor stir the strings to inharmonious vibra- 
tion. For Shaw the winds of life do not blow from one 
but from many quarters ; not at one but at many veloci- 
ties ; not at one but at varying temperatures. And so the 
record they leave is of broad and varied interest. 

A keen student of what is best in modern German archi- 
tecture, he has allowed that spirit to play in what in result is 
an admirable setting for our American social and commer- 
cial life. In -this setting is more distincfly discernible the 
strong blend of his English idealism. Shaw's work must be 
fully represented to make any treatise on the American 
country house complete or satisfying. Moreover, the dis- 
tinctive warehouse and commercial architecture of the 
Middle West received a great impulse directly from the 
Lakeside Press building — Shaw's first large commercial 
commission. The spirit animating this architecture is 
spreading the country over, establishing itself even in the 
presence of the De Vinne Press building in New York City, 
the building which gave Shaw, and one or two kindred 
spirits, the clue to a possible real American commercial type. 
It is Shaw's work, rather than the earlier and more austere 
example, which has influenced so many others, and his 
printing and publishing buildings and warehouses stand 
out from the ranks distinguished and clearly individualized. 
Shaw's Second Presbyterian Church, though a remodeled 
structure, was thoroughly new as to its interior and 
challenged attention by the freshness of its treatment. 

Howard Van Doren Shaw was born in Chicago May 7, 
1868. He was graduated i'rom Yale College in 1890 with 
the degree of B.A., and soon thereafter took u]) the study 
of architecture in the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. For twelve years he has been a trustee of the 
Art Institute of Chicago, acting on its executive and art 
committees, and has been officially connected with church, 
communitv, and charity organizations. His college and 
home life' have given him the re(|uisite background of 
culture and tradition. His point of attack is .so fre.sh and 
unhackneyed even when he is dealing with the traditional 
and conventional, that for the very joy he puts into life 
some of his friends are quite content, as it is to be pre- 
sumed he him.self is, that Shaw is not the seer, but that he 
is satisfied to let the voices of the past and the^ very 
present speak through his icsthetic nature. — /. K. I'. 




AUSTIN W. LORD 



BORX in Minnesota in 1860. of I'rench ancestry on 
the paternal side, Mr. Lord entered the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology in 1884, taking a spe- 
cial course and winning the Rotch Traveling Scholarship 
in 1888. liis studies in Rome brought him at once into 
a congenial atmosphere, where he gained a love for, and 
an understanding of, the great principles of architecture 
which were later augmented by his work under Mr. 
McKim on the Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences and 
on the Columbia University buildings. In 1894, Mr. Lord 
was appointed Director of the American Academy in 
Rome, remaining there until 1896. 

These two periods of study in Rome and his clo.se asso- 
ciation with Mr. McKim were dominating influences in 
Mr. Lord's career. A student by nature, gifted with a re- 
finement of feeling and a clarity of judgment, Mr. Lord 
escai)ed the mannerisms and exaggerations of scholastic 
tradition. His work witli Mr. McKim gave him a true 
understanding of the relation of design to executed work, 
of the projjer application of historic precedent to modern 
conditions. He has the truly classic appreciation of sim- 
plicity in mass, of restraint and refinement in decoration. 

Mr. Lord's appointment in 1912 as Professor of Archi- 
tecture and Director of the School of Architecture in 
Columbia University was particularly fitting, and it wa.s 
a source of regret to many that he was unable to con- 
tinue to direct the jiolicy of that very important factor in 
the architectural education of this country. 

In his work Mr. Lord has shown great breadth and 
imagination. While much of his work has been monu- 
mental in character, such as the McKinley Monument at 
Columbus, the Soldiers and .Sailors Monument at .\lbany, 
the Masonic Temple in Brooklyn, and the Supreme Court 
Building of White Plains, Mr. Lord derives great enjoy- 
ment from domestic country architecture. 

His work as architect to the Isthmian Commission, com- 
bining as it did the general plan of a town and all 
t\pes of buildings, from the monumental administration 
building, tlie technical lock control and yiower houses to 
the homes of the employees, shows Mr. Lord's ability to 
handle a complex probletn in all its parts. Climatic, sani- 
tary, and economic re(|uirements are frankly met. 

In creating him a l'"ellow, the American Institute of 
.\rchitects conferred an honor upon itself, as well as upon 
Mr. Lord, for it recognized the sterling qualities of the 
scholar, the educator, and the architect.— y. C. I.. 



11 



EDITOR-IAL COMMENT 
AN D<fN OTES ^ < 
FO H* THE * MONTH 




s 



IN the report made at the recent convention of the 
American Institute of Architects there are references 
to the attitude of the members of the present national 
administration toward the question of government archi- 
tecture which are quite worthy of note, since they concern 
a matter upon which depends so largely the development 
of higher standards of architecture in this country. 

Recently there have been two actions on the part of the 
Treasury Department — the department from which the 
office of the Supervising Architect is governed, which 
lead one to apprehensions for the future. The first is the 
general character of the building now being erected in 
Washington for the Department of the Interior, and the 
other is the proposed character of the new Post Office to 
be built in Chicago. 

The building for the Department of the Interior will be 
one of the largest of the government buildings. With a 
floor space covering a large area and reaching high into 
the air, it will be the dominant feature for a considerable 
surrounding distance and should, therefore, be a monu- 
ment of such character as to harmonize with the rest of 
the buildings of the capital. Instead of this, however, 
we find (juitc the opposite to be true. The design is of 
the commercial type and exhibits no effort toward obtain- 
ing any monumental effect. 

It has been suggested that the building is to offer only 
temporary cjuarters to meet the unusual recjuirements of 
this fast growing department, and that since another build- 
ing will be erected later, the character of the present work 
is not of particular importance. At certain times make- 
shifts are unavoidable, but the unfortunate fact is that too 
frequently what was effected as a makeshift becomes ac- 
cepted later as a permanence', although the first intentions 
may have been ever so earnest. This occurs most fre- 
(juently when the original expenditure has been very 
large, as is the case in this instance. But even if the 
circumstances should make this really a temporary scheme, 
it is unfortunate that the importance of the whole matter 
did not lead to a more happy solution. 

If this attitude toward the vital matter of the design of 
public buildings is to be carried further, there will soon 
develop a distinct retrogression in the character of the 
architecture of our smaller cities and towns. It is a 
noticeable fact that, in small country towns, the erection 
of a post office of some architectural merit has been the 
starting point from which the community has made great 
strides toward a better expression of its community life. 
The character of this government work offers an incentive 
the value of which cannot be ignored. Moreover, a post 
office, by the very nature of its purpose, must be one of 
the buildings forming the civic center of a locality. 

A serious condition has arisen in Chicago, a city which 
by its very importance should receive unusual consider- 
ations. In the Chicago city plan as developed under 
Mr. Burnham's direction, some years ago, the Post Office 



was located on the west bank of the Chicago River near the 
Northwestern Railway ^Station and forming part of a pro- 
posed center, or grouping. The government is reported 
to be purchasing a piece of property of such small area 
that in order to fulfil the needs of the city, the Post Office 
must be of the sky-scraper type instead of the compara- 
tively low structure proposed in the city plan as being 
compatible with the proposed surroundings. Here, again, 
a large share of the consideration is one of expenditure, 
since the cost of the land necessary for the erection of a 
building such as proposed in the city plan is considerably 
larger than that necessary for a sky-scraper. This part 
of the question must be decided by viewing the matter 
from many angles, but the a-sthetic possibilities of the 
proposed civic group and plaza should do much to over- 
ride any smaller considerations of a temporary character. 

The discussion concerning the Chicago Post Office has 
brought to light an unfortunate misconception which 
exists in the minds of many congressmen and other Wash- 
ington officials. The word " monumental " to them seems 
to carry with it a .sense of inefficiency, of sacrifice of prac- 
tical considerations for artistic effects. To be sure, some 
examples of so-called monumental buildings would lead 
many to this conclusion ; but it cannot be suggested that 
it is impossible to obtain an efficient working plan for 
demands which may be ever so complicated and yet have 
the architectural expression on both the exterior and inte- 
rior of the character generally called monumental. 

Any action which does not give such a building to 
Chicago will be unfortunate, not alone for the people of 
that city, but for the people of the whole country in that it 
will do much to harm what promises to be the realization 
of one of the finest cities in the United vStates. 

If we take these two cases as a prediction of the attitude 
of the administration toward other future government 
work, it is to be hoped that every citizen who holds the 
larger view of the value of our country's artistic life will 
do his share toward counteracting this influence. 

THE New York State Board for the Registration of 
Architects announces that the date of closing the com- 
petition for a design of the State Architects' Certificate 
has been extended from January 25 to March 1, 1916. 

BEGINNING on page 30 of the advertising section 
of this issue of The Brickbvilder we present a list 
of the important printed matter published by our adver- 
tisers, so arranged as to be of the greatest convenience 
and use to our readers. This department has been added 
to our pages only after a careful investigation of the sub- 
ject had convinced us that much of the literature issued 
by leading manufacturers of building materials is of great 
value to architects, and we venture the opinion that some 
are not even aware of the existence of many of the trea- 
tises, booklets, and specification helps which are listed in 
this new department. 



26 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



\ 

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!1 



II 

II 

I 




Under Waterfront Exposure — 



41.500 square foot of Rnirctt 
Specinc-niion Roofs on N. Y., 
N! H & H R U. Pier T,. V.asX. 
River N Y f. GenernI Con- 
trnetors: Snare & Triest Co , 
N. Y C. Roofers: Wm R. 
Younc. Jr.. Inc., Brooklyn. 



' I ''UGS and steamships 
-^ come alongside and 
vomit hot coal smoke 
and sparks over this 
roof. Wind and storm 
get a full sweep. But 
the roof is a Barrett 
Specification Roof — the 
one kind that is not 
hurt by such exposure. 

That is why The Bar- 
rett Specification type of 
roof covers pier after pier 
as far as the eye can see 
up the busy East River 
waterfront from the 
great bridges overhead. 
It is the standard roof 



I 



for such hard service. 
I >eadingconstruction en- 
gineers specify it almost 
as a matter of course. 

The Barrett Specification in 
your building plan furnishes a 
fair basis for competitive bids. 
It insures the best materials 
being; used. It specifics the 
most approved method of con- 
struction. 

The net result is that Barrett 
Specification Roofs last twenty- 
years or more without leaks or 
repairs or maintenance expense. 
They cost less to build than any 
other permanent roof. They 
take the base rate of insurance 
and are approved by the Un- 
derwriters' Laboratories. 



Hydronon 

The Pamly-pinofinx /'anil 

Reduce huilcliau expenses hy 
coatiiii: llie inner ^ur(aces of all 
walls above ihe i^round level with 
Hydronon and apply tlie plaster 
ilirectlv on the wall without lath 
and air space. The Hydronon 
excludes dampness and siies a 
(lr> base for the planter. 

H>dronon is \ery ilense anil 
penetrates into the wall lorinini: 
.1 titrlil seal. It h.is superior 
ct>veiinB capacity and is vastl> 
Nupcrior tit other dainp-prooliiii: 
paints in its permanent resistance 
to dampness. Its superiority has 
l>een demonstrated liy a series of 
scientific tests which are descrihed 
in a booklet w liich will be mailed 
tree <in re<|uest. 

Velvex Creosote 

Shingle Stains 

l-.very desirable color in sufl 
velvety shades. Can he used on 
unplaned wihmI of any kind. 
The creosote makes them hi^lilv 
preservative antl iion-inlfamma- 
l>lc. Ilookl.l tee ..n rr.iue.l. 



A cofiy oj The Barrett Specifiattioii, -vilh roofitif; Jiii^rams, free on request 

BARRKTT MANUFACTURINCi (X)MPAN\ 



New York Chicago Philadelphia 
Detroit Birmingham Kansa.s City 
The Paterson Mi-a. Co., Limitetl : 

St. John, N. B. 



Boston St. Louis Clevehiml 

Minneapolis Salt I.ake City Seattle 
Montreal Toronto Winnipeg 
Ilalifax, N. S. Sydney, N. S. 



Cincinnati 
Peoria 
Vancouver 



Pittsburgh 




I 



Pi 

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% ■''/, 






i 



II 



II 

II 
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22 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Keppler (ilass Constructions in warehouse. Wiesbaden, and in Brooks Brothers' new building. New York 
Detail shows section and elevation of a Keppler 6-inch roof-light unit 

When You Buy Daylight 

Should vault lights and roof lights be judged by the price 
per square foot ? That lays the emphasis on materials in- 
stead of on lights low maititenance and attractive appearance. 
It puts all constructions into one class — price. Yet some 
are much more efficient than others. 

Keppler Vault Lights and Roof Lights 

transmit more daylight 

These patented Keppler Constructions are designed for efHciency. They have a large top- 
glass area and an all-glass undersurface. More light passes through to the space below. 
These Constructions are strong — the vault lights with 4-inch units are designed to carry 
300 pounds to the square foot; the 6-inch roof-light units, 70 pounds, both with a factor 
of safety of four. Only thick glass and cement are exposed — there is nothing to rust or 
require painting. We will take care of any breakage or upkeep for one year free — and 
longer, if desired, at a small yearly cost. The all-glass undersurface is attractive and gives 
the effect of one large light source instead of a number of small separated units. 

<S?^ Sweet's Catalogue, pages 871-S74. Or we will mail you Bulletin 202 on nquesj 

Keppler Glass Constructions Inc 'S^^ New York KRPPI.ER 

Vaults Pavements Floors Roofs Skylights Partitions Windows Crystal Ceilings | ■ -i^n ■<'iis nn ions ■ 

Keppler Glass Constructions Inc j. » 
Architects Building New York 
Send me Bulletin 202 regarding the full utilization of daylight Address 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



23 






V, V, 

II 



is « SS!^!^««5«**5«5*»«iS«S%SS!S$«S**%S^S*«5S!*«SS5i^^ " 







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itVrmntmnnniin iinnniiij 
-pnniiiimi MH ininnnH 




White Lead 
Shows'' St. Louis 

IV/riSSOURlANS are noted 



II II II " " 5 mT!" 




for 
having to be shown. Their 
approval is worth a whole lot. The 
O. K. of St. Louis, therefore, on a 
paint, after observing it in service for 
years, must indicate considerable merit in that paint. 

Walls and ceilings of the majority of office build- 
ings in St. Louis (not to mention numerous 
municipal buildings, theatres, churches, factories 
and hundreds of residences) are decorated with 
white lead. Twelve of the most imposing are kept 
clean and sanitary throughout by judicious use of 



Dutch Boy jfc White Lead 



II II II II II 

II H II II II 

:" ^11 III 111 HI 






|!55lli;il. 



— the paint whose following is legion the country over among 
architects, owners and managers. 

Dutch Boy White Lead is good paint's other name. It is especially success- 
ful as an interior finish. It is sanitary. Water will wash it. It costs no more 
than inferior paint to buy and less to maintain in good condition. It 
lends itself equally well to any decorative treatment, whether it be Hat or 
gloss, plain or Tiffany. 

Besides the four buildings illustrated, the following 
St. Louis office buildings are decorated with Dutch 
Boy White Lead : Chemical, Frisco, Wright, Title- 
Guarantee, Bank of Commerce, Century, Syndicate 
Trust and Third National. 

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 

Manufacturers also of Dutch Boy Red l^ad-in-oil and 
Dutch Boy Unseed Oil 



I 



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^'"{Jijlli III;; 







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niiiMiiiinnin iiiiiif 

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Sa&jniii iiJlE 



New 


York 


Boston 


Buffalo 


Cliicago 


Cincinnati 


Cleveland 


St. Louis 


San Francisco 






(JohnT. Lewis & Bros. 


Com- 






pany, 


Philadelphia 


) 






(National 


Leati & Oil 


Com- 






pany 


, Pittsburgh) 





%_ 



BOATMHN'S BANK 
Eames A Youni;. Arcbls. 




INTKRNAnoNAI, I-II'I-: BUir.DINC 

l-;iiiifs A \ Hunt:. Ar<'hl«i. 



IP 

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S5«^ 5« s; s«««>5«5«>S*S«««*55*>««««S!;»55««««««««^ % ^ 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 







FLVALLY Turn both folds dou/n 
a^aimf s/t/e of rib snuy/jr fhus comp/ef- , 
my the joint — Cover end iviffi Tin piece 
luifh /op fumed ouf on a// sides and 
pnis/i same as cap 




NEXT- Cap is cut i-'t wide af/otviny-'s 
on eacA side fo turn -One side is ?i/r/7-\ 
ed as far aj possii/e - t/>e other turned 
square Itooi. ffie stiarp ^rned ed^e to tin 
t Ik n press the of Iter side dou/n and fi)fd under ■ 





TH£N-Tin cfeafj. one for eiftier side are 
locied over ffie lap and fAen nai/ed ) 

secure Iji fo f/:e fop of tie rif>s , , i 

These cfeafj are usuaffy spaced 8 or/o\ 
apart afo/jg the entire fen^ff? of £/6. \ 



^£>' r- r.^e ///7 r^ applied io ffie roof 6?ftMecn 
fhe ribs -usir'y e/f/ier sf>ref or roi/ed T/N 
and lamed up fo stand ^s a6oye Ifie 
he If fit of rii'.fhe-'i is next turned out 
and IS ready fa reccire the cap- 




FIRST- Cover sheafh/na with a noo; 
i^iiatity building re/f or IVaferprdef paper 
free from Tar or Acitfs • Then nait the tuood i^pj 
ef desired size oner the feft. She'afhiny 
Is laid I IT Opposite direction fc rt^s \ 




SfccTCH or 

VALLEY WITH 
RlBdSD HOOritJi} 



I HEUL - T/k rib tapers foword the iot'om 
aiviaa ample aflonarrce for the et pan si on 
of tbe TIN - .^ , ,^ ^ - 1 

The cleats are fit snua/y to the taper and \ 
are naifed to iofh the Zil> 
shea^hin^ . 




I fJe Ihod parficufarfy adapted to 
iBEVEL orl/fHECVLAIt KIBS 
\Here the aap is hefd on iy re^ufar 
\Efaf sea ins on each side of the ISIS 




Target and Arrow Roofing Tin 

WE have arranged with the Architectural Service Corpora- 
tion. 140 N. 6th Street, Philadelphia, to publish and distrib- 
ute to architects early in 1916 working drawings showing 

various methods of applying tin roofing to secure certain heavy ribbed effects on 
the roof. This advertisement will give an idea of the appearance of the drawings. 
They will be issued in a portfolio, together with other sheets illustrating various 
building specialties. We have a number of advance copies of these " Service 
Sheets," as the publishers term them. Should you have any work upon which 
you wish to consider roofing of this type, we shall be glad to send these drawings 
in advance of the portfolio if you will so advise us. They may serve to show you 
artistic roof effects new to you. 

There is nothing new, however, about the product itself — TARGET AND 
ARROW roofing tin — which we recommend for work of this kind. This durable 
roofing tin is a specialty of ours handed down from the early days of our business. 
In this brand we have preserved an old time standard of manufacture for the use 
and benefit of present-day architects. Few building materials have had so thorough 
a test of time as TARGET AND ARROW roofing tin. It remains to day the same 
durable quality that we have supplied to American sheet metal roofers for more 
than seventy years. It costs a little more than other roofing tin, so you are not 
likely to get Taylor quality if you write a specification that permits substitution. 
We sell this roofing tin to the trade at a fixed, published, resale price. 

Specify Taylor'.-; TAKGKT AND ARROW roofing tin, either IC or IX thickness-, as the work 
may require. The tin roofing work should be done in accordance with the standard working 
specifications adopted by the National Association of Sheet Metal Contractors. These, together 
with several tables of covering capacity and other useful technical information, are published on the 
reverse side of the " Service Sheets " described above. We also furnish upon request these specifi- 
cations in convenient form for architects' use, also a useful little reminder of our TARGET AND 
ARROW roofing tin in the form of a 6inch white edge boxwood scale. Our catalogue is in 
" Sweet's " — all issues. 

N. & G. TAYLOR COMPANY of Philadelphia 

HEADQUARTERS EOR GOOD ROOFING TIN SINCE 1810 
One Hundred and Seventh Year 



Uie fC ire/fif p 
TIN for eiOi and ^ 
ROOf proptr 



K Method i-.'here simiMr cap is used^ rne 
J cleai-s beina fastened to the sides of Ihe 
j leib las lead of the top ^ 
j >Sca/e a'^I-o" ■ 



Four typeJ in genera f use for 

WOOD leiBJ lo be corered mlh TIM 

JCALi S'il'-o' 




' /mz/m\ fn^\ ^3 





tnJ intwrj^ion of io/A tItS 



DCrAfLS SffOtYIAfO COfidSfffATfON Of /if 3 df SfANDfffC S£Af^' 

SCiLC 6"=-l-0" 



LLEVATION of m 0/7 fhe r,jhl 
Jhons CltlMPIH6 </ rm on Mr j/oifj 
of eiB glBS <f DOrfE may it iittde 
T4fiie/AIC « xMf/i from B^JC /■<> 




El CM nor/ of DorlE jhiHKntorm 
Jhot¥i»f a<iiplab,llly of Tin k/obcd 

fOOriUG to ornamtnlat Dtst^m 



eiEVA riON of lilBDSD DOME 
One half sfiotnny VEKTICAL £103- One half jAoi^kj 

i/seTicAL and noeizonr/ii. le/es 



CCPYRIGMTCD 1915 BY N 6 G TAYLOR -CO 



PUBLIitlED • Br ■ ARCHITECTURAL 5E.RVICE: CORPORATION. PHILADELPHU. U-5 A- 






I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



25 



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JOHNS-MANVILLE SERVICE TO THE ARCHITECT 



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S the pendulum swings back toward better business 
conditions, the architect comes again to his own. 



Coiififhian )\ 



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The impetus given to real estate and building improve- 
ments is first felt by you who are to design, plan and char- 
acterize these buildings. 

In planning these buildings for which you are sponsor you will, 
in your own and your clients' interest, insist on certain stand- 
ards. You will do this because integrity of design is a profes- 
sional pride and because integrity in the selection of materials is 
the architects' responsibility. 

J-M Service stands for integrity in materials — an integrity 
backed by J-M Responsibility — a principle of accountability 
that can neither be altered nor compromised. 



en you are asked about a fireproof roofing 
recommena J-M Xransite Asbestos Skmgles 

It is alarming to note the thousands of wooden shingled buildings throughout the 
country, each a waiting victim of a stray spark from its o\\ n or a neighbor's 
chimney. 

More and more attention is being devoted to safe roofing materials that have all 
the flexibility of treatment of the hazardous wooden shingle. 

J-M Transite Asbestos Shingles solve that problem. They 
are absolutely fireproof, because they are made of in- 
destructible materials — Asbestos (rock) fiber and cement 
(rock). 

They actually toughen with age and will not crack, rot, 
split or warp under the most severe climatic conditions. 

Made in two thicknesses, in three shapes and several 
sizes, and with rough or smooth edges, thus affording a 
great variety of effects in application. 

J-M Transite Shingfles are furnished in three soft tones — 
Indian Red, Mottled Brown and Cement Gray. 

Ask for literature showing where and how the shingles 
have been used. 

J-M Transite Asbestos Shingles are examined, approved and 
labeled by the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., under the 
direction of the National Board of Fire Underwriters. Laid 
American Method, they are given Class "B" rating. Laid 
French Method, they are given Class " C " rating. hv.u.tm,, ..j j. .\. H.r.i/e,. i >„,,., i'a>k. Cui. 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE COMPANY 




Akron 

Albany 

Atlanta 

Baltimore 

Birmingham 



Boston 

Buffalo 

Chicago 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 



Columbus 

Dallas 

Dayton 

Denver 

Detroit 



Duluth 

Galveston 

Houghton 

Houston 

Indianapolis 



Kansas City 
Los Angeles 
Louisville 
Memjjhis 
Milwaukee 



Minneapolis 
Newark 
New Orleans 
New York 
Omaha 



I'hil.-idelphia 
Pittsburgh 
Portland 
Rochester 
St. Louis 



THE CANADIAN H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO.. Ltd.. Toronto Winnipeg 



Montreal 



St. Paul 

Salt Lake City 

San Francisco 

Seattle 

Syracuse 

Vancouver 



Toledi) 
Washington 
Wilkes-Barre 
Voungstown 



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26 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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COVERS 

THE CONTINENt^^ 




Jai'kson. ktiAenitanj, x^' 
hury. Archiieifs. 



JOHNS-MANVILLE SERVICE 



J-M Sectional Conduit solves the 

problem or out-of-doors neat 

transmission 



Any group of buildings may now be economically heated 
from a central plant. The problem of efficiently trans- 
mitting live steam, exhaust steam, hot water, etc., un- 
derground for long or short distances, finds a satisfying 
answer in J-M Sectional Conduit. 

Power in the form of live steam may now be directly 
transmitted. District heating, utilizing exhaust steam, 
becomes more profitable. 

This system, which is complete in every detail except 
the steam pipes proper, is fully di.scussed in a bulletin that 
everv architect should have on file. Nearest branch has it. 




tluir at SlaffSchnn/ oj Minef. 
h'aniil Cily. So. /tat. 



Wkat steel structure kas done for 
J-M Astestos Built-Up kas done 



building, 
for roofs 




randfihi/l Hnlel. N. V 
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.■iirhi/fils. 



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In late years buildings have become more permanent, stronger, more flexible 
in the hands of the architect and builder — because strides have been made in 
l)roducing materials. 

But what about roofs? Are you still to be limited to painted tin, tar and 
gravel, tile, slate or organic felts? Does it seem logical to apply a roof of 
such transient value on a building of permanent materials ? 

The permanent lasting roof is j-M Asbestos Built-Up Roofing, because, first 
of all, it is all mineral, natural asphalt and asbestos. It resists all the elements 
and is impervious to atmospheric conditions indefinitely without the aid of 
painting or coating. 

It is mechanically strong, is easy to apply and is backed up by the broadest 
obligation ever offered by a commercial institution — J-M Responsibility. 

J-M Asbestos Built-Up Roofing is examined, approved and labeled by the Under- 
writer's Laboratories, Inc., under the direction of the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers. It is given Class " A " rating when applied over non-combustible roof decks 
having inclines not exceeding 3 inches to the foot, and secures Class " B " rating 
when applied over non- combustible roof decks having inclines not exceeding 6 inches 
to the foot. 



JOHNS-MANVILLE PRODUCTS 



J-M Corrugated Asbestos Roofing 

J-M Regal Roofing 

J-M Asbestoside 

J-M Asbestos Slaters Felt 

I-M Asbestos Roofing and Insulating Felts 

J-.\1 Keystone Hair Insulator 



J-M Hair Felt 
J-M Sound Deadening Felts 
J-M Cold Storage Insulation 
I-M Weathertite Paper 
J-M Asbestos Fire- and Damp-proof 
Flooring Felt 



J-M Mineral Wool 

J-M Cork Floor Tiling 

J-M Washerless Faucet 

J-M Sanitor Drinking Fountain 

Audiffren-Singrun Refrigerating Machine 

J-M Sea Grass Lining 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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TO^THE ARCHITECT 



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J-M Keystone Hair Insulator 
Reduces Disturbing Sounds 

In the office or school building, or in any building, 
in fact, where quiet is essential and noise impairs 

the efficiency of the 
worker, J-M Keystone 
Hair Insulator effec- 
tively reduces the 
sound disturbances. 





Colonial .■Ifiarlmriils. Kansas Cilv. Mn. 
F.. P. Miutoiif. Aichilrit. Kansas City 



Franklin II in h Schoa/ . Srall/f. IVasli. 
Fitnar Flan . At,lulnl,Seallle. Wash 



It is a natural insulator of the dead-air cell type 
that not onl\' assures sound absorption hut makes 
a warmer huilding in Winter and a cooler one 
in Summer, and it also frees the building of 
dampness — a very important consideration in 
suburban, seashore and rural districts. See 
catalog No. 102 for further information. If 
you haven't one in rtle, ask any J-M Branch. 



The Largest Railroad Viaduct m tA^ xV^orld is Protected 
by 78,000 Sq. Ft. or Jonns-Manville XA^aterprooTing 

Tunkahannock Viaduct on the summit cut-off of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western R. R. waterproofed area was first covered with a special membrane 
protected by 1-ply of J-M Asbestos Felt. Above this t 
layers of J-M Mastic was applied hot with joints lapped. 

J-M Waterproofing' and Mastic were also applied 

to the Martin's Creek \'iaduct on the 

same line. An area of about 40,000 ^^--'.« 



sq. ft. was treated. 
Write for data 




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JOHNS-MANVILLE PRODUCTS 



J-M Drinking Water System 
J-M Transite Asbestos Wood 
J-M Asbestos Stucco and Plaster 
J-M Asbestos Cloth and Vitribestos Theatre 
Curtains 



J-M Architectural Acoustics 
J-M Waterproofing Materials 
J-M Mastic Flooring 
J-M Asbesto-Sponge Felted Pipe 
Covering and Sheets 



J-M AsbestoccI Pipe C<ivering and Sheets 

J-M Zero Pipe Covering 

J-M Anti-Sweat Pipe Covering 

J-M Sectional Underground Conduit 

" Noark " F.ncloscd Fuse Devices 



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THE BRICKBVILDER, 






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Fl*IM«W«tmit|tt!»IWHtlH«H"IHItlMM!l!M!IWMM!ll«M(miHltlfl1l«l"MHHI(l'l!fimilll«"i|"tlHWm"lll"IM"tf|tlMtl«ltlWtlM«iltl|'Wt^ 



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JOHNS-MANVILLE SERVICE TO THE ARCHITECT 



First Congregational Church, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Rccd Bros.. Architects. Sail Francisco. Cal. 



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Renaissance 
m Lighting 



A different kind of lighting service 

organized to make it possible for the 

architect to secure reproductions of period de- 
signs with strict fidelity and to make that de- 
sign an efficient lighting unit by applying 20th 
Century technical training and experience. 

J-M Ligntmg Service 

This combination of lighting skill and artistic 
interpretation explains why this Service is the 
choice of Architects from coast to coast. 

It is an innovation —a service that correctly 
interprets the architect's ideas on art — in 
lighting fixtures. 

Perhaps you have a building in which you wish to 
carry the same period design throughout — where you 
wish to harmonize the illuminating fixtures with the 
general scheme of decoration. 

The products of the Mitchell-Vance Co., the Frink 
and J-M Linolite Systems and the illuminating glass- 
ware of Gill Bros. Co. are at your disposal for 
selection. 

Send the plans or lighting blue-prints of your next 
building to our nearest branch. 



H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE COMPANY 

So/c selling agents for Frink and J-M Linolite Systems of Illumination ; 
Mitchell-Vance Lighting Fixtures and Bronzes, atid Gill Bros. Co.'s Parian Ware. 



Akron 
Albany- 
Atlanta 
Baltimore 
Birmingham 



Boston 

Buffalo 

Chicago 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 



Columbus 

Dalla.s 

Dayton 

Denver 

Detroit 



Duluth 

Galveston 

Houghton 

Houston 

Indianapolis 



Kansas City 
Los Angeles 
Louisville 
Memphis 
Milwaukee 



Minneapolis 
Newark 
New Orleans 
New York 
Omaha 



Philadelphia 
Pittsburgh 
Portland 
Rochester 
St. Louis 



St. Paul 

Salt Lake City 

San Francisco 

Seattle 

Syracuse 



Toledo 
Washington 
Wilkes-Barre 
Youngstown 



THE CANADIAN H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO.. Ltd.. Toronto Winnipeg Montreal Vancouver 






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The Normal School at San Diego 

W. S. HEBBARD, Architect 

Has Corbin hardware throughout of a quaHty 
that will stand rough usage without impairing 
either the appearance or the service. More 
Corbin hardware is used in the best school- 
houses on the coast than of any other manu- 
facture. 

P. & F. Corbin 

Division 

The American Hardware Corporation 

NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT 

\ 



P. A F. Corbin 
of Chicago 



P. & F. Corbin 
of New York 



& F. Corhin Div. 
Philadelphia 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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Selected List of Manufacturers' Publications 

FOR THE SERVICE OF ARCHITECTS, ENGINEERS, AND CONTRACTORS 

The publications listed are the most important of those issued by manufacturers represented in the adver- 
tising pages of THE BRICKBVILDER. They may be had upon direct application to the manufacturers. 



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ARCHITECTS' OFFICE SUPPLIES 

American Lead Pencil Co., 220 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
Venus Peiu'il.s. Booklet. 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE 

Rookwood Pottery Co., Cincinnati. 

Faience Cataloj^. 

Set of I'rint.s of Special Work. 



Peoples' Gas 
Cotta and Details 



W., Madison Avenue and 41st 
Wood. Booklet. 2>% .x 6 inches. 



52 Vanderbilt Ave- 
inches. 25 pa^es. 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

American Terra Cotta & Ceramic Co 

Building, Chicago. 
Specifications for Architectural Terra 
of Construction. 14 plates. 
Atlantic Terra Cotta Co., 1170 Broadway, New York. 

Atlantic Terra Cotta. Monthly p-ublication. 9.\ 12 inches. 
12 pages. 
Conkling- Armstrong Terra Cotta Co., Nicetown, Philadel- 
phia. 
Ornament and Details of Construction. Catalog. 9^^ x 13 
inches. 
Midland Terra Cotta Co., Lumber E.\change Building, 
Chicago. 
Stock Terra Cotta. Portfolio. 10 .x 15 inches. 60 plates. 
New Jersey Terra Cotta Co., Singer Building, New York. 

The N'ictoria Building. Booklet. 8 '2 x 1 1 inches. lOpages. 
New York Architectural Terra Cotta Co., 401 Vernon Ave- 
nue, Long Island City, N. V. 
Architectural Terra Cotta. Booklet. 8x8'4 inches. 35 
pages. 

ASBESTOS LUMBER 

Johns-Manville Co., H. 

Street, New Yoik. 
J-M Transite Asbestos 
12 i)ages. 

BRICK 

American Enameled Brick and Tile Co. 

nue, New York. 
Enameled Brick. Catalog. 6 x 9X 

Color plates. 
Bradford Pressed Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. 

Mantels — Special Shapes of Brick. Catalog. 5'4 

31 pages. 
" Red " Catalog. 5^x8 inches. 16 pages. 
Fiske & Company, 40 West 32d Street, New York. 

" Fisklock "— Tapestry Brick. Catalog. 8x 10>^ inches. 

.^2 pages. 
Tapestry Brickwork. Catalog. 8 x 10>^ inches. 47 pages. 

Color plates. 
Tapestry Brick Fireplaces. Catalog. 8 x 1()>^ inches. 

39 pages. Color plates. 
Through the Home of Tapestry Brick. Booklet. 8 x lOj^ 

inclies. 12 pages. Color jilates. 
Hocking Valley Products Co., Columbus, Ohio. 

Greendale Rug Brick. Catalog. lYz x 10^ inches. 

25 pages. Color plates. 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., St. Louis. 

Bonds and Mortars in the Wall of Brick. Treatise on 

brick design. 8 '2 x 11, '2 inches. 27 pages. 
Brick Scales and Tables. 8 x 10 inches. 32 pages. 
Moulded and Ornamental Brick. Catalog. 4'-! x (>% 

inches. 140 pages. 
The lly-tex House of Moderate Cost. Booklet. 8 x 10>^ 

inches. 100 pages. 80 sketch plans and elevations. 
Sayre & Fisher Co., 261 Broadway, New York. 

Brick - I'^nameled and l'"ront. Catalog. 6x9 inches. 

24 pages. Color jilates. 
Western Brick Co., Danville, 111. 

Western Brick. Catalog. 3;^ x 6 inches. 32 pages. 
Where Western Face Brick Were Used in 1915. Booklet. 

4'i X 6 inches. 31 pages. 

CASEMENT WINDOWS 

Crittall Casement Co., 679 Atwater Street, Detroit. 

Universal Casements. Catalog No. 15. Detail drawings. 
9!+ X 12 inches. 64 pages. 



X 9 inches. 



CASEMENT WINDOWS Continued 

Hope & Sons, Henry, 103 Park Avenue, New York. 
Casement Windows. Details and sections. 
10 X \T< inches. 187 pages. 
International Casement Co., Jamestown, N. Y. 

Casement Windows and Leaded Glass. Catalog. 10 x 14 
inches. 56 pages. Plates. 

CHIMNEYS 

Heinicke, Inc., H. R., 147 Fourth Avenue, New York. 
Chimneys. Bulletin. Methods of construction. 

COAL CHUTES 

Majestic Co., The, Huntington, Ind. 

Coal Chutes, Garbage Receivers, and Furnaces. Catalog. 
6 X 9 '2 inches. 32 pages. 

CONDUIT 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st Street, 
New York. 
J-M Sectional Conduit. Booklet. 6x9inches. 16 pages. 
National Metal Molding Co., 1113 Fulton Building, Pitts- 
burgh. 
Handbook on National Metal Molding. Complete details 
and installation instructions. 4'4X 6 inches. 96 i)ages. 
Report of Tests and Complete Data on Sherarduct Sher- 
ardized Rigid Steel Conduit. Scientific treatise. 6x9 
inches. 31 pages. 
Ric-w^iL Underground Pipe Covering Company, The, Cleve- 
land. 
Ric-wiL Method. Handbook. 6 x 9 inches. 40 pages. 

DUMBWAITERS 

Sedgwick Machine Works, 128 Liberty Street, New York. 
Dumbwaiters and Elevators in Modern Architectural 
Practice. Booklet. 4^4 x 8X inches. 15 pages. 

ELEVATORS 

Otis Elevator Company, Eleventh Avenue and 26th Street, 
New York. 
Otis Electric Traction Elevators. Bulletin. 6x9 inches. 

28 pages. 
Otis Residence Elevators. Bulletin. 6x9 inches. 16 
pages. 
Sedgwick Machine Works, 128 Liberty Street, New York. 
.Selecting an Invalid Elevator. Booklet. ^]i x ^)i inches. 
8 pages. 

ESCALATORS 

Otis Elevator Company, Eleventh Avenue and 26th Street, 
New York. 
Otis Escalators. Bulletin. 6x9 inches. 36 pages. 

FLOORING 

Armstrong Cork & Insulation Co., 132 24th Street, Pitts- 
burgh. 
Linotile Floors. Booklet. 6x9 inches. 32 pages. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st Street, 
New York. 
J-M Cement Floor Preservative. Booklet. 3'2x6 inches. 

4 pages. 
Noisy Offices Made (Juiet. Booklet. 3'2 x 6 inches. 
4 pages. 
Sonneborn Sons, Inc., L., 262 Pearl Street, New York. 
Lajiidolith Specifications. Booklet. 8 '2 x lO'j inches. 
Scierrtific Investigation of the Action of Lapidolith on 
Concrete by Prof. R. J. Colony. Booklet. 

GLASS CONSTRUCTION 

American Luxfer Prism Co., Ileyworth Building, Chicago. 

Daxlighting. CataU)g. 65^ x 10'4 inches. 24 pages. 
Asbestos Protected Metal Co., 1606 First. National Bank 
Building, Pittsburgh. 
Waiigh Glazing Construction. Catalog and bulletin. 
8 X 10'2 inches. 20 pages. 
Keppler Glass Constructions Inc, 101 Park Avenue, New 
York. 

(i% X 9^4 inches. 16 pages. 
8"ji X 11 '2 inches. 12 pages. 
9x12 inches. 6 pages. 
9 X 12 inches. 4 pages. 



Booklet No. 201. 
Bulletin No. 126. 
Bulletin No. 202. 
Bulletin No. 203. 



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Alphabetical Index of Advertisers on Page 8! 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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every pile 
\jl pile for 

\everyDurpg/e{ 



AYMOND CONCRETE PILES 



RE the only concrete piles placed by means of a 
permanent form which remains in the ground. 



OU cannot afford to design or build a foundation 
without investigating the Raymond method. 



'ILLIONS of feet of Raymond Concrete Piling 
now supporting buildings of all types throughout 
the world. 

NLY system which permits thorough inspection 
of each and every step of the process. 



OW is the time to decide upon the foundation 
for the new building. 



ON'T delay sending for our new catalogue, 
giving full details and valuable data. 



See Sweet's Catalogue 

RAYMOND CONCRETE PILE COMPANY 



NEW YORK 

140 Cedar Street 



Branch Offices in 
all Principal Cities 



CHICA(;0 

111 W. Monroe St. 



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Raymond Concrete Pile Co. of Canada, Ltd.. Montreal, Canada 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 






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il SELECTED LIST OF MANUFACTURERS' PUBLICATIONS — Confmuec/ from page 



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GLASS CONSTRUCTION — Continued 

Lord & Burnham Co., 32 East 42d Street, New York. 

Some Greenhouses We Have Built. Illustrations. Com- 
pleted work. Catalog. 9K X 12,!^ inches. 98 pages. 

Two G's. — Glass Gardens — A Peep into Their Delights. 
Booklet. 5'4 .X 10^^ inches. 27 pages. 

Two P's. — Pleasure and Profit of Cold Frames and Hot 
Beds. Booklet. 5X x 10)^ inches. 31 pages. 

GRAVITY CONVEYERS 

Otis Elevator Company, Eleventh Avenue and 26th Street, 
New York. 
Otis Gravity Conveyers. Catalog. 6x9 inches. 56 pages. 

HARDWARE 

Corbin, P. & F., New Britain, Conn. 

Casement Window Operators. Booklet. 
Colonial Hardware. Booklet. 5x7 inches. 32 pages. 
Corbin Door Checks. Catalog. 5x7 inches. 40 pages. 
General Catalog. lOJ^^ x 13 inches. 1,200 pages. 
Grant Pulley & Hardware Co., 3 West 29th Street, New 
York. 
Diamond Ball Bearing Door Hanger. Catalog. 6 x 9'i; 
inches. 
Reliance Ball Bearing Door Hanger Co., 30 East 42d 
Street, New York. 
Door Hangers, etc. Catalog. 8 x 9>^ inches. 32 pages. 
Vonnegut Hardware Company, Indianapolis. 

Von Duprin Self Releasing Fire Exit IJevice. Catalog. 

HEATING EQUIPMENT 

Crane Co., .S36 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago. 

Steam Goods. Complete Pocket Catalog. 4>^ x 6 inches. 
620 pages. 
Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit. 

A Radiator Valve That Can't Leak. Booklet. V/z x fi)i 
inches. 16 pages. 
Gorton & Lidgerwood Co., 96 Liberty Street, New York. 
Modern House Heating. Catalog No. 88. />,% x 7 inches. 
32 pages. 
Kelsey Heating Co., The, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Kelsey System of Heating and Ventilating. Booklet. 36 

pages. 
Kelsey Warm Air Generators. Booklet. 32 pages. 
Lord & Burnham Co., 30 East 42d Street, New York. 

Hurnham Boilers. Catalog No. 56. 4 x 10 inches. 19 
pages. 
Smith Co., The H. B., Westfield, Mass. 

Indirect Radiation. Dimensions and all necessary data. 

Catalog. 2)% x dH inches., 18 pages. 
Smith Service Boiler W-17 for Hot Water Supply. 
Dimensions and all necessary data. Catalog. 3'., x 6^4 
inches. 6 images. 
U. S. Radiator Corporation, Detroit. 

A Modern "House Warming." Booklet. 6x9 inches. 

30 pages. 
The "Complete Line." Technical data. Catalog. 
\\i X lYi, inches. 270 pages. 

HIGH TEMPERATURE CEMENTS 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st Street, 
New York. 
J-M High Temperature Cement. Booklet. 3>^x 6 inches. 
12 pages. 

HOISTS 

Gillis & Geoghegan, 537 West Broadway, New York. 

G. & G. Telescopic Hoist (Model A). Booklet. 3^ x 6^ 

inches. 16 pages. 
G. & G. Telescopic Overhead Crane Hoist (Model B). 

Booklet, lyi x 6J^ inches. 16 pages. 

HOLLOW TILE 

National Fire Proofing Co., Fulton Building, Pittsburgh. 
Builders' Handbook. Details of residences. Blueprints. 

8)^ X 11 inches. 34 pages. 
Fireproof Houses of Natco Hollow Tile. Catalog. 8J^ x 

11 inches. 30 pages. 
Long Span Fireproof Floor Construction. Details, tables, 

tests. Handbook. 8>^x 11 inches. 60 pages. Colorplates. 
Natco on the Farm. Catalog. 5^ x 7^ inches. 50 pages. 

HOSPITAL EQUIPMENT 

Pfaudler Co.. The, Rochester, N. Y. 

A Brief Discussion of I'faudler Sanitary Products. 
Shrapnel -The Isolation of Infection in Hospitals. 



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Alphabetical Index of Advertisers on Page 8. . 



Booklet. 
Booklet. 



INSULATED WIRE 

Electric Cable Co., The, 17 Battery Place, New York. 

Facts. Wire and conduit tables. Booklet. 5)i x 7Ji 
inches. 48 pages. 
Simplex Wire & Cable Co., 201 Devonshire Street, Boston. 

The Simplex Manual. Catalog. 4X x 6^ inches. 92 pages. 

INSULATION 

Armstrong Cork & InsulationCo., 132 24th Street, Pittsburgh. 
Nonpareil Corkboard Insulation. Scientific treatise. 

6x9 inches. 130 pages. 
Nonpareil High Pressure Covering. Scientific treatise. 

6x9 inches. 74 pages. 
Hydrex Felt & Engineering Co., The, 120 Liberty Street, 

New York. 
Sound Transmission in Buildings. Booklet. 6x9 inches. 

24 pages. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st 

Street, New York. 
J-M Hair Insulator. Booklet. 3'< x 6 inches. 20 pages. 
How to Insulate and Prevent Sweating of Cold Water 

Pipes. Booklet. 3'A x 6 inches. 4 pages. 
How to Reduce Coal Bills 25 Per Cent. (J-M Asbestocel 

Pipe Covering.) Booklet. 3'^ x 6 inches. 8 pages. 

INTERIOR TELEPHONE SYSTEMS 

Western Electric Company, 463 West Street, New York. 
Western Electric Interphone Specifications. Handbook. 
S'4 x 11 inches. 41 pages. 

IRON PIPE 

Byers Co., A. M., 235 Water Street, Pittsburgh. 

Bulletin No. 26. Tables and specifications. Catalog. 

8 '2 X 11 inches. 24 pages. 
Control of Quality in Every Process. Booklet. 4x7 

inches. 48 jiages. 
Methods of Marking Byers' Pipe. Card showing meth- 
ods of marking and substitution. 

LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

Ivanhoe-Regent Works of General Electric Co., Cleveland. 
Lighting Handbook. Semi-technical on general lighting 

practice. 4x7 inches. 94 pages. 
Semi-Indirect Lighting Bowls. Catalog No. 108. 8 x 10j4 

inches. 48 pages. 
Luminous Unit Co., St. Louis. 

Brascolite — The Modern Semi-Indirect Lighting System. 

Catalog No. 5. S.U x lO^i^ inches. 24 pages. 
Brascolite Data. Scientific data sheets. Portfolio. 

9 x UK inches. Blue prints. 
" Day Way." Booklet. 6 x 10 inches. 8 pages. 
Educational Data. Treatise on light and illumination. 

9 X 11 '2 inches. 
Macbeth-Evans Glass Co., Pittsburgh. 

Architects' Portfolio of Lighting Equipment. Loose leaf 

sketches of lighting fixtures. 10 x 14 inches. 
Builders' Portfolio of Lighting Equipment. Loose leaf. 

Illustrated. 6x9 inches. 
National X-Ray Reflector Co., 235 West Jack.son Street, 

Chicago. 
Engineering Data Book. Technical handbook. 6x9 

inches. 125 pages. 
Illumination from Concealed Sources — How to Plan and 

Specify Indirect Lighting. Scientific treatise. 12x15 

inches. 52 pages. 36 detail drawings. 

METAL COLUMNS 

Union Metal Manufacturing Co., Canton, Ohio. 

I'liicin Metal Columns. Bulletin. S'i x 11 inches. 10 pages. 

METAL DOORS, WINDOWS, AND TRIM 

Dahlstrom Metallic Door Co., Jamestown, N. Y. 

Hollow Metal Construction, Architectural Series. Details 
of approved hollow metal construction. Portfolio. 
14U X 19 inches. 58 pages. 
Metal Mouldings and Shapes. Cold drawn metal mould- 
ings. Catalog. KJ'V x 14 inches. 92 pages. 
Detroit Steel Products Co., Detroit. 

It Is Easy to Build with Fenestra Standard Units. Booklet. 
The Fenestra Line. Catalog. 8'2 x 11 inches. 15 sec- 
tions. Blue prints. 
Saino Fire Door and Shutter Co., 186 Diamond Street, 
15rooklyn, N. Y. 
All Metal and Asbestos Elevator Doors, F"ire Doors, and 
vShutters. Catalog. 6x9 inches. 
Zahner Metal Sash and Door Co., Canton, Ohio. 

/Calmer Electric Welded Steel Casements and Sashes. 

Booklet. 3'2x6'4 inches. 12 pages. 
Zahner Welded Hollow Steel Fire Resisting Doors. Book- 
let. 3>2 X 6.'4 inches. 12 pages. 



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TRADE MARK 
REG. U. S. PAT. OFFICE 

NO. 85021 



r\T. V. s. and Canada 



%n Buptin 

Safeguard the Exits of Schools, Churches, Theatres, Factories, Ktc. 



' SAFE EXIT IS A UNIVERSAL DEMAND 



Send for 
Cataloj^ue 12-F 

Siueet's InJcx," />figfs &V-. 
804. Sfiecifv anJ demand 

l^on SDuprin 



VONNEGUT HARDWARE CO. 

MANUFACTURERS AND DISTRIBUTERS INDIANAPOLIS, INI). 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 

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The Y^On ©Uprin Self-Releas- 
ing Fire Exit Latches 

are designed to prevent just such disasters 
as occurred recently at the disasters at the 

Williamsburg Factory 
Peabody Parochial School 
Pittsburgh Candy Factory 

which were only repetitions of the fires 
at the 

Collinwood School 

Iroquois Theatre 

Triangle Shirt Waist Factory 

and many others where exit doors were 
not properly safeguarded by 

¥^on Buprin 

(Self-Releasing) 
Fire Exit Latches 



These will securely 
lock your doors against 
outsiders, but will let 
the doors swing open 
freely upon even a 
light pressure on the 
bar across the door 
on the inside. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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LIST OF MANUFACTURERS' PUBLICATIONS— Con^/ni/^c/ ^rom pac/e J2 11 

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John, 4.S0 Hancock Street, 



METAL LATH 

American Luxfer Prism Co., Ileyworth lluikliiiK, Chicago. 
Luxfer Expanded Metal Lath. Details. Circular. i>)i x 7 
inches. 
METAL LUMBER 

Berger Manufacturing Co., Canton, Ohio. 

Metiil Lumber. Tests and technical data. Catalog and 
bulletin. 

ORNAMENTAL METAL WORK 
Polachek Bronze and Iron Co., 

Long Island City, .\'. V. 
Distinctive Metan\ork. Booklet. 9 x IJ inches. 4 pages. 

ORNAMENTAL PLASTER 

Decorators' Supply Co., Archer Avenue and Leo Street, 

Chicago. 
Catalog. 9'; X 12'2 inches. 30<i pages. 

PAINTS, VARNISHES. AND WOOD FINISHES 

Boston Varnish Co., Everett Station, Boston. 

Kyanize Enamel. Complete Specifications. Booklet. 5x7 

inches. 20 pages. 
Kyanize White Enamel. Directions. Circular. 3,'2x6 

inches. 8 pages. 
Price List of Varni.shes and Enamels. 3;4 x 6 inches. 24 
liages. 
Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co., New Milford, Conn. 

Bri(lgei)ort Standard Washotint. Article. Color har- 
mony for walls. 5 X 9;'4 inches. 8 pages. 
Modern Wood Finishing. Descriptive portfolio on fin- 
ishing woods. 9x12 inches. 20 pages. Color plates. 
Cabot, Inc., Samuel, 141 Milk Street, Boston. 

Shingle Stains. 3'jx 6 inches. 5 pages. Color chart. 
Devoe & C. T. Reynolds Co., F. W., 101 Fulton Street, 
New York. 
Architectural Finishes, Siiecifications and Suggestions for 
Painting, Varnisliing, Staining, and Enameling. 
Hydrex Felt & Engineering Co., 120 Libertv Street, New 
Vork. 
Hydrex Preservation Paint. Booklet. 3'; x 6 inches. 
16 pages. 
Johns-Manville Co.,H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st Street, 
New Vork. 
J-M Protective Paints, Roof Coating, and Putty Cold 
Water Paints. Booklet. 3'2X 6 inches. 12 pages. 
Keystone Varnish Co., 71 Otsego Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Zinolin — All Zinc Outside Paint. Booklet. i'Ax6'/i 
inches. 4 pages. 
Lowe Bros. Co., The, Dayton, (Jhio. 

Architects' Mellotone Handbook. 3x8 inches. 27 iiages. 
Color plates. 
National Lead Co., Ill Broadway, New. York. 

Painting — Protective and Decorative. Booklet. S>^xll 

inches. 48 pages. Color plates'. ' 
Pure Red Lead in Paste Form. Booklet. 3'4 x 6 inches. 

18 pages. 
Siiecifications. Folder. 3>^x 9 inches. 
The Protection of Structufal -Metal. Scientific treatise. 
6x9 inches. 48 pages. 
Smith & Co., Edward, P. O.'Bo.x 1780, New York. 

Architects' Handbook. Specifications. SxT/i inches. 
24 pages. 
Toch Bros., 320 I'ifth Avenue, New York. 

R. I. W. Red Book — Preservative Paints and Com- 
]n)unds. Booklet. 3 '2 x 6 '^ inches. 72 jjages. 
Wadsworth Howland Co., Inc., 139 I'ederal Street, Boston. 
Bay State lirick and Cement Coating. Catalog. Color 

Ijlates. 
Bay .State Finishes, Stains, and Varnishes. Catalog. 

Color cards. 
Bay State " Dultint." Catalog. Color plates. 

PILES 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 140 Cedar Street, New York. 
Raymond Concrele Piles. Catalog. 8j4 x 11^ inches. 
,S6 iiages. 
PLUMBERS' WOODWORK 

Never Split Seat Co., Kvansville, Ind. 

The Reason They Never Split. Booklet. 7 x 7J4 inches. 
8 pages. 

PLUMBING EQUIPMENT 

Crane Co., 736 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago. 

Catalog. 9x12 inches. 834 pages. 
Trenton Potteries Co., Trenton, N. J. 

Bathrooms of Character. Booklet of suggestions. 4 x 7 '4 

inches. 48 pages. 
vSanitary Pottery. Monthly house organ. 6x9 inches. 
16 pages. Color plates. 



PUMPS 

Goulds Manufacturing Co., Seneca Falls, N. V. 

All Types of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Power Pumps. 

Bulletins. 20 sections. lU x 10 inches. 
Handy Data on Power Pumping. Bulletin. 7}^ x 10 
inches. 24 pages. 

ROOFING 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Frick Building, Pittsburgh. 
Copper - Its Effect Upon Steel for Roofing Tin. Scien- 
tific treatise. 3,'2 x 6,'4 inches. 43 pages. 
Pocket Reference Book. Z'/i x 4 '4 inches. 168 pages. 
Asbestos Protected Metal Co., 1606 First National Bank 

Building, Pittsburgh. 
Asbestos Protected Metal. Catalog and bulletin. 8>4 x 11 

inches. 64 pages. 
Asbestosteel for Roofs and Walls. Catalog and bulletin. 

8'4 X 11 inches. 32 pages. 
Asphalt Ready Roofing Co., 9 Church Street, New York. 
Shingling and Roofing - Artistic and Durable. Booklet. 

6x9 inches. 20 pages. 
Barrett Manufacturing Co., 17 Battery Place, New York. 
Barrett Specifications. Specification form. 
Underwriters' Laboratory Report on " Barrett Specifica- 
tion " Roof Coverings. 8 ''2 x 11 inches. 42 pages. 
Boyle & Co., Inc., John, 112 Duane Street, New York. 

Ojiinions of Practical Builders. Instructions for using 
hayonne roof and deck cloth. Booklet. 3}4 x 6 inches. 
24 pages. 
Carey Co., The Philip, Lockland, Cincinnati. 

Carey Flexible Cement Roofing. Specificatians. 8 x 11 

inches. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st 

Street, New Vork. 
J-M Asbestos Roofing. (4-ply Heavy Brooks Brand.) 

Booklet, i'4 X 6 inches. 8 pages. 
J-M Asbestos Roofing and Waterproofing. Specifications. 

Catalog. 6x9 inches. 56 pages. 
J-M Corrugated Asbestos Roofing. Booklet. 3}i x 6 

inches. 8 pages. 
J-M Transite Asbestos Shingles. Booklet. 3'; x 6 inches. 

32 pages. 
Standard Stained Shingle Co., North Tonawanda, N. Y. 
Book of Homes. Illustrations of houses on which 

" Creodipt " shingles have been used. Booklet. 8 x 10 

inches. 32 pages. 
Taylor Co., N. & G., 300 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 
A Guide to Good Roofs. Booklet. 3U x 5}i inches. 24 

pages. 
Selling Arguments for Tin Roofing. Booklet. 6 x 9^ 

inches. 80 pages. 
"Service Sheets." Working Drawings. Details of tin 

roofing construction and tables of covering capacity. 

16>^ X 21 -2 inches. 
Standard Specifications for Tin Roofing Work. 7)4 x 9 

inches. 



STORE FRONTS 

Kawneer Manufacturing Co 

Architect 
plates. 



Niles, Mich. 
Portfolif) of Details. 17 full size construction 
34 X 44 inches. 



STUCCO 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st 
Street, New Vork. 
J-M Asbestos Stucco. Booklet. 3,'2 x 6 inches. 20 pages. 

THEATRE EQUIPMENT 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W., Madison Avenue and 41st 
Street, New Vork. 
J-M Theatre Necessities. Booklet. 3,'2 x 6 inches. 20pages. 

TREES 

Hicks Nursery, Westbury, Long Island, N. Y. 

Home Landscapes — Trees That Save Ten Years. 
10?^ inches. 80 pages. Illustrated. Price list. 



TH X 



Bulle- 






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VACUUM CLEANERS 

Western Electric Co., 463 West Street, New York. 
Western Electric Vacuum Cleaner. Specifications, 
tin. 8'4 X 11 inches. 62 pages. 

WALL BOARD 

Carey Co., The Philip. Lockland, Cincinjjati. 1 p 

Carey " Ceil-board " for Walls and Ceilings. Specifica- ^| 
tions. 8x11 inches. 2 pages. 



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Alphabetical Index of Advertisers on Page 8. 



35 



THE BRICKBVILDER 

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Tills LiiKitile Hour, ill the (lifectdT's' m 



if tlie (leniian Bank. Lutiisville, Ky., is ronipiiseil iif o" x (." white, 3" x 6" light sray and ^" x S' dark gray 
tile. I). X. Murphy & Hmthers, Architects. Louisville. Ky. 



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A Part of the Artistic Whole 

Heretofore, limited choice of flooring materials has forced the architect 
to make his floor, not a positive contribution to the spirit of his room, but 
a neutral unit, which, at best, detracts as little as possible from the artistic 
ensemble. Linotile reverses this condition. 

LINOTILE 

Keg. U. S. Pat. Oflf. 

The Floor that's Built to Fit the Room 



The variety of colors, shapes and sizes 
in which it is produced makes it possible to 
secure not only a durable Hoor, but one 
which will carry out the spirit of the room 
exactly as you have conceived it. 

Linotile is made of powdered cork, 
wood flour, linseed oil and various gums and 



pigments. It has no grain to splinter and be- 
come rough — no glazed surface to crack antl 
become discolored — no brittle composition 
to crumble under foot. It can be applied to 
any base — wood, concrete or metal. 

Specimen specifications and sainples of 
Linotile will be cheerfully sent on rc(]uest. 



Also makers 
pareil Cork board 
Isolation for dead 



Armstrong Cork & Insulation Company 

132 Twenty-Fourth Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

s of Nonpareil HiKh Pressure CoverinK for steam lines; Nonpareil InsiilaiiiiK lirick for boiler setlinKH. breerhinKS. etc.: Non 
d Insulation for refritjerated rooms ; Nonpareil Cork Covering for i-old pipe.s and drinkinK water sy.stem.t ; Nonpareil Cork Machinery 
adenine the noises and vibrations of motors, fans, pumps, etc., and Cork Paving Hrick for horse and cow stalls. 



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SELECTED LIST OF MANUFACTURERS' PUBLICATIONS— Con«nt/erf /^rom pa^e 54 \ 



WATERPROOFING 



W. 



Johns-Manville Co., H 

Street, New York. 
J-M Waterproofing and 
3 '2 x 6 inches. 8 pages. 
Sonneborn Sons, Inc., L., 262 Pearl Street, New York. 

" Cenicoat " lor Exterior Walls. Booklet. 8x11 inches. 



Madison Avenue and 41st 
Mastic Materials. Booklet. 



WATER SYSTEMS 



Co. 



132 Twenty-fourth 
treatise. 6x9 



Armstrong Cork & Insulation 

Street, Pittsburgh. 
Drinking Water Systems. Scientific 
inches. 48 jiages. 

WEATHER STRIPS 

Monarch Metal Weather Strip Co., 4121 Forest Park Boule- 
vard, St. Louis. 
Architects' Catalog. 5x7^ inches. 26 pages. 
Full Size Details. Booklet. 8,'^ xll inches. 16 pages. 

WINDOW SCREENS 

Watson Manufacturing Co., Jamestown, N. Y. 
Catalog. 8*2 xll inches. 40 pages. 



WOOD 

Arkansas Soft Pine Bureau, Bank of Commerce Building, 
Little Rock, Ark. 

Do You Prefer White Knamel ? Booklet. !>% x 6,'^ 
inches. 8 pages. 
North Carolina Pine Association, Norfolk, Va. 

Architects' Reference Book. Booklet. 8,'^ xll inches. 
10 ])ages. Color plates. 

The Wood Universal. Booklet. 5x9 inches. 24 pages. 
Color plates. 
Southern Cypress Manufacturers* Association, 1234 Hiber- 
nia Bank Building, New Orleans. 

Cypress Pocket Library. Covers all uses for cypress. 
41 units. 314^ X Sla inches. 
White Pine Bureau, 1130 Merchants Bank Building, St. Paul, 
Minn. 

Colonial Cottages. Architectural monograph. 8>2 x 11 
inches. 16 pages. 

Farm Houses of New Netherlands. Architectural mono- 
graph. 8>i x 11 inches. 16 pages. 

New England Colonial Houses. Architectural mono- 
graph. 8J4 x 11 inches. 16 pages. 

White Pine in Home Building. Booklet. 8x11 inches. 
36 pages. 



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INTERIORS of OLD HOUSES in SALEM and VICINITY 

A Collection of Beautiful .Architectural Illustrations 



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IN this book, which is just off the press, there is brought 
together a collection of illustrations of the best interiors 
in the stately old mansions of Salem and vicinity. They 
include fine eighteenth century stairways, mantels, wall 
paneling, doorways, and window treatments. 

There are twenty-five plates, 8^ x 11 inches, printed 
on one side only of heavy paper, accompanied by an 
introduction giving a brief survey of the architectural 



period and historical data concerning the houses illustrated. 
This book should be of inestimable value to the architect 
because it brings together for the first time in compact 
form material which is confined to interiors alone, and of 
a quality which is of the highest. 

Postpaid to any address in the United States or Canada 
upon receipt of price. 

Bound in heavy paper, $1.00. 



ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 



85 Water Street 



ARCHITECTURAL PUBLISHERS 



Boston, Mass. 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



37 



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A^sbs^^tededMdal 



IS 



made from high-grade, open-hearth steel, specially 
annealed, thoroughly cleaned and completely enveloped 
(all sides and all edges) with hot asphaltic compound, 
into which (while the asphalt is still hot) is embedded 
long-fiber asbestos felt (hardened and waterproofed). This forms a combination 
which possesses the lightness, rigidity and strength of steel and the longevity of 
asphalt and asbestos. It resists the action of gas and acid fumes, 
as well as affords complete protection against the extremes of 
weather. 




Illustrating 

the method 

oi making A P M 

[corrugated sheets 



Many of the important industrial and utility 
companies of the country have adopted A P M 
for roofing and siding on a wide variety of 
types of buildings. One of the largest rail- 
roads in the country has standardized on 
A P M for the enclosing of all buildings 
using sheet metal roofing or siding, except 
those of a most temporary character. Its 
durability and economy have been proven 
beyond doubt. Let us send you complete 
details and a sample showing how A P M is 
made. Ask for Bulletin 5510. 



Asbestos Protected Metal is made in various 
forms, such as rectangular and round corruga- 
tions, beaded and flat sheets. It can be fur- 
nished in several permanent colors and 
white. The under side makes an attractive 

ceiling, which requires no back plastering „ P"^'' *° V"/ ^^^T^ °^ Asbestos 

Protected Metal there was noth- 

or pamtmg. i^g available which made possible 

skeleton and incombustible steel 
construction without the necessity 
of continued re-painting and other 
maintenance expense. 



The service on industrial, mine 
and mill structures is particularly 
severe, especially where high-sul- 
phurous coals are used. Both the 
inner and outer walls of such 
buildings are continually covered 
with a fine dust, which, when sub- 
jected to the action of rain-water 
or the moisture of condensation, 
forms a mild, sulphuric-acid solu- 
tion, which destroys unprotected 
metal sheets, as well as any paint 
film. 




First Nalional 
Bank Buildin.2 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 










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^ Nearly twenty miles of Byers pipe and nipples were 
used for the heating and plumbing system of the William 
Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh's magnificent new hostelry. 

C| The William Penn adds but one name to the long list of million dollar Pitts- 
burgh structures equipped with Byers pipe. Unusual interest attaches to the 
installation only because of its magnitude and because the project was financed, 
designed and constructed in the Steel City, by Steel City men. 

^ It is significant that nowhere is the reputation of 



BYERS 



GENU I N E 

WROUGHT IRON 

FULL WEIGHT GUARANTEED 



PIPE 



higher than at home, in the steel city, 
and nowhere are iron and steel pro- 
ducts weighed with keener knowledge 
of processes and finer judgment of true 
values. 

All the Byers pipe used in theWilliam 
Penn was taken from our stock. It 
represents no special quality, made 
with special care, for this one installa- 
tion. Every length is just plain, every- 
day Byers pipe, of the same reliable, 
uniformly good quality as Byers have 
been making day in and day out for 
the past fifty years. 



Jealously watched by critical eyes, 
it is told that out of the thousands of 
lengths of Byers pipe delivered on the 
premises, a defective length was finally 
found — clogged up with spelter. 

We take pride in this record, but 
Byers men will take still more pride 
in this installation twenty-five years 
hence, as we now point with satisfac- 
tion to the service record of Byers 
installations made a generation ago. 

Specify Byers — its quality stands firm 
upon the men, the methods and the 
material that enter in its manufacture. 



Write us for free copy of Bulletin No. 26 containing useful 
pipe data for architects, engineers and contractors. 

A. M. BYERS COMPANY, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

ESTABLISHED 1864 
23 Sullivan Street, New York City 1 1 Sleeper Street, Boston, Masi. 720 Fulton Street, Chicago, 111 

Distributors in All Principal Cities 




^YERS NAME AHpp^EAR ON EVERyIlENGTH 

_* — 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



39 




A rchitects 
Janssen & Abptt 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Contradon 
Geo. ^ii9)ffel Company 

Pittshrgh, Pa. 



Heating 
F. E. Geisler^Co. 

Pittsburgh, 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 










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ir^ ^HfR4anucr 



Municipal 
Courts i 
Building 

St. Louis, Mo. 



Sherardized 

Inside 
and Outside 




L"!!-*- 



Isaac S.Taylor 

Architect 

M. B. Foster 
Elec. Co. 

Electrical Contractors 



Enameled 

Inside 
and Outside 



Sherardized Rigid Steel Conduit 

was used exclusively throughout the building shown above. Sherarduct not only pos- 
sesses the advantages of a superior zinc protective treatment of both exterior and interior 
surfaces, but every advantage of an enameled 
conduit as well. 
Write for samples and further information 

National Metal Molding S 



Metal Molding 

Sherarduct 

Flex tube and Flexsteel 

Economy 



Boston, New York. Chicaeo, Atlanta. Denver, San Francisco, 

S-12 




Electrical Conduits &■ Fittings 
1113 Fulton Building. PITTSBURGH PA. 



Outlet Boxes 

Locknuts and Bushings 

Fixture Studs 

Autoflex 



Los Angeles. Portland, Seattle, Buffalo, Detroit 



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Elevator Front 



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Made in Bronze 



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Hecla Iron Works 



Established 1876 



Constructors and Makers 

of Bronze and Iron 
Work for Buildings 



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Office 
18 North 1 I th Street 



Worlds 
North 1 0th to North 1 3th Streets 






Brooklyn, New York City, New York 



■i-ErKi"! — ,_r^ 



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Doors that Defy Fire and Time! 

Would you -specify wood doors, wood gratings and wood dampers 
I for stoves and furnaces ? 

Would a stove or furnace thus equipped be fireproof, safe or of 

any practical value ? 
Would you use any wood whatsoever in the construction of a 

stove or furnace ? 
Then why specify wood doors and trim for a building and then call 

that building "FIREPROOF "? 



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The interior trim of a fireproof building should be as fireproof as the walls, floors and ceilings, 
and of the best quality material obtainable. If this isn't done, then the building is not fireproof. 

THE DAHLSTROM PRODUCTS are quality products of proven superiority. They have 
stood the tests of the two greatest destructive forces known to mankind FIRE and TIME. 

Since the hollow metal fireproof door was originated and perfected by the Dahlstrom Metallic 
Door Company numerous firms have sprung up with imitations to commercialize the idea. 
Nothing of real value and merit has ever yet been produced that someone did not attempt to 
imitate it by substituting something cheaper and therefore inferior. 

Why specify or accept a substitute when eventually you will have to replace the inferior 
material with real and lasting fireproof trim, thus costing much more than you would have 
been compelled to pay for first-class material in the beginning? Demand quality products 
backed by the guarantee and established reputation of the manufacturer and thus avoid use- 
less expense and inconvenience. 

The original cost of THE DAHLSTROM PRODUCTS is the last and only cost — therefore 
the most economical product to use in the long run. Proof s for the asl(ing. 



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DAHLSTROM METALLIC DOOR COMPANY 

Executive Offices and Plant 

88 BLACKSTONE AVENUE 

New York Office, 130 East 15th Street 
Branches and Representatives in All Principal Cities 



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JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



2? '/, •^s^^^^^^^^^m^^^m^^s^^^m^s^^i^sss^sss^s^s^^^^^^^^^^^i % % 






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Modern 
Ionic. 
One of ten 
designs. 
All have 
entasis and 
stopped 
fl.il.-,. 



UNIDN 



METAL 
COLUMNS 

"The Ones That Last a Lifetime" 

Their strict adherence to 
classical design and the 
permanent nature of their 
construction make these 
cohinms universally avail- 
ahlc. 

You can specify them 
where stone would he too 
costly and Avhere wood 
<(diitnns could not be con- 
sidered because of tlie 
splitting, checking, rotting 
and warping that is certain 
to mar their appearance. 

The shafts are formed 



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Union Metal 
Columns have the 
indorsement of 
, prominent architects 

from open hearth steel everywhere. 

tijiht c*)ated with spelter Installation Look on 

and finished with metalastic 

primer to which paint may be applied with p $ 

assurance of permanent results. $ f 

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CANTON, O. a 

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The Union Metal Mfg. Co. 



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YOU 

WANT 
THESE 

Life-Size 
Samples 



I 




If you ever write, or expect to write, 
specifications for shingles, see that 
your office is supplied with these generous 
working samples of Hudson Shingles, both in red and 
in green. Your examination will tell you more about 
them than our talk. You can put them to your own 

tests, and the information you gain is sure to be to your advantage. 

Write for them now — use the coupon if it 
helps — and we'll send the samples as pic- 
tured by return parcel-post. Get the matter 
off your mind and the information into your 
office by writing now. 




ASPHALT READY ROOFING COMPANY 

Room 75, 9 Church Street, New York City 

Gentlemen : — Please send full-size working samples of red and 
green Hudson Shingles to 

(Name of Individual) 

C/o (Name or Firm)_ 



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(Street) 



_(City and State)- 



KNOBURN 

ARMOR CLAD DOORS 

FIREPROOF 




A CCEPTED Fire Insurance 
Authorities pronounce this 
FIRE DOOR not likely to be 
seriously injured by hard usage, 
as shown bv its ability to with- 
stand the Strength — Fire — and 
Fire-Stream tests established by 
ihe Fire LInderwriters. Details 
sent free to anv reader of The 
Brickbvilder. 



KNOBURN COMPANY 

359.365 Fourteenth Street, HOBOKEN, N. J. 
Danl. P. Gallagher, President 



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BRONZL Counter screen 

WAYNE COUNTY & HOME SAVINGS BANK 

DETROIT, MICH. 

DONALDSON be. MEIER, ARCHITECTS 



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HERE IS SHOWN A SECTION OF THE 
COUNTER SCREEN WHICH WE MADE FOR 
THE WAYNE COUNTY BANK IN DETROIT. 
IT IS A DISTINCIIVE PIECE OF WORK IN 
EVERY RESPECT, AND IS PART OF A LARGfi, 
CONTRACT WHICH INCLUDED THREE FLOORS 
OF COUNTER SCREEN, RAILINGS, CHECK 
DESKS, DOORS AND GRILLE GATES OF 
POLISHED STEEL AND BRONZE. 

IN SPEAKING OF THE WORK MR. 
DONALDSON SAID, "IT MEETS WITH OUR 
CORDIAL APPROVAL, BOTH ARTISTICALLY 
AND STRUCTURALLY." WE WOULD LIKE TO 
HAVE YOU, TOO. SPEAK SO OF OUR BRONZE. 
WILL YOU NOT CREATE THE OPPORTUNITY 
BY INVITING US TO FIGURE? 

ADDITIONAL WORK FOR THIS BUILDING 
WILL BE ILLUSTRATED IN THE NEAR FUTURE. 



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John • Polachek • Bronze • & • Iron Co. 

• DISTINCTIVE • METAL • WORK • 

480-494 HANCOCK ST. 577-591 BOULEVARD 

LONG ISLAND CITY, N.Y. 



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Specify 



Msffestic 

COAL CHUTE 

PROTECTS THE HOUSE AND LAWN 

It prevents the house, lawn, walks, flowers and shrubs from being littered up 
and ruined with coal dust and stray lumps. It minimizes depreciation on the 
home. When the chute is not in use for coal, a glass door serves as a window, 
giving splendid light to the basement. Locks from the inside and is abso- 
lutely burglar proof. 

It is extra durable, has a heavy steel body semi- 
steel door frame and boiler plate hopper. It will last as long as the building. Arrange for 
one on yournext building. It can be used m place of cellar wmdow 

We make the Majestic in all types for houses, hotels, store and ofhce buildmgs, apart- 
ments, etc. Specify the Majestic and recommend it to your clients. 

Underground Garbage Receiver 

THE ONLY SANITARY WAY TO KEEP GARBAGE 

It can be placed close to the kitchen door with only the top and cover exposed, where it 
is convenient but never unsightly. It is water tight - snow and frost proof- emits no foul 
odors, and keeps contents free from mice, dogs, cats t is always c osed, and the can easily 
lifts out for emptying. The dumping door opens with the foot. It closes itself. 
Architecls, write for Catalog of Majestic Specialties. See Sweet's Catalog 

THE MAJESTIC COMPANY 608 Erie St., Huntington, Ind. 



Pipelcs.i Warm Air Furnaces. Hose Heels, elc. 




44 



THE BRICKBVILDER 






85 SSSSSiSiSSSS^SiSiS^^ 

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Agent* in All Principal Cities 



DOQ&qpl 

New York Office, 42d Street Building 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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Ten 2:1 Gearless Traction Passenfjer Elevators 
Three Worm Gear Traction Passcnfjer Elevators 
Four Double Screw Drum Type Passenger Elevators 
One Drum Type Electric Freight Elevator 
One Direct Lift Hydraulic Sidewalk Elevator 
One Electric Dumbwaiter 



Every Inch an Otis 

Every part in every one of the various 
types of 

OTIS 

ELEVATORS 

is manufactured in Otis shops, by Otis 
hands and under Otis eyes. Isn't it an 
object to the architect to hold one 
company solely responsible for the prod- 
uct recommended— especially when the 
Company has proven its responsibility as 
has the Otis Elevator Company? 

OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY 

Eleventh Ave. and Twenty-sixth St., New York 

Offices in All Principal Cities of the World 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 






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SEDGWICK 

HAND-POWER 

DUMBWAITE 









A Brickbvilder Binder 



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\/OUR client, for whom you 
-*• have specified a dumbwaiter, 
pays for equipment but really buys 
service. Just how much service 
and what sort of service he'll get, 
depends upon your judgment as 
the architect specifying - ^ upon 
your discrimination as to the skill, 
experience and responsibility of 
the various dumbwaiter manu- 
facturers. 




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Oer 50,000 Sedgwick Hand- 
Power Dumbwaiter installations are 
giving entire satisfaction, which is a 
safe precedent for your guidance. 
Further, every Sedgwick outfit is 
guaranteed to give satisfaction, be- 
cause it is installed only after the 
Sedgwick Service Department, a 
corps of experts, has determined that 
the equipment ordered is exactly 
right for the conditions. 



Have you your copy of the booklet, 
" Dumbwaiters and Elevators in 
Modern Architectural Practice " ? 



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MANY of our subscribers desire 
to retain their copies of THE 
BRICKBVILDER in an attractive and 
durable form for reference. For their 
convenience vv^e have had made a 
most serviceable binder with stiff board 
backs covered with imitation leather 
with the title stamped in gold. 

The copies can be easily inserted or 
removed and no cutting or mutilation 
is necessary. They are held in place 
by narrow steel strips which hook over 
upright posts, made in sections so that 
the binder is equally serviceable for a 
few copies or for an entire volume. 
We offer them to THE BRICK- 
BVILDER subscribers at cost plus the 
shipment charges. 






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Sedgwick 
l\/( A CHINE Works 

I l)eTl:y St, New York 



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Szr\l prepaid to any address in the United States for $1 .50 

THE BRICKBVILDER 



85 Water Street 



Boston, Massachusetts 



,^ 'Ay/. 

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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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$115 



Price is F. O. B. 
York City, and 
not include can. 



New- 
does 



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^^**^.^ 







AREA FLOOR-, 



-BUILDING WAtL 




SCALE '^i"=l foot 

I'lan and elevation showingarrange- 

meiit of CJ ii. G Telescoi>ic Hoist 

Model A in area of usual size. 



ihir man, unaidt\i, lutt I'lijmm ftitirr 
ofnation of raising filled cans to side- 
walk and lowering empty cans to cellar. 



THE G & G Telescopic Hoist, Model A, raises a load 
of 500 lbs. at a speed of .^0 feet per minute. When 
not in use hoist telescopes and no part shows above street 
level. Operated from sidewalk — insuring fullest protec- 
tion for both public and operator aj^ainst injury due to 
open hatch. Every hoist subjected to thorough working 
test before shipment. 

SEND FOR BOOKLET " // " 

GILLIS & GEOGHEGAN 

544 WEST BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 






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Would you liberate 
a trapful of rats? 

And yet it is quite as unwise, in an 
up-to-date hospital, to carry germ- 
laden, soiled linen from wards and 
operating rooms to the laundry via 
the halls and elevator shaft, scatter- 
ing throughout the building germs 
once imprisoned. 

It should be thrust into the abso- 
lutely sterile shaft of a 

PFAUDLER 

GLASS ENAMELED STEEL 
LAUNDRY CHUTE 



The plate glass doors close tightly, 
and a cleansing shower of hot water 
from the Hushing ring at the top 
washes all escaping infection and 
foul deposits into the sewer. 

The Glass Enamel lining, fused into the 
steel shell, is rust-proof,- splinter-proof and 
sanitary. Extremes of temperature will 
not affect it. 

The Pfaudler Chute will last as long as the 
huilding, and costs nothing to operate or 
maintain. 

If you expect ever to design a hospital, 
send for ." Shrapnel," our new booklet. It 
will help you. 

THE PFAUDLER CO. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

ROCHESTER lactones DETROIT 

Branches 
NEW YORK SAN FRANCISCO CHICAGO 



28 '/' ^s^i^i^^s^s^^^s^s^mm^^^^s^smmmssmm^ss^^ms^^m^mmmmmmmm^s^^ V. % 

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The Diamond Door Hanger 



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NOISELESS 
WHEELLESS 
PINLESS 
DIRTLESS 

SIMPLEST 
STRONGEST 
SMALLEST 
BEST 

SECTION 
SHOWING 
STRENGTH AND 
SIMPLICITY OF 
DIAMOND HANGER 



Hang your elevator doors 
on DIAMOND Hangers and 
make a friend of your client. 

Send for new catalogue showing 
our full line. 



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and dropped directly to the laundry. H 



Grant Pulley and Hardware Company 

3 West 29th Street, New York 

Other Specialties — Grant Horizontal KollinR Partitions, Grant Ver- 
tical Coiling Doors. Grant Anti-friction Casement Window Fixtures, 
Grant Anti-friction Vertical Pivot Lift, (irant Anti-friction Drawer 
.>^lides. Perfect Casement Water Excluding Bar. Grant Overhead 
Sash Pulleys, " American " Pressed Steel Sash Pulleys. 



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SmSSSSSiSSiSSiii^^ 



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gives complete satisfaction where 
other prepared materials and 
even metal coverings fail. 

It is the simplest covering to lay: 
tacked only on the e<lges after 
spreading on the dry boards (no 
setting in wet paint). 

Does not shrink, expand, buckle or crumble. It 
stays flat. Never leaks and stands any amount of 
hardest wear. One coat of paint is sufficient for 
ordinary uses. 

Hundreds of letters from contractors all over 
the States prove BAYONNE'S superiority 

It'ritp for Sfimpte Book •• S " /tifinft prices and 
layirtfi instructitins. See Street's, page 339. 

JOHN BOYLE & COMPANY, Inc. 

112-114 Duane St. NEW YORK CITY 70-72 Reade St. 

Branch House : 202-204 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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CRITTALL 

Metal Casement Windows 



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WJ PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK, 
4J KING STREET WEST, TORONTO. 






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James SlewartCo. U.S. National BanK. F.A.henninger- 

■ Cont raclorS' Omaha Neb.' -Architect' 

^INteRNATlONAh G?5vSeMeMfS/ 

Jameslown N.Y.- Liverpool Eng.- 



In the Home 
Beautiful 

OUCH are the beautiful architec- 
^ tural effects possible with Crittall 
steel window casements. In modern 
office buildings and public structures 
of all kinds, as well as in palatial 
homes and modest bungalowsCrittall 
casements are specified — because they 
are weather tight — because they 
offer vastly more light, better ventila- 
tion, more convenience and perma- 
nency, in a word, sound scientific 
construction. 

They are designed to your specifi- 
cations. 

Send to Dept. E general description of your 
building and receive Crittall literature. 

Crittall Casement Window Co. 

Manufacturers of Solid Steel and Bronze Windows 

Detroit, Michigan 



Interior, l'/ii!if> H. McMil/tui 
Rcsiitincf, Dilroil, Mii/iiti<iii 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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What will a bath tub, a lavatory, a closet 
cost your client? 



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The Blue Book of Plumbing 



» 



Send for this 
new one 



really answers those ques- 
tions by stating the price 
the consumer will have to 
pay. 

Such information is of 
inestimable value to the 
Architect who is at sea 
because of misleading list 
prices published in other 
plumbing catalogues. 




The Trenton Potteries Company, Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

World's Largest Manufacturers of fine quality Sanitary Pottery Plumbing 



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At the "Bottom" of 

Good Service 

It's a paradox that Reliance Ball Bearing Door 
Hangers are at the " bottom " of good service be- 
cause they provide " top-notch " efficiency as related 
to economical building management. 

Installation, up-keep, repairs, 'etc., are all minimized 
as the direct result of the simple principle of their 
operation and the high grade materials used in their 
construction. 

Reliance Bail-Bearing Door Hangers 

are made in varying types and sizes. They insure 
fast, frictionless service under all conditions irre- 
spective of the weight or type of door. 



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RELIANCE BALL BEARING 
DOOR HANGER COMPANY 

30 EAST 42d STREET NEW YORK 



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The natural strength of quarter- 
sawed wood reinforced by steel 
bolts, nuts and washers in the joints 
of the 

'NEVER SPLIT 

Closet Seat 

is the construction principle which has made 

the seat a standard for specifications. 

We assume all responsibility for the durability 

and appearance of the seat by our FIVE' 

YEAR guarantee. 

Will you accept a construction model ? 



>NSVI 



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The best concrete floor of today is not the best concrete floor of yesterday, 
and so there are some very vital things now worth remembering when you are 
writing your concrete floor specifications. These are offered, out of our 
years of practical and laboratory experience. 



1. A Hardner is essential — 
essential because it acts as a 
filler and prevents pores in the 
cement. 

2. Only a metallic Hardner 
can do this sealing perma- 
nently. Liquid 
preparations — 
whether used 
when a floor is 
laid or afterwards 
— may relieve, 
but can never cure a crum- 
bling, dusting, scaling con- 
crete floor. 

3. The time to make a con- 
crete floor dustproof, water- 
proof and wearproof is when 
it IS laid, and then with Master 
Builders Concrete Hardner by 
Master Builders Method. 

4. Unless a Hardner will ab- 



sorb water it will wa^c trouble best results and comparative 
instead oi preventing it. Why? failure in a hardened concrete 



Because if the Hardner 
"fights" the water it must be 
forced in, with the outcome 
that time and labor are lost 



'V( Vqfe'Mto)>' 




Makes Wearproof, Dustproof and Waterproof Concrete Floors 
I'aleiitrJ in Uniteil St.itcs anil Forri.jn Cnnntnrs 



and the results are scaling, 
granulating floors. Master 
Builders Hardner absorbs 
water perfectly, so that the 
filling, binding and bonding 
process is uniform and no time 
or labor is wasted; no scaling 
possible. 

5. Results are too important 
to ever be a gambling propo- 
sition. The point between the 



floor is the quality of the Hard- 
ner. Even an ounce of impur- 
ity in one hundred pounds of 
Hardner will ruin fourhundred 
square feet. Mas- 
ter Builders Con- 
crete Hardner 
receives a chem- 
ical treatment 
that drives out 
all impurities. 
6. Master Builders Concrete 
Hardner is standard construc- 
tion practice with leading 
Architects, Engineers and 
Contractors both in this 
country and abroad. Fifty 
million square feet of floors 
and eighteen thousand users 
testify to its remarkable per- 
formance. 



Whether or not you agree with us in all of these conclusions, 
you will want to be fully informed for your own protection-- 

So, for the concrete floor work you have under way now, are planning for the near f ut ure, or have 
already specified — write us for further information on concrete floors that are really dustproof, 
waterproof and wearproof and have all of their cost in their first cost. We'll put you down then, 
too, for a copy of the new Master Builders Primer (now under preparation) which 
is a real working manual of concrete floor construction with standard specifications. 

THE MASTER BUILDERS COMPANY 

Makers of Master Buildet-s Concrete Hardner 

Master Builders Red Concrete Hardner 

Master Builders Black Concrete Hardner 

Roadyle— Concrete Hardner for Concrete Roads 

Saniseal Liquid Concrete Hardner 




MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS: 



CLEVELAND, OHIO 



Reg. U. S. Patent Office 



Branches In all important cities 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 






Install Fire-Resisting Windows 

Have you taken every precaution to make your buildings fireproof ? 
The Reliance Gauge Column Co., Cleveland, played safe on the window 
question and when the old, wooden, oil-soaked_^factory just across the narrow 
alley burned. 



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DETROIT STEEL 
PRODUCTS CO. 

Dept. A- 17, Detroit, Mich. 




warded off the flames, although they were so hot they scaled the brick and 
concrete as shown in the 
big photograph at the right. 

"So intense was the heat," 
writes General Manager Rob- 
erts, "that the brick walls 
recniired refacing;, but the inside 
of the building was not injured, 
owing to the high resisting 
qualities of Fenestra Steel 
Sash." 

Make the buildings you design 
fireproof. Stamlard I'enestra 
Windows will gi\e fire protec- 
tion and lower insurance rates. 
Their cost is approximately the 
same as wood sash. 

Specify Fenestra and be safe. 
VVrite for list of standard sizes. 



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Fenestrated Factory of The Reliance Gauge Column Co., 
Cleveland. Ohio. C. N. Griffin Co.. Contractors 
Tlir small photo abcve tihows the complete destruction of the wooden 
factory closely adjoining the Fenestrated Reliance iiauge Column Ci».'> 
buihlini:. Note in phoio at riglit lu)W the brick and concrete w 
scaled by the intense heat. 






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D»i,;lit Uiiildinj:. Kaiisun (:il>. Mo 
. .Smith & Hi>a, .Xriliin-clB 
llui'kc & .Sexton. Builders 



Brokers Office gi « anliuiiir (:<iiii|j.i 
Kansas City. Mo. 
Jotm %". MrKeckiiie, Architect 



I.eathcr 'rradcs lluildinp. St. I.oiii 
A. B. Crovea, Architect 
nlhcrlanil Unihling <!( Construction (^> 




These three great commercial structures are each protected by Carey Flexible Cement Roofing, and are representative of the type of 
the many others roofed with ("arey Roofing in all parts of the United States. Architects and owners specify Carey Roofing for every type 
of strncture. Whether the roof surface he flat or steep — Carey Roofing solves the problem eflicicntly and economically. 

Our SpcciHcotion Booklet i. inKndcd to H.-ist archilccln. Mailed u|>ou rc<|ue.|. 

The Philip Carey Company 




GENERAL OFFICES: LOCKLAND. CINCINNATI. OHIO. 




50 BRANCHES 






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Waterproof 
Brick Veneer Walls 

It is of vital importance to use a good quality waterproof 
sheathing paper under brick veneer and stucco. A 
thin, ' cheap " paper cannot withstand the alkali in the 
cement or stucco and soon disintegrates, thus affording 
no protection against moisture. For absolute protec- 
tion and permanency specify 









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Brick Veneer- 

Hydrex-NOVENTa 

WaferprooT 
ShGdfh/n^ Paper 

Hydrex-SANIFLOR 

Sound De<3'^eninq fe/f 

"Sir *■" ' 



F. N. Doubleday Residence. Oy.ster Bay, 
N. Y. Hydrex-NOVKNTO used under 
brick veneer and slate roofinK. Kirby 
& Petit, Architects, New York. 







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4-PLV 

HYDREX . 

^gterproofing Felt f 

and Compound J 


- < < •' ° 








y.'-.'-}t 


.0':^- 















It is a sturdy, extra-heavy, felt-paper, waterproofed through and through, then coated Hike 
enamel leather) on both sides with a weather-, water- and alkali-proof compound, and then 
finished with puh>en%ed soapstone on the weather side. It contains no tar or acids to corrode 
metal lath, nails in slate, etc. Costs but a few dollars more for the average house than tar 
paper or a dry absorbent paper. 

THE HYDREX FELT & ENGINEERING CO. 



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Peoples Gas Bidg. K.c. Life Bids, 120 Liberty St., Ncw Yofk i^^"'^ 



Chicago 



Kansas City, Mo. 



Also Makers of Hydrex-SANIFLOR Sound- Deadenins Felt. HYDRF.X Waterproofing Felt. 
HYDREX Preservative PAINT, HYDRF.X Waterproof Canvas, etc. 



Francisco 

HYDRF.X 



Factories : 
Rahway, N. J. 



Com pound. 



These Micro Photographs Prove that Lapidolith Makes Concrete Floors 
Hard, Dustproof, Wearproof and Waterproof 

Note the difference in the grain of the concrete in these micro photographs. See how Lapidolith fills the voids, the 

black spots in No. 1. 



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Lapidolith is a liquid colorless chemical. It is flushed on new or old finished floors and seeps into the concrete. 
Lapidolith is as necessary to concrete floors as paint is to a house. It hardens the concrete floors to such an extent 
that the friction of sweeping, walking and trucking does not cause dust and disintegration. 

Lapidolith is the original chemical hardener and the only one which has been used for years. 

A sample flask, Lapidolized block and booklet of testimonials, advice and details, free on request. IVr'ite miv. 

L. SONNEBORN SONS, Inc., Dept. 4, 262 Pearl Street, New York City 









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THE BRICKBVILDER 









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600 OPENINGS SEALED WITH 

MONARCH METAL ^A^EATHER STRIPS 

This installation includes every window in the building. It is the result of a thorough appre- 
ciation of what constitutes weather strip eftioiency. 

The adaptability of MONARCH Metal Weather Strips to openings of any nature places no 
limitation on design or treatment of windows. Their power of self-adjustment to any displace- 
ment due to shrinkage or warping in sash or frame insures continuous contact. The excellence of 
the material guarantees their durability. 

All installations made under supervision of the manufacturers. 



SECTION THROUGH CASEMENT WINDO^VS 






HEAD ami SI UK 
— The wide tlaiiKe 
inol i n ed to an 
angle to the run- 
way forms a Ruide 
for hook member 
on sash to slide 
over, thereby brinsing the hook into 
position to receive the hook on the 
sash. 

Heprexntalives eoerywhere. 




SILL — The heavy 
brass channel prevents 
injrress of water. The 
point of lontait is 
where the hook of the 
sash strip enKages 
hook on channel. 
Water is conveyed down the trouKh 
and escapes through weep holes. 

Write for catalog and full-sized details, also namt 
who can demonstrate the Monarch principle 




.MEICTlNt; KAIL 
— Strip at sides 
and meeting rail 
having lines of 
contact outsi<ie 
line of contact.,'at 
bo 1 1 o m of sash 

carry water into trough or ontsitle 

it. 

and address of nearest licensee. 





MONARCH METAL WEATHER STRIP CO. 



4125 Forest Park Boulevard 

Buildings Equipped with 

MONARCH METAL WEATHER STRIPS 

Hotel Jellerson, St. Louis, Mo. 

Montana State Capitol. Helena. Mont. 

Peter Faneuil S<Miool. Koston. Mass. 

Louisville Free Public- Library (I'orlland Hranch). 

Louisville. Ky. 
(iermania Life Building. St. Paul. .Minn. 
The Mluckstone Apartments. Detroit. Mic-h. 
St- Louis Children's Hospital. St. Louis. Mo. 
Madison & Kedzie State Bank. Chicago. 111. 
Peerless Motor Car Co.. Boston. Ma.ss. 
Horlicks Malted .Milk Co.. Racine. Wis. 




St. Louis, Mo. 



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H ill III III III III III III III III III III 

til III III III III III III lit III III III ,1, „| 



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I>, ,V 11. Diri.c Huildiug. Albany. N. Y. 



Kciuipped by \Vm. L. Fitts Co.. 128 Askay Building. Albany. N.Y. 



Marcus J. Re.\nolds. .Vrchitect 



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ENUS 

PENCILS 

Every technical man knows the importance of the 

right pencil. 

"VENUS" Pencils 17 degrees, 6B softest to 

9H hardest, are perfect in every degree and are the 

best for all work of an exacting nature. Try Venus 

and learn why they are preferred. 

Distinctive Venus finish to prevent substitution. 



i' 



J^laA "^CThisBoxof pppp 



^•^^>-n VENUS PENCILS 




To the technical man writ- 
ing on his letterhead a set of 
nine short samples and 
holder will be sent FREE. 






The New Venus Eraser is irtJispensable for all pencil purposes - 

unequaled for cleaning draivings, engravings and specificalions. 

Pliable and soft. Write 

American Lead Pencil Co. 

218 Fifth Avenue, New York 

and Clapton, London. Eng. 





HE MISTAKE 

OF STOPPING 
TREE PLANTING 
BECAUSE OF AN 
INCH OR SO OF 
FROST 



WHAT does the breaking through an inch or so 
of frost amount to, in comparison with the secur- 
ing of the thorough estabHshment of your ever- 
green trees" roots, so that they can have full advantage of 
the early Spring growth, which is so vital to the root devel- 
opment and strength, and amount of the season's top 
growth ? 

Just now, when the trees are bare and everything is in 
its exposed rawness, you fully appreciate the urgent need 
of evergreens to add beauty and cheer to the landscape ; 
or to hide an unsightly outlook or the annoyingly curious 
passersby. 

We have five different varieties of evergreens in 4 feet 
heights that we are offering at attractive prices. 

White Spruce, for example, at $1.73 each, or Koster 
Blue Spruce for $5.00 - fine specimen trees, just the kind 
you like to buy and use. 

If you want trees 30 feet high, we have them. 

Every tree you buy of us is guaranteed to grow| 
satisfactorily or it is cheerfully replaced. 



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fficks jre^ 

Hicks Nursery 

"Wostburu . Lonj{ Island 






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Bay State 




BAY STATE 




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Concrete and stucco walls can be weatherproofed and 
beautified with one or two coats of 

Brick and 
Cement 



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This coating fills the pores of the cement and dries as part of the 
material, hence it lasts as long as the wall itself It is absolutely 
waterproof, which prevents dampness end hair-cracking. Bay 
State Coating enables artistic finishes, in white or tints. 

Bay State Coating is a superior inside finish, too. 

Cement men ought to know all about Bay State Coating — how it popularizes 
cement for building purposes. Booklet No, 10 free. If you request it, we'll 
send you sample can of Bay State Coating and color card. 

WADSWORTH, HOWLAND & COMPANY, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Paint and Varnish Makers New York Office : Architects' Building 



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Ai'chilects 



ktS,d,Hi. i>t M. 

J.B.Hutchin^:^ 



Helkmip. T.nnis^'iUe. Ky. 



"" Son Be} i^cr s Metal I.ttuiber used ih}iinsihiiiit 

One of Hundreds — 
Another Berger's Metal Lumber Installation 

WHY is Berger's Metal I^umber, instead of wood lumber, used 
extensively iu building operations everywhere? The rea- 
sons are apparent. 

Berger's Metal Lumber is stronger and more durable and offi- 
cially proven to be fire proof and indestructible. It is also sound 
proof, damp proof, and vermin and rodent proof. Not affected 
by climatic changes, S(j can be installed just as well in winter as 
in summer. 

We cut and number each unit to fit your plans — you put them 
together on the job, thus making erection easy and saving con- 
siderable money in time and labor. 

Use Berger's Metal Lumber for safety, economy, permanence, and satisfaction 
.S, ,1,1 f, II- Calalog I.. />'. /.■ 






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Patenteil 

The Berger Manufacturing Co. - - Canton, Ohio 

BRANCHKS: Boston. New York. Philadelphia, Chicago. Si. Louis, MinncapoliB. 
San Francisco. Export Dep't : Bereer Bldf., New York City. U. S. A. 



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Arnold n 



A RCHITECTS will be interested to learn that this be.iutidil structure 
was made (»f concrete, to which was added 

TOXEMENT 



' integral walerprootinp 
increte. Htucco, cpnient. 



nd for 



olr 



'rovcmciit ' Patented) is either adiied at ilic mixer In the form of powder 
or it may be mi.Ked with tlie cemctit as a paste. It lubricates the ma^s and 
insures concrete that is water tiKht. Completely overcomes the porous 
nature of concrete. Neither hastens nor retards the setting action. 
Please ad.lress [)<-i)t. V fnr bonklrt 

TOCH BROTHERS. Est. 1848 



„„,; \Un„f.„ 
re I'lnnls. \ , 



■11. I. H. 
.,; /,n<ime 



320 Fifth Avenue. New York City 

fj'orfts : I\ew Y'ork. London and Tii< 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 










Western Electric 
Inter-Phones 



Ph<ljidclphij 

BtiSlun 

Piuiburjlh 




are installed in this modern and well-equipped hi(;h 
school buildine to facilitate the work of the execu- 
tive and teachiny staff. 

These intercommunicatina telephones — by keeping 
the principal in constant touch wiih every part of 
the school -increase the ctficiency of his supervision 
and eliminate time-wastinK trips between class 
rooms and office. 

Specify Inter-phones the next time you plan a 
school building — they will be invaluable. 

Write Dept 20I-AF. for further details 

Western Electric Company 



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Kjn(j»C,iy 


Sjfi Fraoeiiv- ■ 


Omahj 


(>:)kl3nd 


OlilahomaC.t, 


Loi AnielM 


M-nnrapoIi* 


Senile 


Si Paut 


Penland 


DalU* DcRvr 


r Sail Lake City 



H i d K School 
Rockiord, lliinois. 



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TRADE 




HARK 



Maliona] Electrical Code Standard 



Long Life and Essential Electrical Qualities 
are combined in our product. 



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Size 


Underwriters 


Simcore 


Voltage 


Voltage 


B. & S. Gage 


Requirements 


Tests 


14 to 8 inc. 


1500 


2000 


6 to 2 " 


2000 


3000 


1 to W 


2500 


5000 


225,000 to 500,000 


.3000 


6000 


525.000 an.1 larper. 


3500 


7000 



One minute test on rach completed length. 

These tests not only insure superior quality, 
but are a measure of that quality. 






MANLTACTURERS 
20I DEVONSHIRE ST. BOSTON 

CHICAGO SAN FRA.MCI6CO 




L C C O 

Insulated Wire 



is marked "ECCO" 
every three feet for 
positive identification. 
ECCO advertising is 
putting the real issues 
before the owner: good 
safe wire and careful in- 
stallation — on a quality 
basis, not on price. 

Electric Cable Co 

17 Battery Place New York City 



^*'m^^vmm»,.^^^^^Mnm.^.^^^- JJMII L.JII.IULILIJ l...li.yilih.liy 



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THEY CAN 
SWITCH 

ON THE 



Not a new bulb — 

but a 
Lighting Fixture 




OCCUPANTS of these Brascolited buildings are independent 
of the sun for their supply of " daylight. " When the natural 
daylight fades or disappears, instead of subjecting their eyes 
to the strain imposed by dim light or bare glaring lamps, they just 
switch on the soft, white, eye-comforting light of the 




Not just a fixture 

— a new principle 

in Lighting 



It produces a light that is so uniform, so broadly distributed and so 
mellow and glareless that it feels to the eye like the light of day. 

Owners and occupants of Brascolited buildings, in every city in the Union, 
tell us that they have noted greater working efficiency, better merchandise 
display, decreased current consumption, less maintenance cost ; and, in fact, 
they have realized all that is to be desired from a lighting system since they 
installed Brascolites. 

The Brascolite Cannot Be Dupticated — 
Hence It Cannot Be Successfully Imitated 

Do not be deceived by a general similarity in appearance, deviation 
in constructional principle must and does upset the efficiency of the 
imitation. So, be sure, look for the mark of the original, the word 
Brascolite stamped on the inner surface of the metal of the flat 
reflecting plane and on the edge of the bowl. 

Write Us for Book 

on BRASCOLITES, explaining the principle and illustrating many handsome 
designs for office, store, factory, theatre, club, church, hotel, restaurant, home, etc. 

LUMINOUS UNIT CO., ST. LOUIS, U. S. A. 



^ 



New York— 253 Broadway, Suite 608-9 
Boston — 233 Old South Bldg. 



Chicago — 19 S. Fifth Ave. 
San Francisco - 883 Market St. 



I'hilaJelphia — 1II21 Land Title Uldu. 
Los Angeles— 1621 S. Grand Ave. 



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^ SSSS8SSSiSSSS«»S$S«S«5S!iS»S«S«^^ ^ ^ i«S5S«i&Si$«S!*SiSSSSS*««SS*«»*«^^ «» « 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



59 



- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^= ^ ^ --^ — — -^^ 









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ANNOUNCEMENT 



THE agreement under which the 
Holophane Works of General 
Electric Company has had the ex- 
clusive right of manufacture and sale 
of Holophane prismatic glass in the 
United States, expired on December 
31st, 1915. This made it necessary 
for the General Electric Company 
to discontinue the use of the name 
Holophane in the title of its selling 
organization which has handled this 
glassware. 

d. Therefore, on January 1st, 1916, 
the title Holophane Works of 
General Electric Company was 
replaced by that of Ivanhoe-Regent 
Works of General Electric Company. 

dLAll orders for Regent glass and 
Ivanhoe metal reflectors will be 
handled at Cleveland, Ohio, by the 
same organization as before; and this 
organization will also ofTer for sale 
the Holophane prismatic line of 
glassware. 

CUThe owners of the Holophane 
letters patent have established an 
oflice in New York City, but their 
organization should not be confused 
with the Ivanhoe-Regent Works. 

(HThe Ivanhoe-Regent Works re- 
spectfully solicits a continuation of 
your patronage on Holophane pris- 
matic glass, as well as on the newer 
lines of Regent ornamental glass 
and Ivanhoe metal reflectors. 

Ivanhoe - Regent Works 

of GeJieml E/ectric Compel ny 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

New York Boston Philadelphia Chicago St. Louis 



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Re^ont 



Illuminating 
Glassware 

This graceful Renaissance 
bowl is a Regent pattern, espe- 
cially appropriate for residence 
lighting. The acanthus scroll 
design is lightly etched on 
Veluria glass of a soft, velvety 
whiteness, which, when lighted, 
glows over its entire surface w ith 
a mellow, rosy "fire." 

Regent Illuminating Ware is 
produced in many shapes and 
sizes, in pressed and blown glass 
of several textures; it is etched 
and cut and colored, sand blasted 
and polished, and the range of 
decorations used is very wide. 

We shall be happy to send jou the 
new Regent catalog of standard designs, 
to submit special designs upon request, 
or to make up glassware after your own 
ideas. 

IVANHOE-REGENT WORKS 

of General Electric Company 
2 Ivanhoe Road, Cleveland, Ohio 

Successor io HOLOPHANE WORKS 

of General Electric Company 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 









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Otrinnd StpC u 



Luxfer 



is known to Architects for its 
Ddylightin^ Service, not for the 
claims made for it, although a 
Luxfer promise is a Luxfer guar- 
antee to give Daylight ing Ser- 
vice that is predetermined for it. 

In Offico Buildings, Dejiartment Stores, 
and all kinds of public buildings, and 
even private residences where Daylight 
is desired, Luxfer is invaluable. 

Luxfer Prism Transoms, Skylights, Cano- 
pies, Floor Lights, Ceiling and Roof 
Lights, Vault Lights, Reinforced Con- 
crete Sidewalks, Luxfer Ready-to-set 
Sidewalk Slabs and Crystolux Anti-slip 
Sidewalks are among Luxfer Products 
which are Daylighting buildings in every 
capacity. 

When specifying Luxfer Daylighting In- 
stallations, be sure to insist on their installa- 
tion, as there is nothing just as good as Luxfer. 

Aside from its remarkai)lo Daylighting 
(pialities, Luxfer costs no more than cheap 
sultstitutes. Let our Daylighting experts co- 
operate with you on your Daylighting needs, 
and you are sure to satisfy your client, the 
tenant and yourself. Write. 

Luxfer 

" Delivers the Daylight " 
AMERICAN Luxfer Prism company 



Chicago — Heyworlh Bldg. 
Boston — 49 Federal Slrcel 
Cleveland — 419-20 Cilizen«' Bldg. 
Detroit — Builder,' Exchange 
Duluth — 310 W. Michigan Street 
Kanui City — 909-10 N. Y. Life Bldg. 
Milwaukee — 1717 Wright Street 

St. Paul — 355 U 



New York — 507 W. Broadway 
New Orleana- 904 Hennen Bldg. 
Philadelphia — 411 Walnut Street 
Rochester — 38 Exchange Street 
Dallas — Builders* Exchaege 
San Francisco — 12U2 Hearst Blilg. 
Los Angeles — 1835 S. Main Street 
ty Ave. 



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THE 



Eye Comfort System 
of Indirect Lighting 

(With X-Ray Reflectors) 
Indirect lighting is being adopted by 

the largest business concerns in the country. Not- 
withstandinjj the depressed conditions of the past 
year the E\e Comfort S.\stem has been installed 
by such representative firms and institutions as 
those named below : 

Texas Company, Houston, Tex.: University Hospital, 
AuKusta. Ga.; L. S. Avers Store, Indianapolis. Ind.: 
Lincoln Hi^h School. Lincoln, Neb.; Continental and 
Commercial Bank MIdK , Chicauo; Union Slaticm Kan- 
sas City, Mo.; C. & E. I. K. R. Office, Chicatjo; Kellogg 
Toasted Corn Flake Co.. Battle Creek, IViich ; Dela- 
ware & Hudson K. R. Co., Albany, N. Y.; Rochester 
Convention Hall, Rochester, N. Y.; Law Courts Bldg., 
Winnipeg, Man; Congressional Library. Washington, 
D. C ; Y. M. C. A., Canton, O.; Miller & Pain. Depart- 
ment Store, Lincoln, Neb.; U. S. Nat'l Bank, Omaha, 
Neb.; Noithweslern Mutual Life, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Our Engineering Department furnishes free advice and 
co-operation in making installations. Send blue prints 
or ground floor plan. 

Lighting specifications are standardized by our Archi- 
tects' Portfolio, which is sent free to architects and 
engineers. To others the price is $5 a copy. 

But by all means write for this new book on 

Office and Bank Lighting today. Its free 

and decidedly worth having. 

National X-Ray Reflector Co. 



Display 
Rooms 



243 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago 
West Forty-Sixtm Streft, Nrvv York 



(243 
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The Things That Serve 

Best — Regardless 

of First Cost 

The equipment of a building, the heating plant for 
instance, often tests the wisdom of the architect quite 
as much as does the structure itself. 

To what extent first cost will be justified is always a 
question. 

The boiler is the heart of the heating system — 

Heating engineers, cooperating with architects to select 
a boiler for dependable service, adequate capacity, and 
economy of operation, like to see in the specifications the 

Mills Water 

Tube Boiler 



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because the fire surface is properly formed and located 
for quick, economical heating; the grate area is prop- 
erly proportioned to the Hre-surfacc, and the drum-and- 
screw-nipple construction contributes to flexibility in 
selection of heating unit and eliminates the erection 
man's troubles. There are no interior push nipples. 

No other boiler has a grate of superior design. The 
air spaces admit plenty of air, and but slight movement 
is necessary to grind up the clinker. 

Neither the architect nor the owner has been forgotten 
in the design of this boiler. 

Aik for Catalogue No. 990 

24, M and 44 Mills Boilers 

Tested to 125 lbs. Hydrostatic Pressure 

A. .•<. .M. K. Standard 

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure — Steam 15 lbs.- 

W^ater 50 lbs. 

48 Mills Boilers 

Tested to 20(i lbs. Hvdrostatic Pressure 

A. S. M. E. Standard 

Maximum Allowable Wnrkinn Pressure — Steam 15 lbs. 

Water so lbs. 

The H. B. Smith Co. 



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Durability 

of the Gorton Self -Feeding 
Boiler is demonstrated by 
the fact that many of the 
boilers installed over 25 
years ago are still in use 
giving entire satisfaction. 

Efficiency 

The Gorton Self-Feeding 
Boilers are built on the 
lines of Power Boilers, using 
the same material, thus se- 
curing the greatest Strength, 
Durability, and highest 
Efficiency. 



The Gorton Self-Feeding Boiler gives a steady heat with 
attention only morning and night ; its construction insures 
complete combustion of the gases and prevents the waste 
of coal. 

Seepages 2, 3. 4, 6. 8. 10, II. and 13 of Catalog No. 88. 

OUR NEW NO. 68 CATALOG IS READY - WILL BE SENT UPON REQUEST 

Gorton & Lidgerwood Co. 

96 Liberty Street, New York 

All Gorton Self-Feeding Boilers built to the 
"A. S.M.E. Standard" 




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.'/ .l/;//,s. .1/,,,,-,. Mrvln. H. H: lollaKf 

and iiold Bnileys for Steam and li'atft- Wayminn : Ptincfss. 
Impftial. SnveifiRn. Aerial. Cnid Pin and .School Pin 
Radialors. " Bre< Icent id^f ' .\nti>)natit .1/r I'alirs, etc. 

56-411 

WESTFIELD, MASS. 

NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA BOSTON 

39 Eaat Houston St. 1225 Arch St. 138 W«ahin<ton St.. North 



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"WATCH YOUR LINE" 

December January February 

Are the months to test the insulation on your Un- 
derground Steam and Hot Water Pipes. 

Read what the President of a large Brewery sa\)S : 

" This pipe is laid three feet under the surface, and 
with the old method of protection gave us a great 
deal of trouble in winter time by thawing the snow 
above it even in the coldest of weather, thereby always 
destroying the sleigh road in our busy brewery yard, on which 
sleighing we have to depend generally for about three months 
of the year. 

"The application of the Ric-wiL Covering has completely done 
away with the trouble, so that now no signs in the snow are dis- 
covered to even tell us where the pipe is located." 

If you specify " Ric-wiL MethoD," you will have No Trouble, 
No Loss, and complete Satisfaction for years to come. 

The Ric-wiL Underground Pipe Covering Co. 

666 NEW ENGLAND BLDG. CLEVELAND, O. 



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KeUey Generator. Install 'IWO Nc !0 KrKry Warm Air Cencralors. 
scries "A." double cleanuuls. complete uilli sc|iiare metal casiiii; lined 
with asbestos sheathini; and britlit tin. Heater guaranteed dust and nas 
tieht and tested in presence of owner and architect. Cienerators to contain 
an aKcrcirate of 422 sq. ft. of healini; surface and 10 sq. ft. of Er.ite 
surface, and weigh 6S00 lbs. 

Pipini. Necessary recislers. warm air pipes, smoke pipes and con- 
nections for heatine the followins rooms: 

FlKsr ri.ooH : Livine room, dining room. hall, library, senants' 
room, porcli. kitchen. Second Floor: Six Chamherj and three 
bath-rooms. 
%}% Warm Air DncU. Install warm air pipe, usini: l.\ brieht tin. curves 






of Idiij: ra(fiu>. rliiir(nii.'lilv snUlrrcd, siipporieil ami prdiidrd with ilaiiipiTN 
at hi'nter ami in all hranc-hcs. All pipr rovercd with heavy ashrstos paper. 

Registers. Standard matitifacture and of iinish to match the drcornti<>n<> 
of the sr\eral rnoms. 

Gaards. (Jaivani/.ed wire ^ards {%" mcsb) in all floor rccistcr boxes. 

Smoke Pipe, (ienuiiic ealvanizrd iron No. 24 l'sui:*" — same size as 
^tni.kc outlets oti heaters, provided with check datiipers near healers, 

ParlitioD Pipes. Transition pieces at bottom. IX bricbt tin: all joinlv 
voldere.I and c()\errd with \(^ lb. asbestos sheathinc. with all adjaceiii 
woodwork protreied bv metal strips. 

Woodwork ProlectioD* Provide metal and a'ibestos covcrini: f<»r all 
woodwork williin 4 iikIh-- of smoke pipe and baNemrnt pipes. 

Mason nod Carpenter Work. Materials fitr pit and foundation for 
heater; labor, truludin;: cviltini; for all beat pipes and smoke pipe, tube 
done by ow ii.r. 

(^peratinR Direction*. Attach to wall near heater. 

Trench Plates, t'lose air sp.u-c between inside and outside casincs by 
platini; shert metal trrtub plates on line of lower deck. 

Metal Tags. Attach to each damper lo indicate rotmi served. 

Air Filters. Place air filters in fresh air room in basement. 

Humidifier. Install in tbr beat chamber of each generator one Nn. 2 
KcUev Automatic Humidifier. 

Regulator. Install automatic temperature control with clock allach- 
ment. 

Guarantee. Maintain 70 decrees Kah. in all livine room* and bath- 
rooms and 6K decrees in all ebambers without exccwivc firtiic of beater 
in coldest weather. 



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Widener Building. Philadelphia. Pa. 



Heated with 



United States Radiators 





EE E5 f"^ 

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EF ES 5S 

EC EE Eg 
Eg EE 
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Horace Trumbauer. Arcmieci Baner. bnniii Ac Co.. Heating Contractors 

Philadelphia NewVork 



UNITED STATES RADIATORS, assembled with malleable 
cast iron push nipples, were installed in this recent 
addition to Philadelphia's modern office buildings 

United jStates Radlxtor (orporation 

GENERAL OFFICES: DETROIT. MICHIGAN 



BRANCH OFFICES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 



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Better Valves 

Detroit Packless Radiator Valves were designed 
to meet the demand for better valves. 

They have proved to be better in ever> way — they are abso- 
lutely tight and will stay tight they do not leak around 
the stenn nor need repaeking. 

The installation of Detroit Packless Valves means economy 
and permanent satisfaction for the building owner, 

Detroit Packless 
Radiator Valves 



are being specified in prominent buildings 
throughout the country, because they meet 
that all-important requirement of maximum 
utility combined with beauty of line and 
finish. 

The first cost is the whole cost — there 
is no occasion for having a man spend most 
of his time keeping them in condition, and 
there is no danger of their becoming un- 
sightly from rusty, dirty water. 



♦A 

Radiator 

Valve 

that can't leak" 



Their lines are substantial, symmetrical 
and pleasing. 

The metal surfaces have a smooth, satin 
finish that will not deteriorate — the handles 
are mahogany finish, large and nicely pro- 
portioned. In fact, Detroit Packless Valves 
are finished in a manner to harmonize with 
the most beautiful surroundings. 

And the line is complete — angle, corner, 
globe, gate — in all sizes for every kind of 
installation on steam and hot-water systems. 



Illustrated Booklet B-44 
request. 



sent on 



H etroit I ubricator C ompany 




Equitable BuildinK, New York 



Architect 

Kkni-st K. Uh\iI/\m 



llcatiiiK Ctiiitrai'tors 
Thompson Stakkktt Co. 



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Millmi II MrCiin: Inhiltrl. V. ». 



TVie Latest in Color- Schemes 

Cabot's Old Virginia White for the walls 

A soft, brilliant wbiir that h as cool and clean as [irw whitewash 

anii as Ia>iiMi: as paint, but wiiliuut tlir liaril. " painty " look. 

Cabot's Creosote Stains for the roof 

Rich moKs-grcens. tile-reds or dark grays that look like velvet. 
wear like tlie wood itself and thorouRlily preserve the sliinKles. 

This combination is much cheaper than T'aint. in both material 
and labor, and it has so much m<)re character and s(t miu'h finer 
texture that the artistic effect is beyond comparison. 

}'ou can Kft Cabot's Sfaiits all oi'er the contitty. Sfttii 
fnr samt>/t's nn wnnd and name of nearest agent. 

SAMUEL CABOT. Inc., Mfg. Chemists, Boston, Mass. 

1133 Broadway, NEW YORK 24 W. Kinzie Street. CHICAGO 

Cabot's Creosole Slains, Brick l^' ate rp roofing. Mortar Colors, 
Dampproofing, etc. 



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we: DESIGN 

AND 

MANUFACTURE 



ELECTRIC 
LICHTINC 
FIXTURES 

WE EXECUTE ANY SPECIAL DESIGN 

FACTORIES AND SHOWROOMS 

LOCATED AT 

ARCHER AVE. COR. LEG AND LIME STS. 

CATALOC SENT TO ARCHITECTS ONLY 







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A Monograph on the Work of 

CHARLES A. PLATT 

Authorized by Mr. Charies A. Piatt , 

iHE great beauty and distinction of Mr. Piatt's work has received considerable 
attention from the architectural profession, and this volume, in the preparation 
of which the publishers have been fortunate in securing Mr. Piatt's per- 
sonal co-operation, should be warmly welcomed by all architects, decorators, and land- 
scape designers who are interested in the best Domestic Architecture. It should be 
a great inspiration for future country house work and will help architects to further 
understand Mr. Piatt's work and aid in analyzing the means by which he has created 
his effects. 

The book is a monumental work, superbly printed on heavy paper, and contains 
the best country and city house work which Mr. Piatt has designed. The illustrations 
comprise large views of the exteriors, interiors, gardens and details, reproductions 
from the floor plans, and detailed working drawings. 

Handsomely hound in Buckram, gilt top, containing 184 plates, sice IJx 16 inches. 
Price $2().()() net. F.xpress prepaid. 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

Architectural Publishers 

85 Water Street Boston, Mass. 



II 



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In addition to providing a finish of sus- 
tained life to any desired color effect in 
stains, varnish or white enamel. 



ARKANSAS 
SOFT PINE 



has the decided advantage of bein.q readily 
obtainable because of an abundant supply. 
This wood therefore provides an interior 
finishing material at a comparatively 

Moderate Cost. 

Due to the wide variety of figure which it 
possesses, ranging from the bold grain of flat 
sawn to the conservative pen line of the 
"quartered," Arkansas Soft F'ine may be 
selected to harmonize with any desired in- 
terior decorative scheme. 

It will provide a durable finish of lasting life 
when stained in Mahogany, dark or light 
Oak, Silver Gray, Natural Varnish or other 
effects. 

Well-balanced, absorbing qualities, due to 
absence of rosin, make it a perfect base for 
white enamel treatment. The wood will not 
stain the enamel from underneath nor will 
the finished surface ultimately become dead- 
looking. 

In short, it is a reliable woodwork. 

Arkama, Sn/I I'ino i. Ir,i,h imirhil ,n„l ,„l,l /„ ilenlrr, 
If lh<- ,mr i./ii./i V..II i;ilr„riiz- lui^n I ,1 In i/. kn 



Literature, stained and natural samples, free on request. 
Department T. 

Arkansas Soft Pine Bureau 

LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS 






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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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The William Penn Hotel 

Pittsburgh's Latest and Most Palatial 
is Finished with 

Bridgeport Standard 
Wood Finishing Products 











V« illiam Penn Hold. Pitlalmrgh. Fa. 
Jan»iM>n & Abbotl. Archilerlft, Pilli*burgh. Pa. 
Thf Barker Painling Co.. Nev. York. Finishers 

Past results are what the architectural profession 
base their future specifications on. In the 
finishing of critical work they ignore what can 
or will be done for what HAS BEEN DONE. 
Performance is the architect's final test. 

Here is what Tlie Barker Painting Co. of New 
York sav about the performance of Bridgeport 
Standard Products on the William Penn Hotel : 

" Regarding the use of your stain on this 
building, we would say that the walnut 
stain which was used throughout the 
building generally was applied on birch 
and gave a beautifid color and finish, 
which was nio.st satisfactory to the Archi- 
tects as well as ourselves." 

Remember, that the free use of our Service Depart- 
ments would relieve you of many details connected 
with wood finishing problems. Why not ask us to 
furnish you samples of any wood illustrating the 
newest and most artistic types of finish ? 

The Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. 

NEW MILFORD, CONN. 

Architectural S^rvue Departments 

6 E. 39th Street .... New York 
78 W. Lake Street - - - Chicago 

8 F'orlland Street ... - Boston 

12th and Sansom Streets - I'liiladelphia 



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f^ORTir 

CAROLINA 

1. PINE . 



Its Low Cost and Long Wear 
Make It Ideal for Floors 

North Carolina Pine is not a hardwood, 
nor do we claim that it is preferable to hard- 
woods in all cases. 

But we do want you to know that it is a 
most valuable floor material. Especially in 
cases where your client desires to keep down 
the investment without sacrificing appearance. 

And since flooring is a large item of ex- 
pense in building, nothing will so thoroughly 
serve the purpose of an inexpensive yet beau- 
tiful floor as North Carolina Pine. 

Costing less than hardwoods, it is equally as ser- 
viceable, especially when the Rift grain is used. And 
with its natural, varied grain, which is susceptible to 
the most charming hardwood effects. North Carolina 
Pine will give a distinctive and artistic appearance to 
any room. 

The floors in the North Carolina Pine bungalow 
at the Country Life Permanent Exposition, Grand 
Central Terminal, New York (which you are invited 
to inspect), are constructed exclusively of North 
Carolina Pine and have elicited favorable comment 
from the thousands of visitors who have seen this exhibit. 

Architects' and Builders' 

Reference Book FREE 

Write for Architects' and Builders' Reference Book, 
which we have prepared in convenient form for filing, 
it describes the many uses of North Carolina Pine and 
the beautiful effects obtainable. 

Specimen panels on request 

North Carolina Pine 



-D^ 


Association ^ 




Norfolk, Va. ,^m 




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"HOMEWOOD" 

Baltimore, Maryland. 

Built in 1809. Now the 
Administration Building of 
Johns Hopkins University 



FICJURIN(j value in terms ot service, the most economical wood 
tor honie-huilding is 

White Pine 

It works more easily and lasts longer, when exposed to the weather, than any 
other wood; and once in place it "stays put," even after years of exposure in 
the closest-fitting mitres and in delicate mouldings and carvings. 

If the lumber dealers supplving your clients are at any time unahle to furnish 
it, we should appreciate the opportunity of being helpful to you in securing it. 

The fourth number of the \^'hite Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, published bi-monthly 
under the personal direction of Mr. Russell F. Whitehead, formerly editor of "The Architectural 
Record" and "The Brickbuilder," will be mailed February first. The subject will be "Colonial 
Houses of the Middle and Southern Colonies," with article on the "Colonial Renaissance" by 
Frank E. Wallis, Architect. 

If you are not receiving the monographs, and you feel interested in having them, kindly advise Russell F. 
Whitehead, 132 Madison Avenue, New York City, who will be pleased to furnish you with the 
fourth and all subsequent numbers. 



Representing 
The Northern Pine Manufacturers' 
Association of Minnesota, Wisconsin 
and Michigan, and The Associated 
White Pine Manufacturers of Idaho 



WHITE PINE BUREAU, 

1 130 Merchants Bank Building, Si. Paul, Minn. 



II 

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THE BRICK BVILDER 



71 



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CYPRESS 



II 



The Wood 
Eternal 



is accounted conspicuously fine for 
the inside trim of the house, espe- 
cially for the kitchen. It is not "put 
on the warp" by steam and other 
forms of moisture, such as too often 
infest the kitchen. Then the grain 
is handsome and it takes a most 
beautiful finish. Why should not 
kitchens be attractive } Would it 
not help solve the servant problem.^ 
Cypress lasts and lasts and lasts 
and lasts and always ''behaves." 



Let our " CONTRACTORS' HELPS DEPARTMENT" help YOU. Our entire resources are at 
your service with Reliable Counsel. We invite correspondence with a serious ])urpose in it. 

Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Association 

1234 Hibernia Bank Building, New Orleans, La., or 1234 Heard National Bank Building, Jacksonville, Fla. 



INSIST ON CYPRESS AT YOUR LOCAL LUMBER DEALKR'S. II 

LET US KNOW IMMEDIATELY 



lie HASN'T IT, 



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72 



THE BRICKBVI LDER. 



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The finish de luxe 
for walls and ceilings 

Delicate hues that blend in beauti- 
ful harmou}-, "soft as the rainbow 
tints" — colors that both rest and 
delight the eyes — are attained with 



■fcwC\ 



Jh Standard 







I 



i 

I 



It is as serviceable as it is artistic. Not 
easily marred or scratched, hut durable, 
fadeless and washable. 

Write for our Mellotone booklet 

Civing the interesting faets about Mellotone 
and showing pictures of many buildings, insti- 
tutions and houses where Mellotone is used. 

3he Ccfwe Brothers Companif 

530 E. Third St., Dayton, Ohio 

Boston New York Jersey City Chicago 

Kansas City Minneapolis Toronto 



II 









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Hornr of W. Ocnher. Monruc. Mich. Contractor and Builder. Godfrey Goetz 



This Contractor Has Used Them on Six Other 
Houses 

Have your Lumber Dealer stock 
at least three standard colors of 



"CREO-DIPT 



17 Grades 



16. 18, 24-inch 



>> STAINED 
SHINGLES 

30 Color Shades 



Write us for Sample Colors on Wood 
and Book of "CREO-DIPT" Homes 



Be sure to give us the name of vour Lumber Dealer 

Standard Stained Shingle Company 

1025 Oliver Street, North Tonawanda, N. Y. 
Factory in Chicago for Western Trade 



II 




1827 



I 



Eighty-Nine Years' Experience in Making 
High Grade 

VARNISH 



TRA-i Artisto Finish >■ ^-^ 

Produces a beautiful, dull, artistic Hnisb over natural wood or 
stained work. Knriches the grain and coloring of the wood with- 
out the defects found from using wax. Will not scratch or mar 
white and is very durable. Dries hard overnight. 

TKAt.K Rex White Enamel ^^-o^ 

(Senii-(xloss) 

A beautiful white enamel, drying with a rich, eggshell gloss 
effect. Durable and easy working, covers perfectly and is out of 
dust within a few hours. 

EDWARD SMITH & CO. 

" Varnish Makers for ^^i Years" 

Heed Offioe and Works 

West Avenue, 6th and 7th Streets, Long Island City, N.Y. 

P. O. Box 1780. New York City 
Western Branch, 3532-34 South Morgan Street, Chicago 







lliiTiT;Tr!!!!!RB!niiiiiiiillll 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



71 



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Meeting the Difficult to Meet 
in Glass Structures 



T^O reproduce through the medium of 
fjlass and a restrained use of wood, 
stone and brick that feeling of solidity and 
endurance essential in an Architect's render- 
ing of the classic in design, you will agree 
is a difficult task. That it has been suc- 



cessfully accomplished in this subject you 
will agree. Its location in intimate associ- 
ation with the owner's residence prompted 
its treatment. As evidence of our ability to 
meet the difficult to meet in glass enclo- 
sures, this would seem a convincing example. 



M;\V YORK. 12<I Slreel Hiiildlno 
CmCACO. KiM.k.rv Kiiilil 

TOKO.NTO, Royal Bank BuiUlinj; 

Factories: Irvington. N. Y 



or^ggtirnhamG. 

Sales Offices 

BOSTON. Tr.-ii.onl Builcliiij; 

[lie Buililitij! 



ROCHESTER. (; 



I'llll.ADELPIllA. Iraiikliii Bank R. ill. Ill 
CLEVELAND. Swelluii.l Binl.lli 
talion Building 




! 



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THE BRICKBVILDER 



'^JEISI3SEISJEISI5ISIEIEIcI3SSIEmiEISSEIESEISmiEIEIEI^SEIBIESEJEISSUEJEIEISI^ 





Albu Instullaliuii, First Trust and Saviiif;^ Bunk. Uaklaiid. Caliruriiia 

offers the best combination of ligliting efficiency and 
beauty for installations where both are desired. 

Alba softens brilHant, irritating Hght and distributes 
or concentrates it where needed to make seeing easy or 
to bring out the beauty of the surroundings. 

In many forms, Alba is exquisite. New shapes and 
designs are constantly added — special when needed. 

Portfolio of new Alba designs on rec^uest. 

Macbeth -Evans Glass Company 

Pittsburgh 

SalfS and Showrooms also in New York. Chicago. Phihidelphia. Si. I.ouie 

liostoii. Cinciniiali. San FraiU'isco. Dallas. Clcvi-land 

M.icbetli-Kvans Glass Co Ltd Turonto 




USmiBJEJHfSJHJEEJEJEJEraZJBfBrEJBJgieJBJHJgJBJBiaEfgJaBJBJBJZfH/EIEJBISJEfBJa^ 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



11 '— — — = -~ — - 



i 






Stencil 



On a Bundle o( GALVANIZED SHEETS Signifies: 



PITTSUURGH 

A sheet that possesses strength, pliability and rust-resistance. 

A sheet that has a proper amalgamation between the coating and base 
of high grade KEYSTONE COPPER STEEL. 

A sheet that is unequaled for long life, satisfactory service and efficient 
protection. Specify APOLLO-KEYSTONE Galvanized Sheets. 

We ilso manufacture Keystonb Copper Steel RooBDe Tin — the highest quality Terne Plateg now produced. These plates are accurately reeqnared 
and uniformly coated. Our booklet "Copper — Its Effect Upon Steel for Roofing Tin" contains information of value to crery architect 



American Sheet and Tin Plate Company 

GENERAL OFFICES: Frick Building, PITTSBURGH, PA. ^ 



DISTRICT SALES OFFICES = 
Chicago Cincinnati Denver Detroit New Orleans New York 



Pittsburgh 



Philadelphia 
Export RepresentatiTes: United States Steel Products COMPAtn-, New York City 
Pacific Coait RepresentatiTes: United States Steel Products Company, San Francisco. Los Aogelei. Portland. Seattle 



if 

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WATSON 




20th Century 




*'Remrable" 






Insect Screens 



Frame Screens in >X'ood, Steel and Bronze ; Roll Screens in 
Steel and Bronze ; Wood Doors of Any Description. 

" The Complete Line " 

To meet an increasing demand for a better cind more 
appropriate screen door, we have developed our 

METAL SCREEN DOORS 

— light or heavy construction. Made in Steel or Bronze. 
Full-size details on request. 

WATSON MANUFACTURING CO. 

JAMESTOWN, N.Y. 



I 



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The WONbER paint 



WHEN YOU SPECIFY 

"ZINOLIN-and-OIL" 
Don'tAdd^OrEgaa/*' 

-Zinolin is the one outside paint that hai no " equaL" 
It is the original and only product offering all the dura- 
bility of pure zinc, but with the brittleness and non- 
oil-taking properties of zinc removed. 

ZINOLIN 

tlie"Amolcl-izeci" zinc 

is the " wonder paint " because it is guaranteed not to crack, peel or 
chalk — because it offers the superior brilliance of zinc whiteness — 
because the colors added to it never fade — and because it absorbs 
twice the oil that lead does — which make its luster last as lang as 
the paint lasts. Zinolin goes one-third farther and hides jet black 
with two coats. In specifying just say — " Zinolin-aod-oil ' instead 
of lead-and-oil. Inquiries invited. 

KEYSTONE VARNISH CO. 

Mtken of juxiy (unoiu Kerilaoa, the oriaioal, wuhablc wmD paint 

1106 KEYSTONA BLDG. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



II 

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It Covers Every 
Specification 





JMhl? — 


^ 






■^«nm 


IflOOR flNISHI ; 


1 BoCTON Varnish Co. ij 




Floor Finish — White Enamel — Spar Finish 

Kyanize Floor Finish, while it is especially made for floors, is equally good for all 

standing finish and interior woodwork. It dries hard with a durable gloss and will 

not crack, chip or peel. It is the right finish for interior work that is to be left in 

the gloss. 

Kyanize White Enamel is the most durable enamel you can get It covers double the surface of ordinary 

enamel ; flows out absolutely free to a perfect porcelain surface; is very white, and is as suitable for outside as 

it is for inside work. Kyanize White Enamel is being used by some of the large steamship lines on the exterior 

of their boats, which shows that it will stand weather, wet and climatic changes. You cannot get any better 

enamel {^either imported or domestic) at any price. 

Kyanize Spar Finish is an absolutely waterproof and weather proof varnish for exterior work. It will remain 

under water for weeks without turning white, cracking or peeling. It is not affected by climatic changes. It 

has been tested and approved by five government chemists and thousands of gallons have been used by the 

U. S. Navy. 

We guarantee our Kyanize products to be and do all we claim for them and to give entire satisfaction in 

every instance when properly applied to the proper surface. 

Write for our Specification Booklet 

Boston Varnish Company 

EVERETT STATION 



CHICAGO WAREHOUSE AND OFFICE 
S19 Wett Twelfth Street 



BOSTON, U. S. A. 

SAN FRANCISCO WAREHOUSE AND OFFICE 
311 California Sueet 



THE BARTA PRESS, BOSTON 



ji-IPHJIIUrllcifl, ' II 1,1 ini 111,1 iiiiiiiiiii i i HTiii "III i J.Mini. »,ii i. jm ] 

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\irjj^^jiy;i i fPj r m^M^i:il » ^ \ J j yf^ ^ ^ 



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FCKBVILDEE 



for FEBRUARY 



CENTRAL DORMITORY, WELLESLEY COLLEGE, 

WELLESLEY, MASS Cool, 

MARTHA COOK BUILDING,' UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 

ANN ARBOR, MICH York & Sa-wyer 

SKINNER RECITATION BUILDING, MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE, 

SOUTH HADLEY, MASS. Putnam & Cox 



PORTRAIT OF DONATO D'ANGNOLO BRAMANTE Frontispiece 

THE HIGH SCHOOL Walter H. Kilham 27 

I. The Planning and Equipment of the Science Department. 
Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 

DIAGRAMMATIC PROGRESS SCHEDULES. PART II Charles A. IVhittemore 

Illustrations from Diagrams 

A SELECTION OF DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE 

Residence of Wm. Crane, Jr., Esq., Watertown, Mass. Robert H. Wambolt, Architect. 
Residence at Winchester, Mass. Allan E. Boone, Architect. 

THREE NEW COLLEGE BUILDINGS 

Skinner Recitation Building, Mt. Holyoke College. Putnam &. Cox, Architects. 
Central Dormitory, Wellesley College. Coolidge & Carlson, Architects. 
Martha Cook Building, University of Michigan. York & Sawyer, Architects. 
Illustrations from Photographs 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XV Measured Drawing of Hallway Details in the Crowninshield-Devereux House, 
Salem, Mass --- Gordon Robb 

XVI Measured Drawing of Dormer and Cornice of the Snowden House, 
Alexandria, Va J. L. Keister, O.J. MunsonJ. A. Weber 

SOME ITALIAN DOORS John H. Scarff 

Illustrations from Photographs and Measured Drarvings by the Author 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 



Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 
Advertising Department, 42 West 39th Street, New York 
Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 g 

Canada _ . — 0-50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6_00 j.^ 

Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company .ind its Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892. at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Man.son Company 

-■■«r;^T*:r*m ji<^.i>ttJ.aifJ.Jt/JrJ"l''<;^'*;^ yj.,,. ^ .,. ,. .! , , ,,..,, ff- .f f " ■■■ii.-.- ■■■. mn.,!..! . -rrj. ^uy.-.^\yjj-,^.i.-\MiAj 




18 



THE BRICKBVILDER 






Carter H. Harrison High School, Chicago, 111. 

Archilecli 

Chicago Bureau of Architecture 

A. F. Hussander, Sup<ryiiin^ Architect 



In Classic Architecture — 



D RICK may be most appro- 
priately used for all plain 
wall surfaces and pilasters as 
the building shown above il- 
lustrates so amply. It imparts 
a sense of texture and a play 
of light and shade that is not 
readily attainable through the 
use of other materials, even 
of those costing many times 
the price of face brick. A 



e-* 



further advantage is in the 
opportunity that face brick 
affords for the use of color in 
expansive surfaces. The wider 
use of color is a development 
of American Architecture 
which is now receiving its just 
share of attention and to 
which BRICK will be a 
strong contributory factor. 






HTHE CarterH. HarrisonHigh School, 
shown above, has accommodations 
for about 2,^00 pupils. It is most com- 
pletely equipped and planned for carry- 
ing on instruction tn modern mdustrial 
pursuits ; ihere are shops for wood- 
working, electrical construction, sheet 
metal working, plumbing, plastermgand 
masonry and many other trades. Other 
important features are an assembly 
hall, seating 2,000, and a swimming 
pool with auxiliary batliing facilities. 

The exterior is of a most impressive 
type of architecture and faced entirely 
with Claycraft " Indian Brand " 
Buff Brick. Shades 3, 4 and ^ laid 
in straight bond m a light colored, close 
joint. The ornamented architectural 
details are of terra cotta. 



craft 

'ColLimbuj^ 



rick v^o. 

Ohio 




I 

■ 



DOXATO D'AXGNOLC) BRAMAXTE 

BORN 1444. DIED 1514. NATIVE OF URBINO, ARCHITECT OF 
THE TEMPIETTO OF S. PIETRO IN MONTORIO. THE COURT 
YARD OF SANTA MARIA DELLA P.4CE. WORK AT ST. PETERS 
AND THE VATICAN IN ROME. AND OF THE CHOIR AND 
DOME OF SANTA MARIA DELLE GRAZIE IN .MILAN 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXV 



FEBRUARY, 1916 



NUMBER 2 



-f 



The High School. 



THE PLANNING AND EQUIPMENT OF THE SCIENCE DEPARTMENT 



By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



THE problems presented to the architect in the de- 
signing- of a modern high school, while identical in 
matters of general detail with those of an elementary 
school, are much more complicated and varied on account 
of the many different courses of study, the elaborate 
apparatus which is installed, and the "collegiate" fea- 
tures connected with the social life and physical welfare 
of the pupils. A commercial or vocational high school of 
the present period com- 
bines most of the features 
which until recently were 
found only in the larger 
universities, together with 
many others which are 
purely a development of 
high school education. A 
high school of a thousand 
or twelve hundred pupils 
may require, in addition 
to the regular standard 
class rooms, 24 by 30 feet, 
accommodating say thirty- 
five pupils, a certain number of recitation rooms seating 
about twenty pupils each ; probably one or two study 
halls ; large rooms with single desks and chairs accom- 
modating from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty or 
more pupils ; a library ; a science department with lab- 
oratories and lecture rooms equipped for instruction in 
chemistry, physics, and possibly biology and botany ; a 
commercial department for instruction in bookkeeping, 
stenography, typewriting, and banking ; rooms for free- 
hand and mechanical drawing ; a music room ; a depart- 
ment for domestic science, i.e., cooking, housekeeping, 
and sewing ; and a manual training department for wood 
and iron working. In addition to these usual pedagogi- 
cal reciuirements some cities introduce facilities for the 
study of printing, bookbinding, natural history (with 
menageries of animals and birds), and various other 
topics. 

The social and physical cultural side of the school's 
work requires an assembly hall, gymnasium, and locker 
accommodations, perhaps a swimming pool, a lunch room, 
rooms for the school paper and athletic society, and in 
large cities sometimes an arrangement on the roof for 
outdoor dancing. 

The administrative department requires accommoda- 




Portion of Third Floor Plan, Showing Science Department 

Salem High School, Salem, Mass. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 



tions for the principal and his assistants, clerks, retiring 
rooms for men and women teachers, a teachers' lunch 
room, and rooms for the physical directors for boys and 
girls. 

Provision also has to be made for the pupils' clothing, 
storage of books and apparatus, unpacking of cases, 
toilets, bicycles, heating and ventilating apparatus, vac- 
uum cleaner, and various other things which may vary 

in different places, not for- 
getting permanent provi- 
sion for the inevitable wire- 
less outfit which will surely 
encumber the roof with 
unsightly aerials made by 
a local carpenter unless a 
neat construction is pro- 
vided in the contract. 

High schools are gen- 
erally eciuipped for instruc- 
tion in chemistry and 
physics, and sometimes for 
biology, physiography, and 
various other sciences. The most elaborate equipment is 
that required for chemistry and physics, and a separate 
laboratory is generally provided for each of these two 
studies, ordinarily fitted up for sections of twenty-four 
students at a time to practice experiments. As the lectures 
on these subjects require the setting up of special apparatus 
which re(iuires a good deal of time, it is convenient to as- 
semble several sections at one time in a lecture room which 
seats multiples of sections, as forty-eight, seventy-two, 
ninety-six, or one hundred and twenty. This lecture room 
is most conveniently placed between the chemistry and 
physics laboratories, with storerooms adjoining on cither 
hand for chemical and physical apparatus. When the 
school is a small one and one teacher handles the entire 
science department, one storeroom may be enough ; but it 
is always better to provide separate rooms to avoid possible 
damage to delicate physical apparatus by fumes from 
chemicals. Windows may be arranged in these store- 
rooms for passing out materials, but doors will usuall\- 
suffice. 

Location of Science Defyarlmenl . ( )n account of the desir- 
ability of quickly getting rid of the fumes from chemical 
experiments the science department is generally located 
on the top floor. If placed on the first floor or basement, 



28 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




Chemistry Lahoratory. Salem Hi,t;h School, Showing Tablet Chairs 

nil Wliich to Take Notes 







Detail Floor IMan of CtiL-mislry Laboratory 

Salem High School 



the plumbing would be gfreath- simplified and the wastes 
from the chemistry sinks which have a tendency to cor- 
rode iron pipes could be carried away in tile. Some ed- 
ucators also prefer to keep the older classes on the ground 
floor, where they may receive more personal attention 
from the principal, and as science is an upper class 
study this at once locates the laboratories on the ground 
floor. But the most general practice by far is to keep 
the younger children near the ground and the laboratories 
at the top, where they can be easily ventilated and well 
lighted by skylights, if necessary. Another advantage is 
the additional ceiling height which may be obtained for 
the science lectiire room. On account of the amphithe- 
atrical arrangement of seats a high ceiling is often re- 
ciuired which is difficult to provide on the ground story, 
but can be easily managed at the top of the building. 
This arrangement also involves placing most of the class 
and recitation rooms downstairs and hence precludes a 
great amount of stair cliinbing by pupils who do not need to use the 
laboratories. Two stories ought to be the limit of height for suburban 
high schools, and the realization of such a practice seems to be in 
sight. At all events, the place for the laboratories is generally con- 
ceded to be the top story. 

The Chemistry Laboratory . The walls of the chemistry laboratory may 
preferably be of brick covered with a paint containing no lead, as lead 
will soon become discolored by the chemical action of gases. Plastered 
walls are often used to give a more finished aspect to the room, or on 
account of constructional difficulties in making all the walls of brick. 

I'entilation. The ventilation of the rooms is arranged as in other 
rooms, except that special ventilation for noxious gases is provided in 
hoods which will be later described. In some cities provision is made 
for removal of gases from all experiments ' * at the source ' ' over the 
working desks, by funnel-like pipes of copper leading down to a duct 
underneath, but this is not usually thought to be necessary. 

Tloor. Various opinions exist as to the floor of the chemistry 
laboratory. A cement floor is hard, cold, liable to " dust," and sub- 
ject to injury from acids. Floors of the various magnesia compounds 
are perhaps not so cold and are in some ways superior. Terrazzo is 
subject to the same objections as cement. Asphalt is suitable in many 
ways, and is waterproof, but is unpleasant' in appearance and some- 
what soft and liable to injury by chairs and tables sinking into it. Tile, 

,^',"" ' set in cement, is 

rQ"^*** expensive, but in 

many ways makes 
an ideal floor for a 
laboratory. Wood 
is very commonly 
used for cheap- 
ness, and narrow 
strips filled in b.\ 
asphalt make a 
very satisfactory 
compromise. It is 
rarely necessar>- to 
drain the floor. 
Some carefully 
kept schools have 
immaculate floors 
of waxed maple in 
their laboratories. 
Ji(/ii ipintii I . — 
The working desks 
are generally made 




_yKriM or Lwsi .'mr ' 



Detail of Fittings of Pupils' Tables in Chemistry Laboratory, Salem High School, Salem, Mass. 

Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



29 



4 feet wide, with spaces 4 feet wide between, to allow stu- 
dents to work facing- each other. This causes half of the 
students to have their backs toward the instructor at all 
times, resulting, as some claim, in a loss of the teach- 
er's efficiency of at least 50 per cent. Some laboratories 
have been fitted up with one-way desks at which all the 
pupils face toward the front of the room. These may be 
28 inches wide, with aisles 3 feet wide, and some educa- 
tors make the claim that one instructor can handle twice 
as many students when the desks are soan-anged. When 
the double-front system is used, the desks are made in 
sections which are placed back to back and are movable 
when the top is removed. This enables the room to be 
thoroughly cleaned during the summer vacation without 
disturbing the plumbing pipes. The desks contain draw- 
ers and lockers arranged as shown in the drawing for four 
times as many pupils as work at one time, i.e., a labora- 
tory which accommodates twenty-four students at one 
time would have drawer and locker accommodations for ninety-six, 
or four sections during the day. In large high schools, or schools 
operating- also in the evening with a night master, a still further 
development of this space is necessary, which may be accomplished 
as in the Boston High School of Commerce by alternating with the 
working benches ' ' blanks ' ' or tables 3 feet wide, containing drawers 
and lockers, but no plumbing-. These tables are very useful in 
providing additional apparatus space for the pupils while working. 
The working tables are 36 or 38 inches in width and a linear work- 
ing- space of 4 feet is allowed per pupil. Under each pupil's position 
an open space is arranged, both to give toe room and to provide a 
place for a stone receptacle for waste. The table is generally built 
of oak with a top of splined white pine 2 inches thick, treated with 
an acid-proof finish made as follows : 

First Coat. 125 grains copper sulphate powder, 125 grains potassium 
chlorate, 1 liter of water. Heat in steam bath or double kettle in glass 
or porcelain vessel till dissolved. Apply one coat hot with clean brush. 
Second Coat. 150 grains of aniline hydrochlorate, 1 liter of water. 
Dissolve same as above. Apply three coats with a clean brush, each 
coat to become thoroughly dry before applying next. Color will be- 
come green when first applied, but in several days will turn a dead 
black. Allow material to thoroughly dry and wipe bench tops with 
linseed oil. The above c|uantities will cover about 5 square yards. 

Slate or soapstone tops are oc- 
casionally provided and have the 
advantage of presenting- a neater 
appearance, but the bill for break- 
age of glass apparatus is higher 
and they are less easily removed. 
The appearance of a laboratory 
rests mainly with the instructor. 
In some laboratories the wood- 
work is stained and corroded by 
acids after a year's wear, while 
others retain their first freshness 
through a considerable period of 
time. vSoapstone sinks are ar- 
ranged in the form of a contin- 
uous trough or individual sinks. 
The long trough is adequate for 
teaching elementary chemistry 
and is less expensive than the 
separate sinks. It should be at 
least 8 inches wide, 6 inches deep 
at the upper end and 8 inches 
deep at the lower. 




Science Lecture Room, High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass. 

Kirkham & Parlett, Architects 



.„.-„; 






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I-;i_E.VATICVno.-l-E.f-r E./1D 

<>-> I !. = _ 

Detail of Lecture Room Table 
Salem High School 




Detail of Hoods Over Sinks, Chemistry Laboratory, Haverhill Hi.gh School, Haverhill, Mass. 

Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 



30 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Reagent shelves are generally pruvided, running: longi- 
tudinally in the center, 10 or 12 inches above the desk, 
supported on metal standards. This shelf should have an 
acid-proof surface, which is sometimes accomplished by 
giving it a surface of plate glass, clamped firmly to the 
wood, which may be painted white under the glass. 
Others prefer to keep the reagents in cases at the ends of 
the working desks ; but the general tendency is to elimi- 
nate all unnecessary complication of the laboratory equip- 
ment and in many modern schools the shelves are being 
omitted entirely. 

In addition to the plumbing the desks are equipped with 
gas, alternating and direct electric current, steam and com- 
pressed air, located as shown in the accompanying drawing. 

vSome teachers like to have a space in the laboratory 
equipped with a demonstration desk and about twenty- 
four tablet chairs where the section can assemble for in- 
struction before going to the tables to perform the experi- 
ments. A "battery" of triple blackboards may be 
located behind the demonstration desk. 

For use in experimenting with substances which pro- 
duce noxious gases, a half dozen or more hoods are pro- 
vided at the side of the room. These are best lined with 
white tile, with slate or red tile floors and sliding glass 
fronts. The space above the opening may be utilized for 
a blackboard. Electric light and gas outlets are provided 
in each hood, or, if desired, the electric light may be 
hung outside each window. "Down draft" ventilat- 
ing outlets are sometimes built in the pupils' tables with 
movable hoods to fit into them, but their use is scarcely 
necessary and tends to complicate the equipment. 

Wall benches are often provided for special or addi- 
tional students, provided like the other tables, with gas, 
electricity, etc., and copper sinks, which are made re- 
movable so as to gain additional working space. 

A good sized soapstone sink is also desirable with drain- 
ing pegs above for drying beakers and test tubes. 

The teacher should be provided with a private office 
fitted up with a laboratory, table, space for a desk, etc., 
where he can prepare his lecture apparatus and work on 
experiments without danger of disturbance. The motor 
generator set is sometimes located here. 

The Science Lecture Room. Adjoining the chemistry 
laboratory, and separating it from the physics laboratory, 
is located the lecture room, which should accommodate 
from forty-eight to one hundred and twenty pupils in 
seats raised in an amphitheater in such a way as to give 
them the best possible view of the lecturer and the dem- 
onstration desk. Behind the desk one or two hoods 
should be located and a battery blackboard, and, if the 
room is located in the upper story, a skylight may profit- 
ably be placed directly above the lecturer. In fact, out- 
side window light is not necessary for this room. The 
best arrangement is undoubtedly to have the room lighted 
from one side so that the pupils face parallel with the 
light ; but if the rise of the bank of seats is high enough 
to prevent the light from shining directly into the teach- 
er's eyes, the windows may be located behind the pupils. 

As a stereopticon will often be used in connection with 
science lectures, a space should be arranged for one at the 
rear of the room with receptacle for plugging in for electric 
current and a concealed signal system operated from the 
demonstration desk. To ensure absolute darkness for the 



stereopticon, the windows, skylights, and glass panes in 
the doors, if there are any, should be eciuipped with light- 
proof black shades, running in grooves, which efl'ectually 
prevent the entrance of any light. Some time is lost and 
confusion caused by sending pupils to draw these shades, 
which may be prevented by operating the cords by a small 
electric motor controlled from the demonstration desk. 

This desk (see drawing) is about 15 feet long, 3 feet 
wide, and 2 feet 8 inches high, with splined pine top and 
a sink of two depths, placed at the right hand end facing 
the pupils. A dished soapstone slab covers about 5 feet of 
this end of the desk. Electric receptacles and gas cocks 
are provided, together with steam, compressed air, a 
down draft outlet with cover, a pair of brass standards 
4 feet high with adjustable clamps for a horizontal bar, and 
switches for controlling the lights in the room, the stere- 
opticon, and the curtain motor. Cupboards and drawers 
and the switchboard cabinet are arranged underneath. 
All connections of any sort for apparatus used in experi- 
ments should be placed in the demonstration desk to avoid 
the necessity of stretching wires, etc., across the space 
between it and the wall. On account of the large number 
of pupils to be accommodated, this room should have two 
doors to the corridor. 

Dark Room, etc. A dark room, with sink for use in 
photography, should be provided, and a photometry room, 
with a table allowing a free length of at least 14 feet. 

Storerooms. Ample storage space with shelving and 
glass cases is needed for valuable chemistry and physics 
apparatiis, and this should be located adjacent to the lecture 
room and laboratories. A few schools go so far as to pro- 
vide a straight railway track the entire length of the science 
department so that a table may be arranged for a lecture 
and then wheeled directly in ; but this requirement is one 
which but seldom confronts the architect. 

The Physics Laboratory . The physics laboratory requires 
room for six strong tables, each 4 by 6 feet, giving space 
at each for four pupils to work and fitted with gas, elec- 
tric current, compressed air, etc., as in the chemistry 
laboratory. Wall tables are located around the room on 
sides where there are windows. They are equijjped with 
gas, electric current, and cold water supplies and drains. 
In order to save space movable copper sinks are made 
and arranged to fit into the holes leading to the drains. 
When not required they may be removed, allowing use of 
the bench for other purposes. Instead of double tables 
the "one-way" system is sometimes installed also in 
physics laboratories, allowing all pupils to face the front 
of the room, with corresponding gain in efficiency. 

Another system sometimes adopted is to equip the phy- 
sics laboratory with tables of ordinary height (30 inches), 
arranged in U-shape, at which pupils may sit in common 
chairs. These tables have gas and electric outlets, but no 
high cross bars. Rooms so arranged have a very attrac- 
tive appearance. 

The liio/oi^iea/ Laboratory . This is often equipped with 
low, glass topped tables seating two pupils each, some 
built-in glass cases and drawers, an aiiuarium, and a large 
marble sink in two depths. The room may well have a 
southern aspect and be equipped with a small conserva- 
tory for the observation of growing plants. A demonstra- 
tion desk fitted up similarly to one for chemistry is 
sometimes, but not often, provided. 



Diagrammatic Progress Schedules. 



PART II. 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



THE diagrammatic progress schedule, as has been 
previously outlined, ma.v be of inestimable value to 
all of those interested in the construction of modern 
buildings from a residence to the largest commercial 
enterprise. 

It is also of interest to all of the individual contractors, 
sub-contractors, owners, architects, and real estate men 
from the standpoint of economy and efficiency, in econ- 
omy both of time and of construction, and efficiency of 
administration. 

The general contractor in first approaching a problem 
of this kind would naturally ask how he may benefit by 
the adoption of what might seem at first an added burden 
to his clerical force, and without some satisfactory solu- 
tion of this problem and without some sufficient represen- 
tation to him that he will directly benefit thereby in a 
manner distinctly proportionate to the cost of maintaining 
such a system, he naturally would be reluctant to assume 
charge of a schedule of this character. 

It appears, however, upon close examination of the 
subject and study of the construction of various build- 
ings, that the contractor does benefit by it to a large de- 
gree — to a larger degree, in fact, than from any other 
one method of "checking up his work, and this we believe 
can easily be demonstrated. 

Each general contractor of any size has a distinct or- 
ganization which is composed of two parts : the clerical 
pai't or office force, and the administrative part or super- 
intendents and foreman. These two units co-operate in 
the endeavor to carry out contracts imder their charge, 
and the work of one part is known to the work of the other 
branch of the organization in the majority of cases only 
through personal contact. This involves expenditure of 
considerable time on the part of the intermediary in the 
nature of visits from the building to the office, or to the 
building from the office, purely for the purpose of explain- 
ing certain things which cannot be readily communicated 
by telephone or letter. 

It is true that a representative of the office force, which 
in a great many cases is the general contractor, makes 
continual visits to the various buildings and keeps in 
personal touch with the different items ; but where an or- 
ganization is of sufficient size to control many projects, a 
casual examination on the part of the general contractor 
in visiting a building undoubtedly may result in several 
things being overlooked which might be of vital impor- 
tance in the saving of a few days in the construction of 
the building — and each day means dollars. 

It seems apparent, therefore, that a general contractor 
who depends entirely upon communication by telephone, 
letter, or personal visit is restricted in the amount of work 
he is able personally to supervise, and without his per- 
sonal supervision the work for which he is directly resjion- 
sible undoubtedly will suffer to a certain extent. 

It is of extreme importance, therefore, that some means 
be devised for apprising the general contractor himself, 



or his office force, of the exact status of all the different 
contracts under their control, as well as of all of their own 
work at any particular time. To accomplish this result 
the diagrammatic progress schedule serves admirably. 

It is not necessary that the general contractor increase 
his clerical force in order to maintain this schedule up to 
the minute, nor is it necessary that he put an additional 
man on the building ; it is only necessary that the man on 
the building having charge of this schedule apply himself 
for a few minutes a day to the maintenance of this system, 
and this can be done as has already been demonstrated 
in actual building construction without loss of time from 
any other necessary labors. 

It then seems that, if a simple system of this character 
can be operated without an increase in the office force and 
without any loss of time from other duties on the part of 
those already employed, the reasons for its use are suffi- 
cienfly obvious, even though it should not serve the con- 
tractor to the fullest capacity of which it is capable. 

Another consideration which is of vital importance is 
that by the progress schedule the contractor can control 
more exactly, more efficiently, and more readily the actual 
receipt and delivery of materials required ; for example, 
if the contractor finds that his excavation has advanced 
beyond the point at which he expected it to be on a cer- 
tain date, and can see by the character of progress on his 
progress schedule that the work is likely to continue at 
the same rate of speed, he can immediately order mate- 
rials to be delivered at a date prior to the date originally 
set. 

The contention may arise that this can be done anyway, 
and this contention is perfectly sound ; the progress 
schedule is not supposed to do things for the contractor 
which cannot be done by other means. It is, however, 
supposed to do things for the contractor in a way which 
will save the contractor both time and money. So that 
while the contention is sound that the work above 
noted can be done in another way, it cannot be done as 
efficiently or as inexpensively, nor can it be done with so 
little effort on the part of the various hands through which 
the orders pass. 

This follows also through the problem of construction, 
as has been previously noted, on busy or congested streets 
by arranging the progress schedule and prearranging 
dates and times of delivery, material, men, teams and all 
can be at hand at the exact moment required. 

Countless times during the course of construction of 
buildings the contractor or his foreman has been on the 
site of the building and has asked the (|uestion : " Where 
are the teams to do this or do that ? " or, " Where are the 
floor construction men that were to be here to-day?" 
The answer in the majority of these cases is that the noti- 
fication had come to them at such a short time in advance 
that they had not been able to get their material and men 
together so as to appear jiromptly. This contingency can 
be avoided by a proper use of the progress schedule. 



31 



32 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



The effect of the progress schedule in controlling the 
work of sub-contractors is one of its most important func- 
tions to the general contractor. The condition is fre- 
quently met where material is required at the site of the 
building, the preparations are already made for its instal- 
lation, but no material of this particular kind is at hand. 
Investigation reveals the fact that the material is being 
prepared in a certain foundry or mill and that the mill 
has not yet been able to get out this particular product. 
This immediately becomes an incipient delay. The con- 
tractor's only recourse then is to wait until such time as 
the material is prepared and at hand, and the natural and 
inevitable consequence of this is that men are idle or em- 
ployed on other parts of the work when they should be at- 
tending to this particular duty. The use of the progress 
schedule would absolutely eliminate conditions of this 
kind if it were properly and intelligently employed. 
Each sub-contractor would be required to have a progress 



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CONTRACT. Doie. 


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Figure 1. Type of Schedule Adaptable to Uses of the General Contractor to Indicate Completion 

Rather than Progress 



schedule of a similar character to the one employed by 
the general contractor, and would be required to forward 
to the general contractor copies of this schedule from time 
to time which would show him at a glance the exact con- 
dition of all of the work in foundry or mill, and would 
enable him at once to determine whether or not the mate- 
rial would be forthcoming at the particular time it might 
be in greatest demand. 

The progress schedule is of tremendous value to the 
general contractor in the question of dispute as to delay. 
If this system is accurately and consistently maintained, it 
will demonstrate at a glance at which portion or at which 
stage of the work the delay occurred, and will demonstrate 
beyond reasonable doubt whether or not the general con- 
tractor is entirely free from all blame in connection with 
this delay. 

As a concrete illustration of the working of this, it might 
be well to refer to an actual condition which existed in 
connection with a building recently 
constructed. The general contrac- 
tor in installing his foundation 
work, due to weather conditions and 
other causes, was at the time of 
completion of the foundations 
about six weeks behind his sched- 
ule ; the steel work had been de- 
livered and storage charges and 
railroad charges were held against 
the contractor. Upon completion 
of the whole building the contractor 
was eight weeks behind his original 
schedule. The owners claimed de- 
la\- and the contractor refused to 
allow the claim and put in a coimter 
claim that he had been delayed by 
the owners. The evidence, how- 
ever, showed that the contractor 
was six weeks behind at the very 
start of the job and, inasmuch as 
no other legitimate claims of delay 
appeared, the contractor was natu- 
rally held responsible. A progress 
schedule demonstrated the fact 
that all of the other work during 
the course of the construction of 
the building had been kept up to the 
mark, but that the six weeks lost at 
the start had not been made up, and 
as this original delay was not due 
to any act of the owners, the entire 
res]ionsibility rested with the con- 
tractor. 

In cases where the progress 
schedule has been maintained, it is 
the custom for the general contrac- 
tor shortly after the contract is 
signed to file with the architect a 
schedule of dates of commencement 
and completion of the various sub- 
contracts which come directly under 
his control. Figure 1 shows a re- 
production of such a schedule and 
is, in a measure, self-explanatory. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



33 



IfiUILDiriG 



With this as a starting- point the general contractor may 
require from his sub-contractors similar schedules, which 
schedules are made parts of the contracts, and violation 
of the terms of the schedule are as subject to penalty as 
violations of the terms of the contract. 

The advantage of this is sufficiently obvious, in that the 
general contractor has a continuous control over all of the 
efforts of the sub-contractors, both in the shop, the mill, 
and foundry, as well as at the building. 

After the filing of the progress schedule with the archi- 
tect by the general contractor, the architect arranges his 
own form of schedule, which he maintains independently 
of the schedule maintained by the general contractor. 
The general contractor, however, at the building arranges 
with his time clerk to check off day by day the various 
items as they appear in the nature of progress at the 
building. 

This schedule may be kept on a transparent medium 
such as tracing cloth, and blue- 
prints from time to time may be 
made from this original and sent 
to the architect and owner as a 
progress report. 

In addition to the recording of 
work at the building, this progress 
schedule may be employed to the 
extent of noting and checking the 
receipt and delivery of drawings 
and other important information. 

The general contractor, as a rule, 
does not recognize the fact that 
after the contracts are awarded to 
him, a certain amount of time is 
necessary for the architects to study 
and prepare the finished details and 
other explanatory drawings. The 
result frequently is encountered that 
the general contractor will make 
the claim, as sustaining his conten- 
tion that he is not responsible for 
delays, that the architect did not 
give him information in time, or 
did not supply him at proper times 
with drawings. The architect, on 
the other hand, would naturally 
controvert this claim by the state- 
ment that the drawings had been 
properly delivered, and without a 
proper system on the part of both 
the architect and the contractor it 
would be pretty difficult to arrive 
at the correct solution of this prob- 
lem. The progress schedule, how- 
ever, would enable the contractor 
to follow carefully this part of his 
work — and the receiving of draw- 
ings and information, as well as the 
imparting of such information as 
may be necessary, is as much a 
part of the general contractor's 
work as the receiving of a steel 
beam — in such a manner that a 
record of drawings can be accu- 



rately and consistently kept, and thus entirely eliminate 
any possibility of argument from the standpoint of delay 
due to tardy information. 

It is also advisable at the time of signing the contracts 
for the contractor, in giving his progress schedule to the 
architect, to receive from the architect a similar schedule 
of drawings to be delivered. This the contractor should 
insist upon, as he may then make his plans for the dis- 
position of certain parts of the work with greater accuracy 
than would be possible if he had no idea as to when draw- 
ings and details of certain portions of his work would be 
available. Not only for himself is this schedule an ad- 
vantage, but also for his various sub-contractors. The 
mill man may be anxious for details in order to get out 
his frames ; the general contractor can merely say that he 
has not yet received the drawings and is not positive 
when he will get them, but will forward them to the 
mill man as soon as possible ; whereas, if a schedule of 




Fiijure 2. 



Fype of Schedule Where F'rogre.s.s of Work may be Checked and Kate of Speed Noted 
on Various Contracts 



34 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



drawings were maintained, he could notify his mill 
man as soon as the contracts were made that the draw- 
ings would be delivered to him on such a date. In this 
manner all of the different contractors interested in the 
completion of the building would be apprised in advance 
of the dates when their information should be forth- 
coming, so that they might proceed with their work 
without delay. 

In arranging a schedule which is available for a gen- 
eral contractor and for a general contractor alone, there 
are many items which do not enter into the schedules of 
the various sub-contractors. On the other hand, the funda- 
mental underlying principle is the same, and the efficient 
service a progress schedule will afford a general contractor 
is afforded to the sub-contractors in the same relative 
degree. 

The illustration, Figure 1, indicates the type of progress 
schedule which is adaptable to the uses of the general 
contractor and is such a schedule as he would work out for 
consultation with the architects or owners. The disad- 
vantage of this particular type, as will be readily seen, lies 
in the fact that the contractor cannot check proportionate 
progress of work. It does, however, give the limiting 
dates within which times certain contracts or sub-contracts 
or portions of the work are to be done, and if a progress 
schedule of this character is made a part of the contract or 
the specifications, it would become, within reasonable 
limits, a binding agreement. 

In this type of progress schedule the heavy vertical sub- 
divisions represent units such as months and the lighter 
sub-divisions represent weeks or proportionate parts of the 
larger units. The horizontal lines may indicate propor- 
tion of work completed, but with this particular type the 
proportionate part is a little less readily indicated than in 
a type to be noted later. 

Figure 1 illustrates the manner in which this record may 
be kept as a contractor's record, indicating completion 
rather than rate of progress. The heavy horizontal lines 
indicate the duration of each individual sub-contract, the 
beginning of the line representing the starting date and 
the end of the line representing the date of completion. 
The broken dotted line, which is noted to indicate how 
this schedule may be maintained, indicates the actual 
duration of the time of the contract, the starting point 
being date of commencement and the end of the line being 
date of completion. 

This particular type of schedule is of use more as a 
record than as an actual check on the progress, and would 
be a convenient form to file for future reference after a 
building has been completed, but is not the highest type 
of progress schedule for current work. An illustration 
of a better type is given in Figure 2. 

Figure 2 represents a modification of the former ty])e and 



indicates in a measure how progress may be checked and 
rate of speed noted. This type, however, is not sufficiently 
flexible to serve all its purposes to the best advantage. It 
will be seen by comparing the lines indicating the pre- 
arranged schedule and the actual progress that the pro- 
portion of work done during any interval of time which 
indicates the rate of speed is more clearly defined than in 
the previous illustration, but a later schedule will show 
a still greater improvement on this particular type. 

In Figure 2 the lighter vertical sub-division, as has been 
previously noted, indicates weeks and the lighter horizon- 
tal line indicates proportions of the total contract. The 
heavy solid line indicates the duration of the contract as 
prearranged by the contractor. The dotted line indicates 
the actual beginning, end, and duration of the work, and 
shows the relative progress. Reference to this illustration 
will show how readily the progress of the work may be 
noted, and also how readily may be noted the exact inter- 
val of time during which nothing was done on the par- 
ticular contract in question. This point alone may be of 
vital importance. 

This subject of progress schedule can be applied to the 
sub-contractor as readily as to the general contractor and 
with equal efficiency in assisting in the preparation of 
work and in the execution of the actual contracts. 

It might also be permissible to call attention to the fact 
that a schedule of this character is eciually applicable to 
any manufacturing enterprise. The systematic record of 
progress is not necessarily confined to architecture or 
building construction alone, but an analogy can readily be 
drawn between the output of a manufacturing establish- 
ment and the foundry of a sub-contractor in building con- 
struction ; for example, in a mill producing woolen goods 
a progress schedule record could be kept as efficiently and 
to as good purpose as in a mill producing interior finish 
in connection with a building enterprise. This type of 
schedule would show the date that orders are received, 
the various sub-divisions of the work from the selection of 
the different kinds of material used to the packing and 
shipping of the finished product, the date of actual com- 
mencement of work on these orders, the progi-ess of vari- 
ous portions of the work, and the date of delivery of the 
completed order. The question may arise as to what 
value this would be in an establishment of this character; 
but it seems sufficiently obvious that the head of the com- 
pany, if he so desire, can by the assistance of the progress 
schedule, tell at a glance the rate at which orders are 
being executed, the way in which promises of delivery are 
being kept, and the amount of work that is being turned 
out by the various departments in an equal space of time. 
This, however, is not in the realm of architecture or con- 
struction and need not be further considered except as an 
analogy. 




35 



36 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




XIF.VV FROM SIKhhi 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

RESIDENCE OF WM. CRANE, JR., ESQ., WATERTOWN, MASS, 
ROBERT H. WAMBOLT, ARCHITECT 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



37 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



DKTAIL OF ENTRANCE 



HOUSE AT WINCHRSTER, MASS. 
ALLAN E. BOONE. ARCHITECT 



38 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VIEW OF STAIR HALL 




\ IICVV OI" LIBRARY 

HOUSE AT WINCHESTER, MASS. 
ALLAN E. BOONE, ARCHITECT 



Three New College Buildings. 

SKINNER RECITATION BUILDING AT MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE, PUTNAM & COX, ARCHITECTS. 

CENTRAL DORMITORY AT WELLESLEY COLLEGE, COOLIDGE & CARLSON. ARCHITECTS. 
MARTHA COOK BUILDING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS. 



IN the architecture of American colleges a certain tra- 
dition seems to be establishing' itself in the free use of 
the forms of English collegiate, or Tudor architecture. 
There are, of course, several exceptions to be found in 
places where an older and already 
frrmly established precedent ex- 
ists, as in the well-known ex- 
ample of Harvard University, 
where the recognized charm of 
the Colonial work in Harvard 
yard has been followed in all of 
the later buildings, with the ex- 
ception of those two or three 
which were built during the arch- 
itectural gloom of the early and 
middle nineteenth century. 

The three buildings illustrated 
in this issue are among the lat- 
est educational buildings to be 
finished, and in each case the 
English collegiate style has been 
adopted. All three, moreover, 
are for the accommodation of girl 
students, and used either as dormi- 
torie sor for recitation purposes. 

The recitation building 
recently completed at Mt. 
Holyoke College was the 
gift of Messrs. Joseph and 
William vSkinner, and pro- 
vides, in addition to class 
rooms, a faculty social 
room, a literature room, 
and several small offices for 
instructors. It is placed on 
the campus, some distance 
back from the main street 
which borders the college 
grounds. 

A rough textured brick 
of varying tones of red has 
been used, laid without any 
pattern and with a wide 
raked joint. The trim is 
principally limestone, al- 
though brownstone has 
been used for the moulded 
water table, and goes far in 
relieving the solid color of 
the walls. The roof is of 
variegated green and purple 
slate. vSteel casements with 
steel sash and frames have 
been used throughout. The 
construction is fireproof, the 




Detail of North Doorway 

Central Dormitory, Wellesley College 




View of Tower from the North 

Central Dormitory, Wellesley College 
39 



framing being steel and the floor slabs concrete, only the 
roof being of wood. The finish on the interior, in gen- 
eral, is of iilain white oak, although in the faculty social 
room and the literature room there is tiiiartcred oak. 

No provision has been made for 
heating apparatus, since steam is 
brought from a central i>lant out- 
side the building; in fact, most 
of the basement is now unfin- 
ished, the rootris being indicated 
on the plans according to their 
future purposes. 

At Wellesley College a fire re- 
cently destroyed the large central 
building which housed about two 
hundred and fifty students, and in 
addition contained almost all of 
the class rooms of the college. 
There was thus an urgent need 
of temporary quarters and ac- 
cordingly there was built in 
something like thirty days a very 
convenient class-room building 
which probably will be iised for 
years to come. 

The next step was to raise 
funds for new and perma- 
nent buildings, and among 
others approached was a so- 
called "Mr. Smith," who 
replied to the rc(|uest for 
a contribution by asking 
whether the college had any 
definite policy in regard to 
this devcloj^uent, and a 
plan which showed how 
they intended to carry it 
out. When the authorities 
were forced to admit that 
they had not had time to 
work out any such ideas, 
"Mr. Smith" said he was 
not interested until a plan 
was develo]ied. This was 
a most important decision 
and one that donors to other 
colleges might well take as 
a precedent. 

The plan once made and 
approved by the trustees of 
the college, " Mr. .Smith " 
offered to give the central 
building of the College Hill 
group ; this is a dormitory 
for two hundred girls, 



40 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



which has been completed at a cost of about $500,000. 
Since, on first consideration, this cost may seem large, it 
should be explained that in addition to the regular dormi- 
tory accommodations in a fireproof building, there is also 
included a series of reception rooms which are intended 
to become the social center of the college. This necessi- 
tated a more elaborate 
interior and a larger 
building than for a 
simple dormitory, and, 
of course, increased the 
cost . 

The college had es- 
tablished, up to this 
time, an accommodation 
unit providing for about 
one hundred girls in 
each dormitory, al- 
though out of this were 
always taken rooms for 
five or six teachers, a 
room for the head of 
the house, and a guest 
room ; while the ten- 
dency, as far as pos- 
sible, seems to be to 
group a smaller num- 
ber of girls in a build- 
ing rather than to increase their number, yet in the 
matter of food and service one hundred seems to be an 
economical unit. It was decided, since this building must 
accommodate two hundred girls, it should resolve itself into 
what may be called a double house, each half containing 
one hundred girls ; and that these girls should meet on 




View in Living Room, Showing Balcony and Alcoves 
Central Dormitory, Wellesley College 



common ground in the dining room and living rooms, but 
that otherwise they should form separate units, having 
their own heads of houses, their own reception rooms _ 
and being as independent of one another as though living 
in separate buildings. 

The central dining room called for one common kitchen, 

both of which have been 
located in the basement. 
An interesting feature 
of the plan is that the 
service, not only for 
this building, but for 
the two other dormito- 
ries on the hill, is en- 
tirely underground and 
reached from a lower 
level, so that the 
grocers', butchers', 
and other service teams 
have no reason for en- 
tering the ([uad of the 
hilltop itself, but use 
the service court on a 
lower level. 

In the examination of 
the remains of the old 
building it was found 
that the exterior walls 
had been made of excellent water-struck brick, the effect 
of which had been entirely ruined when they were laid, 
years ago, by reducing the joints to a hair line. By 
using those which were still in good condition, with wider 
joints and adding new black headers, one to every other 
brick in every other course, the architects have obtained 




Kireplace in Dining Room 



Detail in Living Room 



Central Dormitory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Coolidgc & Carlson, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



41 



an entirely happy result and have added the sentimental 
value of knitting- into the new building- some of the old. 
The exterior stonework is an artificial product made with 
a white marble aggregate givini;- an agreeable color. 

The interior finish through- 
out is of oak, no wood having 
been iised, however, around the 
windows, where there is only 
the stone trim with the steel 
casements set in. The walls of 
the bedrooms are covered with 
burlap, so that pins can be stuck 
where the girls may desire. 
Each bedroom has a large chest 
seat in front of the window, a 
large closet, and on the closet 
door a full-length mirror. The 
lighting: of the bedrooms is ar- 
rangfed so that there is a gen- 
eral overhead light, controlled 
by a switch near the door, and 
also a plug- on each of two sides 
of the room, so that it is pos- 
sible also to have table lamps. 
The floors of the dining room, 
corridors, and stairs are of cork 
applied directly to the rein- 
forced concrete slabs, and are 
laid in 6 inch by 12 inch basket weave pattern of tiles. 

The toilets are so arranged on each floor that no girl 
has to walk more than 50 feet to reach one. The parti- 
tions and floors are all of honed terrazzo. The plumbing- 
is installed on the basis of one lavatory, one water closet, 
and one tub to every five girls ; if ten girls are to use the 
same toilet rooms, then the second bath tub is changed to 

a shower ; and since 

the toilets are ar- 
rang-ed for mini- 
mum groups of ten 
each, there is al- 
ways at least one 
shower in each 
bathroom. 

The heating is by 
an overhead low 
pressure system 
supplied from a cen- 
tral power house. 
The main rooms of 
the first floor and 
of the basement are 
heated by a fan sys- 
tem, the air being- 
humidified by water 
washing. The 
kitchen has electric 
ranges and other 
g-eneral cooking- 
equipment, the va- 
rious kettles, how- 
ever, being heated 
by steam. 

In the basement, 




View in Small Parlor 
Martha Cook Building, University of Mictiigan 




Vii'W in Dining Room 

Martha Cooi< Building, University of Michigan 



and easil\- reached from the main part of the house, there 
is a laundry with six tubs and a drying room, so that the 
girls may do their own laundry work if they so wish. In 
connection with the service entrance there is an office 

where the food and various 
other supplies, as well as ex- 
press packages, may be re- 
ceived and checked. The base- 
ment also contains large storage 
places and is of sufficient 
height, so that a mezzanine 
may be added later if reciuired. 
The trunks are stored in the 
attic where they may be reached 
easily. 

At the University of Michigan 
the latest step in providing for 
the girl students is the resi- 
dence hall known as the Martha 
Cook Building, and erected as 
a memorial gift to the univer- 
sity. It is one of a contem- 
plated group of four buildings, 
all similar, and each to ac- 
commodate about one hundred 
students. Although not on 
the campus proper, it is im- 
mediately across the street 
from the main buildings and takes its place well as a 
part of the complete university group. 

The dormitory floors are interesting in that they are so 
planned that the bedrooms although single are arranged 
in groups or suites of two or three with a private wash 
basin for each suite. This scheme, besides allowing 
flexibility, has the added advantage of making for quiet, 

since practically 
every room is thus 
separated from the 
corridor by two 
doors. There is 
also on each floor a 
general study room 
which, with a fire- 
place and special 
furnishings, affords 
an attractive re- 
treat, while a small 
kitchen adjoining 
the study gives tlie 
the girls an oppor- 
tunity to serve ligjit 
collations. 

( )ii the top floor 
tliere is a convales- 
cent and hospital 
suite wilii a special 
diet kitchen so that 
any sickness, other 
than very serious 
cases, may be cared 
for right in the 
building. 

On the first floor 



42 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



are the usual general rooms — the 
parlors, dining room, and kitchen 
— and a living; suite for the war- 
den as well as a room for the 
housekeeper and a guest room. 
The small alcoves indicated on the 
plan as lobbies are really small 
reception rooms used for the en- 
tertainment of guests. An es- 
pecially interesting feature of this 
lloor is the long corridor which, 
with its comfortable furniture 
and pleasant outlook, practically 
serves as a living room. 

The paneling is, in general, of 
American oak, although Philip- 
pine teakwood has been used in 
the large parlor and butternut in 
the small parlor. The floor of 
the corridor is of tile set within 
marble borders ; the other floors 
in the principal rooms are of 
cement, except in the dining 
room, where a cork tile has been 

used. The ceilings of ornamental plaster are tinted an 
ivory tone. A great deal of care and attention has 
been given to the furnishings, not alone to have them 




Uttail Showing Dining Room Windows 

Martha Cook Building, University of Michigan 



harmoniously in good taste, but 
they have been especially made 
in the expectation that they will 
thus stand long usage. 

The exterior of the building is 
of red brick with limestone trim- 
mings, while the roof is slate. 
The carving of the quite Gothic 
main doorwa\- and of the bosses 
which enrich the mouldings at 
the third story window heads is 
worthy of particular notice. The 
terrace extending along the 
inner side of the building is an 
interesting feature in that it 
provides an out-of-doors sitting- 
place which will undoubtedly 
be greatly appreciated during 
the warmer months of the school 
year. 

The whole effort in the some- 
what free spending of money on 
this building was to create an 
atmosphere of solid substantiality, 
in the realization that such surroundings must have a 
healthy influence on the minds of the students at a time 
when such an influence is most necessary. 




View Showing Terrace Side 

Martha Cook Building, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
York & Sawyer, Architects 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 1. 




ENTRANCE ON CAMPUS KACADE 



SKINNER RECITATION BUILDING, MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE, SOUTH HADLEY, MASS. 

PUTNAM & COX, ARCHITKCTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 2. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 3. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE t. 




FACULTY SOCIAL ROOM 



SKINNER RECITATION BUILDING, MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE, SOUTH HADLEY, MASS. 

PUTNAM & COX. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 5. 




VIICW OK TOWKR KKOM TMK SOUTH 



CENTRAL DORMITORY, WELLESLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY, MASS. 
COOLIDCE & CARLSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 6. 




DETAIL OF LOWER STORIES ON NORTH SIDE OF TOWKK 



CENTRAL DORMITORY, WELLRSLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY, MASS. 
C00LIIK;E & CARLSON, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 7. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 8. 




lUtfj^HMi^^H^tfU^i* 



GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTH 





BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



CENTRAL DORMITORY, WELLESLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY, MASS. 
COOLIDGE & CARLSON. ARCHITECTS 



iL 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 9. 







SKCONU KLOOF< PLAN 



TIIIKI) KLOOK PLAN 



KllTIl KLOOK PLAN 



CENTRAL DORMITORY. WKLLESLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY. MASS. 
COOLIUCE & CARLSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 10. 



^CALLtBBt 



Ssi| -.XI 




■teji? 



-V ,(._<, if-- 






SOUTH KLKVATION 



CENTRAL DORMITORY, WELLRSLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY, MASS. 

COOLIOGE & CARLSON, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE H. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 12. 




VIKWS OF TWO OF THE RECEPTION ROOM.S 



CENTRAL DORMITORY, WELLESLEY COLLEGE, WELLESLEY, MASS. 
COOLIDGE & CARLSON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE IX 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE U 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE l.S. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 2. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 16. 




\ IKU SHOWING CORRIDOR 



MARTHA COOK BUILDING. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. ANN ARBOR. MICH. 
YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS 



J 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE FIFTEEN. 




ZV/A" dc/iany and character of the detail oj 
this hallicay sho-u's we// the excellence of the 
interior woodwork designed by Samuel Mclntirc. 
The cornice with its small frieze and simulations 
of triglvphs is iiuKSually interesting, the group- 
ing of reeded mouldings being echoed on the dado 
cap and on the architrave of the doorway. The 
wall paper, which is of a yellowish tone and in 
reality lighter in contrast than shown in the 



photograph, is a copy oJ an original Colonial 
pattern. In plan the hall'way is unusual: at- 
though the front 7fa II is si/uarc the back wall is 
semicircular, following the line of the beautiful 
winding stair. The house is commonly kno-wn as 
the Cro-wninshicld-Devereux House, although it is 
now o-wned by Zina Coodell, who remodeled it, 
removing an ell from the side, putting it on the 
rear, and thus makini: a square house. 



ENTRANCE HALL, CROWNINSHIELD-DEVEREUX HOUSE. SALEM. MASS. 



IKASUKKD DRAWING ON FOLLOWING I'AGK. 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




HAND- Mil 

SCALE- Of 
DETAIL J- 
5 -INCHU- 
EQUALS 

1-fOOT NE^Ll-POST 



?ILAJT£R. ATJIDE-OF-FRONT-DdDR 



ELEVATIOKL 
SCALE- h/NC/f-//oor 



PLATE ■ 15 
FE&RUAR.Y-1916 



HALL- DETAILS -CROWNIMSHIELD- 
•DEVEREUX-HOUSE • SALEM-MASS- 

5AMUEL-M^1NT111E -ALCHITECT- DATE- 180^ 



MLA5U11LD-^ 
D R.A WN • BY 
GOR.DOM-IIOB11 



44 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



Z.%"!' 4-^2.' I" \'li 



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PLATE 16 



'ALEXANDRIA VA- 
DATE - 1 790 - - m'ii;r- w- tiio/- vou'f.m.- 



MLA/VR,LP'^/PRA\l.\f)Y 
•J-L'KFjyTLROJ- 



45 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE SIXTEEN. 




^T^HIS example of small toic/i house is quite 
J. typical of those built /« Alexandria during 
Colonial times. It is so located that the front com- 
mands a beautiful view of the Potomac River. 
The brick'a'ork of greatly variegated tones of red 
and bro7C'n gives a rich, contrasting background to 
the ivhite 'icood-work of the dooru-ay and the stone 



trim of the -windows. The dormers are partic- 
ularly interesting with the pleasing silhouettes 
formed by the pediments ; their sides and roofs 
and the roof of the house are covered with gray 
slate. The exceptionally good cornice is of 
the type that is most characteristic of those used 
during the Colonial period. 



SNOWDEN HOUSE, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 



MEASURED DRAWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 



46 



Some Italian Doors. 

By JOHN H. SCARFF. 
Accompanied by Measured Drawings by the Author. 



THERE are few matters reg-arding art more worthy of 
consideration than the narrowness of the limits that 
bound human invention, but within those limits the 
range of the imagination is infinite. To-day we return 
to the old types of classical art and it seems at first sight as 
if there could be nothing new under the sun; as if the 
imagination, so fertile in creation during many centuries, 
had been utterly worked out and come to an end, and that 
there was nothing left but to repeat and copy what was 
done ages ago. But by the greatly increased number of 
materials and methods of working them the limits are 
extending far beyond our ability to assimilate, and the 
danger lies in mechanical and impersonal duplication. It 
is the increased demand and facility of production, by 
encouraging excessive speed, that causes the sterility of 
the imagination. Accepting the limits of material as 
fundamental, the range of possibilities is only set by our 
ability. 

But two nations in the history of the world, Greece and 
Italy at the time of the Renaissance, have succeeded in 
giving to every one of their achievements the form of art. 
Nothing was produced in 
Italy between the thir- 
teenth and seventeenth 
centuries, from the small- 
est objects of daily use 
to the palaces of princes, 
that did not bear the char- 
acteristics of a fine art. 
The doors shown in the 
accompanying drawings 
and photographs, chosen 
from an infinite number 
of possibilities through- 
out Italy, owe their dis- 
tinction, apart from their 
pleasing and graceful pro- 
portions, to their strict 
adherence to structural 
limits and skilful adapta- 
tion of the materials. The 
wood doors show nothing 
but various combinations 
of rectangular panels with 
an occasional spot of carv- 
ing, and the utilization of 
their structural nails and 
bolts as an element of in- 
terest and design. The 
metal covered doors, 
corresponding to the ple- 
beian and unsightly kala- 
mein of to-day, are of but 
two kinds,— those made 
up of large pieces of metal 
over the whole central 



portion of the door, with an all-over pattern of nail heads 
fastening the metal to the wooden core ; and those of 
small rectangular pieces of metal, whose meeting is cov- 
ered by metal straps, and they in turn held to the wooden 
core by an arrangement of nails and bolts. In no case is 
there a moulding of any sort — no imitation of another 
material but a design resulting from the natural and sin- 
cere use of metal. The wood doors are usually painted 
a dark green and the metal almost invariably a sage 
approximating the color of corroded copper. 

The political conditions of Italy at that time more 
strongly influenced architecture than any one of the other 
arts. Semi-fortified houses became a necessity, and 
throughout the most brilliant period of the Renaissance 
the country was swept over and over again by struggles 
and strife — not only trod by foreign armies and at times 
fearful of invasion from the east, but rife with political 
intrigues, plots, conspiracies, and the jealousies of citizen 
against citizen, party against party, and city against city. 
Constant revolution had destroyed the last vestige of 
feudalism. The counts had become citizens and the rural 

population ceased to rank 
as .serfs. But the counts 
as city dwellers proved 
but poor neighbors. 
They fortified their pal- 
aces, retained their mili- 
tary habits, and carried 
on feuds in the streets 
and squares. Not content 
with rivalries and jeal- 
ousies among the citizens 
themselves, cities became 
deadly enemies. Rome 
attempted to ruin Tivoli, 
and Venice to ruin Pisa ; 
Verona fought with 
Padua ; Florence and 
Pisa with Lucca and 
Siena, and during the 
thirteenth century Guelf 
and (lliibelline factions 
divided Italy into minute 
parcels. At last the riv- 
alry of cities became so 
acute that the famous in- 
vitation to Charles VIII 
was sent by Ludovico, 
Duke of Milan, and Italy 
from that time was over- 
run by foreign soldiers 
and for many years was 
destined to exchange one 
set of masters for another. 
In such conditions of 
turmoil, treachery, and 




Doorway, Church of the Aracoeli 
47 



48 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



SOME WOODEN D00R5 AT ROME. 

5cole of DrawiQ^s 




NO 1 



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No.I - Polqzzo de) Goverrjo Veccbio, No. HI -Cbieso 5qv C\acorno dei ^paopuol; No.Y - 0^1650 San Marco. 
No H ■ Cbicsa dell Arqcoeli. No,I2'-5ai7 G i ovat7Tii irj LoKerarro . No YI - Piazza Pal larolo 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



49 



crime, when statecraft was synonymous with treachery, and shows the introduction of the decorated bolt head. 



Italian architecture was developed. Windows were 
gfrilled, heavy rusticated walls employed, and doors of 
heavy wood studded with iron to guard against the en- 
circling foes that were even to be thought of. 

Of the doors shown, No. I is at present the entrance to 
a public school in what was formerly an old palace on the 
Governo Vecchio, the main artery 
of traffic before the opening of the 
new Corso Vittorio Emanuelle be- 
tween central Rome and the parts 
lying across the Tiber in the neigh- 
borhood of the Vatican. It is a 
large scale adaptation of the famil- 
iar square panel door, but here 
heavier than usual because of the 
development of the panel into a 
pyramidal form echoing the stone 
architrave around the opening. 
A wood frame runs around the 
entire opening, including both door 
and transom, and the whole 
design, as a glance at the larger 
scale section will show, is carried 
out with a great degree of refine- 
ment. 

No. II is the door at the transept 
entrance to the Church of the Ara- 
c<Jt;li on the Capitoline. Here a de- 
lightful effect is obtained by very 

simple means. The pleasing arrangement of panels is 
saved from monotony by the addition of the two carved 
eagles. The section is quite simple and the doors are 
hung directly in the stone opening, with no wood frame 
to support them such as is shown in example No. I. 

No. Ill occurs at the Piazza Navona entrance to the 
Church of San Giacomo of the Span- 
iards, where the discovery of Amer- Hpr 
ica was first celebrated in Rome. It 
is a later and more developed desi.t;n 




Doors, San Giovanni in Laterano 



The interior of the church is little known and rarely 
visited in spite of the fact that it contains an exquisite 
painted marble balcony of the early Renaissance, one 
of the most perfect bits of architecture to be found any- 
where in an architect's travels. 

No. IV is of bronze and not of wood, but is added 
because of the beautiful refine- 
ment of its simplicity. It is in a 
remote corner of the cloister of San 
Giovanni in Laterano and seldom 
seen. 

No. \' is one of the best exam- 
ples of the simple, square panel type. 
The careful, small scale section gives 
a complication of lines that is very 
pleasing in so simple a scheme. 
With fine Italian taste the carving 
gives a distinction hard to eciual. It 
is interesting and instructive to com- 
l^iare the relative scales of carving 
to panel-section here and in No. II. 
The door is to be found in the beau- 
tiful arcaded loggia of vSan Marco, 
almost opposite the new Victor 
Emanuel monument. 

No. VI shows the entrance doors 
of an old palace on the Piazza Palla- 
rolo near the Farnese palace, and is 
undoubtedly an alteration. Origi- 
nally the door was of a scheme similar to No. V, the 
square panels making the entire door; but at a later 
date the lower and simple part was added, resulting in a 
very suggestive whole. The carving at the top has been 
much mutilated, and only enough remains to indicate 
the general scheme of decoration. 

Nos. VII to X inclusive are some 
of the aristocratic ancestors of the 
modern kalamcin. Unlike the later 
flay variety which becomes, with 





Doorway, Palace on the Governo Vecchio 



Doorway, Church of San Giacomo of the 
Spaniards 



Doorway, Palace on the Piazza Pallarolo 



50 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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No YH - Polq220 , Via GoribaJd) , Genoa 

No Ym- Cathedra] of 5KMork, Vct7ice. 



No IX - Palazzo Publico ,, Perua^io, . (da're 1^50) 
No2-PalQ22o,Via Garibaldi , G^enoa. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



51 



battered and dented mouldings, so dilapidated and dis- 
reputable, these early doors seem designed especially for 
rough treatment and actually look better with the scars 
and bruises of age. They are of a type more often seen 
in northern Italy than in Rome. It is with the hope that 
they will prove suggestive to the modern architect with a 
similar problem that they are incorporated. 

No. VII is the entrance door to a palace on the Via 
Garibaldi, Genoa. The small doors are arranged for or- 
dinary purposes in an opening whose size is determined 
by the scale of the whole fac^ade, and gives pleasing vari- 
ety in what might otherwise seem a large and monotonous 
surface. The nails are not put in with mathematical ac- 
curacy, which gives a pleasing personal element. 

No. VIII is a very small iron door to the right of the 
altar in the Cathedral of St. Mark's, Venice. This is an 
example, along with No. IX, of the metal plate covered 
by straps, and the lack of precision again adds to the 
charm. In this case the rusted iron surface is without 
paint. 

No. IX is a further developed design with great dis- 
tinction. It is rarely seen because to-day it is not used 
and is only found through a spirit of prowling investi- 
gation which in Italy is seldom unrewarded. It is the 
piazza entrance to the Palazzo Publico in Perugia. Apart 
from the design itself the variation in the size of the 



panels, the freedom from stiffness in the c.xecutitjn, and 
the applique all contribute to the pleasing effect of the 
whole. The metal straps are 'h inch thick, and the circu- 
lar cut-out appliques and the lettering at the top are from 
the same sheet metal. The straps arc made up of differ- 
ent lengths, just as the material came to hand. 

Xo. X, similar to No. V^II, is also from a jialace in the 
Via (iaribaldi and is of a type quite common in Genoa. 
Tlie additional relief given by the large handles is tiuite 
welcome on so flat a surface. 

Such as these were the less important and inconspicuous 
doors of the Italian Renaissance. During that period of 
prodigious activity a whole people seemed to be endowed 
with an instinct for the beautiful and with the capacity 
for producing it in every imaginable form. On the 
smallest objects of daily use, saucepans and plates, towels 
and bed-covers, candlesticks and metal fixtures, floor 
tiles, a wealth of artistic invention was lavished by in- 
nimierable craftsmen not only capable of great tech- 
nical skill, but distinguished by almost faultless judgment 
and taste. And to-day, in spite of centuries of war, 
robbery, and ])urchase, in spite of the tramping of foreign 
hordes over her plains and through her fair cities, Italy 
is still the treasure land of Europe and has abundantly 
to give to those that seek still the magic land of in- 
spiration. 






m^ 



Doorway, Church of San Marco 



Doorway, Palazzo Publico at Perugia 



i EDITORIAL COMMENT 

i AN D*N OTES ^ * C 

IFOR.'fTHE^MONTH ^ 


I 




iitettiiiia»»»»»a!»»»»vw»w>>>vff>»y^wg: ■ 



IT has been said, and with considerable truth, that times 
and conditions create genius ; that if we, as a people, 
should demand a Shakespeare, we would realize one. 
This is by way of illustrating the fact that, in the realiza- 
tion of any high standard of artistic expression, more 
depends upon the attitude of the public than upon individ- 
ual accomplishments. 

Those who are primarily interested in education along 
the lines of the pictorial arts, painting and sculpture, have 
realized that to cultivate a general desire for these things 
the best way is to look far into the future and to start with 
the citizens of that future as represented in the youth of 
to-day. Lectures with lantern slides, exhibitions of prints, 
and museum tours are among the many ways by which 
the school children of to-day are being brought to realize, 
at least partially, the piirpose and scope of the fine arts and 
to appreciate what is good in these arts. The museums 
in the larger cities have definite departments and certain 
officials to attend to this particular phase of work. 

While there is much encouragement for architecture to 
be found in these activities, since an appreciation of one 
art must react on the appreciation of the others, it is 
nevertheless unfortunate that there is not a more definite 
course being taken in respect to architectural education 
among the students in the high schools and higher grades 
of the grammar schools. To be sure, any such educational 
effort would have to be simple, for youth cannot be ex- 
pected to appreciate, or even realize, subtleties of propor- 
tion, delicacy of detail, and the philosophy of expression. 
But neither can they understand harmony of color or grace 
of line in paintings and sc^ilpture. The effort is not to 
create 100 per cent, artists or to give all the ability to 
understand completely ; it is rather to give a realization 
that there are these higher expressions of life, a beauty 
from which man can derive pure enjoyment, and this pur- 
pose can be held in architecture as well as in the other arts. 
An admission of the value in such education is seen in the 
fact that music is taught to the young, so that by living in 
that atmosphere during impressionable years they may, 
practically unconsciously, acquire a sense of appreciation. 

The educational efforts of the museums could easily in- 
clude reference to architecture which would place this art 
in the minds of the coming generation not as a mere nec- 
essary housing of man, but as one of his several modes 
of artistic expression ; while by the use of illustrations the 
e3'e could be cultivated to have a certain sense of archi- 
tectural beauty, just as the ear can be made to appreciate 
harmonies of soimd. Education along these lines would 
undoubtedly have a wonderful effect on the architecture 
of the future, for it would do much to bring about an 



appreciative public, demanding certain standards and able 
to damn those efforts which fall short. The great periods 
of art verify this, since in each case they have been at 
times when there was a very general understanding of 
architecture among the people. 

The Chicago City Plan Commission has realized the im- 
portance of early education and a few years ago intro- 
duced into the grade schools a text-book on city planning. 
It is a very simple book, bringing out the essential rea- 
sons for and of good city planning and illustrating by his- 
torical examples the various points which are made. A 
large share of the book is, of course, given to the consid- 
eration of the Chicago plan, both in general scheme and 
in detail. It is realized that the working out of such a 
tremendous undertaking as the Chicago plan is a matter 
which will not take place during this generation and it is 
hoped, therefore, that when future generations are voting 
on questions of bond issues for this cause, they will better 
understand the purposes of their votes. Such must be the 
result, for though none of to-day's youth may remember 
that Major L'Enfant made the original la3'0ut for Wash- 
ington or that Paris has a very excellent system of radial 
and circular streets, they all will realize that there is such 
an ideal consideration as city planning and that it is of 
value to all the community quite apart from the interests 
of any particular political party or ward organization. 

MUCH encouragement is to be found in the compilation 
of building permits issued in various parts of the 
country during January. The totals, as compared with 
former years, would seem to indicate a return to the nor- 
mal volume of business in construction work. Baltimore, 
Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Detroit, Kansas City, Los 
Angeles, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Salt Lake City, and 
Washington — to say nothing of such " war babies " as 
AUentown and Bridgeport — show marked percentages of 
gain over the amounts recorded in January, 1915. While 
a few cities, among which are New York, Pittsburgh, and 
San Francisco, show a loss, this may be regarded as acci- 
dental and due entirely to unusual local and transitory 
circumstances which cannot be taken as indicative of any 
general trend of business activity. 

THE American Academy in Rome announces its com- 
petitions for the prizes of Rome in architecture, 
painting, and sculpture. Application blanks and other 
information concerning the date and places of the pre- 
liminary competition and the qualifications demanded of 
competitors maybe obtained from the secretary, C. Grant 
La Farge, 101 Park Avenue, New York City. 



52 




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VOLUME XXV 



L;^-*-*U.»,JT'**i 



NUMBER 3 



CONTENTS for MARCH 1916 



\\ 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



Architects 

DISPENSARY AND HOSPITAL, NEW YORK ORTHOPAEDIC, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. _ _ . - Tork & Sawyer 

HIGH SCHOOL GROUP, SANTA MONICA, CAL. Allnon ^Allison 

HIGH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. Knkham & "ParUtt 

HOUSE, C. A. GOODWIN, ESQ., HARTFORD, CONN La Farge & Moms 

HOUSE, DANIEL ENGLAND, ESQ., PITTSFIELD, MASS Albro & Lindeberg 

SCHOOLHOUSE, GRADE, FRAMINGHAM, MASS. .. ^ ^Charles M. Baker 



Plate 



^ 



LETTERPRESS 

PORTRAIT OF BALDASSARE PERUZZI 



Authc 



DIAGRAMMATIC PROGRESS SCHEDULES. PART III. Charles A. Whittemore 

Illustrations from Diagrams 
THE HIGH SCHOOL ....Walter H K.lham 

II. Domestic Science, Commercial, and Manual Arts Departments, and Special Rooms. 
Illustrations from Photographs and 1'lans 

THE NEW YORK ORTHOPAEDIC DISPENSARY AND HOSPITAL 

Lindley M. Franklyn 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XVII. Measured Drawmg of Chamber Mantel, Crownmshield-Devereux House^^ ^^^^ 
Salem, Mass. 

^^'"- ^Sl^vT"' °^ '^°°™''^^"°"'^-/ ""-'-. O. J. Munson, }. A. IVeber 

AN ENGLISH HOUSING SCHEME K Z^""'^;" ^''•"•P' 

Duchy of Cornwall Estate at Kennington, London. Adshead & Ramsey, Architects. 
Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

THE VENTILATION OF SPECIAL ROOMS Charles L Hubbard 

Illustrations from Diagrams. 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH - — - 



53 



57 



62 



0^ 



75 



79 



.'^ ' 



r^fc'SWr 



Yearly Subscription. 

Canada-- 

Single Copies 



Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 
*.dvertismg Department, 42 West 39th Street. New York 
payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Posse.ssions and Cuba ?5.00 
^ ' <5 50 Foreign Countries m the Postal Union 6 00 
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.d by the American New. Company and its Branches. J^"'"'^" 
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i^^fflS^ 



Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Company 



t]1 



1 . 1 1 1 I H I M II IIII I " u i ni l irm ii — ^iMiimWUMHIIli'l 



' >j i " i» ." lli1 



18 



THE BRICKBVILDER 






IP 

I 



it 



I 






I! 

V, % 

'/a -/a 

11 

I 



Roof Construction of the Scottish Rite Temple 




Diagonal Section, Showing Method of Construction 




John Russell Pope, Architect 
Washington, D. C. 



ARCHITECTS who are inter- 
^ ested in true masonry 
construction, particularly those 
acquainted with the notable 
Brunelleschi dome, at Florence, 
will be struck by the points 
of similarity in the double-shell 
dome construction of the Temple. 

While the dome at Florence car- 
ries no practical superimposed 
weight, outside of the lantern, in 
the roof of the Temple the lime- 
stone alone, composing the steps 
in the roof as seen in the pho- 
tograph, weighs 332 tons ! The 
entire weight of this roof, lime- 
stone and all, is supported by a 
shell of typical Guastavino Con- 
struction. 

We know of no more striking 
illustration of the structural 
soundness, which distinguishes 
(iuastavino Construction fully as 
much as its aesthetic appeal. 



i 



R. GUASTAVINO 
COMPANY 

NEW YORK : Fuller Building 
BOSTON : 60 State Street 



I 

'/a % 

I 

I 

i 



View of Building, Showing Solid Limestone Roof 




BALDASSARE PERUZZI 

BORS /.V SlEy.4. 1481. DIED iV ROME, 1530. .ARCHITECT OF 
F.ARyESiy.i .ASD PIETRO M.4SSIMI F.4L.4CES I.\ ROME.POLLI.M 
P.4I.4CE AyO CHURCH OF S.4.\ GIL SSEPPE /.V SIE.\.4 



THE BRICKBVILDEIl 



VOLUME XXV 



MARCH, 1916 



NUMBER 3 



Diagrammatic Progress Schedules, 



PART III. 

By CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



IN considering the value of a diagrammatic progress 
schedule to a sub-contractor the same facts present 
themselves as make this form of record of such im- 
portance to a general contractor. It is a well known fact 
that the majority of general contractors to-day are primar- 
ily executive officers and do not operate directly as a mason 
or a carpenter contractor, nor specialize in any particular 
branch of the building industry. Their chief function 
under these conditions is to correlate all the efforts of 
their various sub-contractors and keep the machine in reg- 
ular, efficient operation. The general contractor is the 
producing machine, and the sub- contractors are the parts 
which make the machine capable of production. 

It is the sub-contractor, therefore, whose efforts must 
be maintained at the highest point of efficiency in order 
that the results shall be in accordance with the contract 
expectations. Control of his organization and knowledge 
of his products and producing powers are as essential to 
a sub-contractor as is his ability to get business and make 
a profit, and only by efficient administration of his organi- 
zation can this profit be commensurate with his efforts. 

The various heads of departments in a sub- contractor's 
employ should be able at a glance to report exact informa- 
tion about any work passing through the process of manu- 
facture, and should be able to keep in actual control of ah 
the work under their charge in order to secure efficient 
co-operation from all the employees. 

In order to determine what functions should be pre- 
dominant so that a schedule wiljbest serve the interests of 
the sub-contractor, it may be advisable to analyze the re- 
lations which exist in construction work between a general 
contractor and those to whom he sub-lets the various divi- 
sions of his contract not directly under his control. 

As is only too well known to architects, the selec- 
tion of sub-contractors by a general contractor is not 
always determined by their efficiency or the merit of their 
work ; it is, in the majority of cases, a selection based on 
the price quoted for the work, even though the general 
contractor may accept a little lower standard and a little 
lower grade of work than from the next contractor who 
may be a little higher in price. This is one of the evils of 
the present so-called " competitive system " of estimating 
which comes beyond the province of this article. In 
cases, however, where contractors are selected from a list 
controlled by the architects and owners and where the 
sub-contractor is selected from those estimating, and the 
arrangement is made that the general contractor shall co- 
operate with the sub-contractors so selected in order to 



produce the completed building, the value of the progress 
schedule to the sub-contractor still maintains. 

There are three results which a general contractor de- 
mands from each of his sub-contractors : first, prompt- 
ness in delivery; second, quality in product; and third, 
accuracy in installation. These are not the only features 
of the contract between the two parties, — and, as has 
already been noted, the selection of the sub-contractor 
does not necessarily depend on these three features, — but 
are vitally essential, and of these, promptness in delivery 
is the chief desideratum in present-day construction. 
This is true from the standpoint of the general contractor, 
but is not the most vital consideration from the standpoint 
of the owners or the architect. Fortunately, however, it 
is also true that a sub-contractor who is prompt in deliv- 
ery of material, but who maintains a low standard of qual- 
ity of product and workmanship, is not likely to receive 
so many contracts as the one who combines all the three 
virtues noted above. 

Inasmuch as a jn'ogress schedule cannot represent in 
any degree quality of material nor quality of workman- 
ship, it is only with the phase of manufacture and delivery 
that a progress schedule as maintained by the sub-con- 
tractor can be of value to himself, to the general con- 
tractor, and to the architect. 

The schedule, if properly and efficiently maintained, 
will show to the general contractor the progress which his 
sub-contractor is making in his preliminary work in the 
mills or foundry, in the actual production of the finished 
material, and also in the deliveries at the building. And 
it is no't alone with the actual receipt of material that the 
general contractor is vitally concerned. The first wish of 
the general contractor is naturally to deliver the com- 
pleted building to the owners at the earliest possible mo- 
ment consistent with the standard of workmanship which 
his organization represents, so that naturally he would 
demand from his sub-contractors the most efficient and 
speedy deliveries which they are able to make. Material 
must be at hand at such times as will be ready for use and 
not necessitate storage or extra handling ; it must also be 
delivered in such a manner as not to cause a delay in 
installation. This is easily controlled by the progress 
schedule whether the building be in the same city as the 
shop or whether they be miles ai)art. 

The sub-contractor in proceeding to arrange and main- 
tain a progress schedule would enter first the dates of the 
receipt of the order, the date called for for completion of 
the order, and then the various subdivisions of his work. 



54 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



The illustration (Figure 1) given herewith shows a progf- 
ress schedule as adapted particularly to a factory produc- 
ing ornamental iron, but with slight variations could be 
adaptable to any sub-contractor's work. This illustration 
will show how the sub-contractor can preserve a complete 
record of his materials and men, the production of his fac- 
tory or shop, and the record of deliveries at the build- 
ing. 

The operation of such a schedule is so simple, requires 
so little time and no e.xtra employees, and is of such great 
value if properly maintained, that it should be an integral 
part of every office equipment. The reasons for its use 
are so obvious that the only excuse for not adopting such 
a record seems to be imfamiliarity with the principles and 
advantages. After a very short experience the progress 
schedule becomes almost automatic. 

The sub-contractor by the use of such a progress 
schedule as shown in Figure 1 is enabled to control not 
only his own organization and products, but those who 
execute parts of his contract outside of his own premises. 
The modeler, the carver, the foundry man, all become a 
working part of his organization and under his control. 



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Figure 1. Type of Progress Schedule Adapted to Charting the Progress of the Manufacture of a 

Building Product 



even though the actual work is done at a considerable dis- 
tance. He is able to check their progress and assure 
himself that the work is being carried on in a manner so 
as not to interfere wnth his contract liabilities nor cause 
any delay. 

As with the general contractor, so it is with the sub- 
contractor, that one of the principal causes of disturbance 
and argument is the question of delay which continually 
arises. If at the completion of the building the general 
contractor is called upon to face a delay claimed by the 
owners, he must naturally search for the source of this 
difficulty. The first assumption a general contractor 
would be inclined to consider is that the delay is directly 
chargeable to his sub-contractors rather than to his own 
organization. The sub-contractor, therefore, who main- 
tains the progress schedule can demonstrate beyond a 
reasonable doubt whether or not the delay is justly charge- 
able to him. Unfortunately for the sub-contractor it is 
too frequently a fact that the general contractor arbitrarily 
reduces the amount of his final payment by charging for 
delays, whether actual or imaginary, and the sub-con- 
tractor, rather than have the courts decide the merits of 
the case, accepts the deduction. It 
might be difficult to produce suffi- 
cient evidence to convince a court 
that the sub-contractor had no part 
in the responsibility for the delay. 
Time books and statements of 
mechanics or foremen are not in 
themselves sufficient evidence. 
No court in the country, however, 
would minimize the competency of 
the evidence of a progress sched- 
ule. This is particularly true of a 
schedule which has been reported 
monthly to the contractor. 

There is still another phase of 
the sub-contractor's business in 
which a progress schedule can be 
of tremendous value to him, and 
that is in correctly checking and 
estimating his monthly requisi- 
tions. It is becoming more and 
more a common practice among 
architects to arrange for monthly 
payments to the general contractor, 
and these payments carry a certain 
sum for the sub-contractor, which 
sum the sub-contractor sometimes 
receives and sometimes unfortu- 
nately does not get at all, the 
general contractor holding it back 
for one reason or another. 

The sub-contractor who properly 
operates the progress schedule 
finds that his work in making up 
his monthly estimate of work done 
is very much simplified. Those 
who do not use this process are re- 
cjuired to approximate the amount 
of work already completed and de- 
livered at the building by rule of 
thumb or by inaccurate or incom- 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



55 



plete factory records. The progress schedule, however, 
shows at a glance just what proportion of work has been 
completed, and the general contractor upon receiving the 
requisition of the sub-contractor accompanied by a copy 
of his progress schedule can verify for himself the 
amounts due. 

These monthly returns of progress schedules from the 
sub-contractor to the general contractor and from the gen- 
eral contractor to the architect and owner form an excel- 
lent basis for checking and terminating any incipient 
tendency to delay : for example, if the sub-contractor in 
forwarding his progress schedule to the general contractor 
shows b}' the progress lines that his work is up to the 
mark, there is no possible chance for the general con- 
tractor to claim delay on any point except installation at 
the building ; if, on the other hand, the progress line 
shows a tendency to lag behind the point at which it 
should be, the general contractor can easily remedy this 
difficulty by calling to the sub-contractor's attention his 
liability in case of delay. 

Another reference to the illustration (Figure 1) will 
clearly define the possibility of noting where delays occur 
in the progress of parts of the work. 
This gives an opportunity to deter- 
mine at that particular time the ex- 
act cause of delay and also gives a 
very clear idea of how much greater 
speed must be developed in turning 
out the particular portion of the 
work previously delayed in order 
to make up the time lost. 

As a concrete illustration of the 
working of this schedule, take, for 
example, the item " Models." The 
program line shows that the making 
of models should start on or about 
December 15 and should be com- 
pleted on or about March 6. In- 
stead of maintaining these dates, 
however, the models were not com- 
menced until about January 1 and 
were completed about March 21. 

The delay in delivering the com- 
pleted models was necessarily the 
cause of a delay in finishing the 
patterns, but this delay was over- 
come by extra pressure in other de- 
partments so that the whole contract 
was completed at the time agreed 
upon in the contract. Reference to 
the " Models " progress line shows 
that the early part of the modeling 
was carried on at the rate of speed 
required to fulfil the conditions of 
the program , but that when about 40 
percent completed, the work slowed 
up appreciably and at about 55 per 
cent resumed a greater rate of speed 
than at first, which brought the 
date of completion nearer the pro- 
gram date than would have been the 
case were the contract rate of speed 
maintained from this point. 



Upon investigation it appears that at the time when 
little was being done on the actual models in the shop, 
some models had been presented to the architects for ex- 
amination and approval, and that the time thus consumed 
was greater than had been originally considered necessary 
in the establishing of the program. 

The reason for the delay in starting the models was due 
to the fact that the information, after the completion of 
the shop details, had not been properly and quickly com- 
municated to the modeler, which delay was directly charge- 
able to the sub-contractor. 

In case the completion of the whole contract had been 
delayed, the responsibility for this, therefore, would have 
been automatically placed by this ])rogrcss schedule on the 
organization of this sub-contractor. The delay in" Models" 
was not due to the lack of attention of the architect to the 
approval of models, but was due to the fact that the modeler 
selected was not able to fully intcri)ret the architect's 
drawings without several trials. 

One of the defects of this form of progress schedule is 
also apparent, as will be noted under the head of " Cast- 
ing." The casting was commenced at the time specified 



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Figure 2. 



Type of r^rogress Schedule r^articularly Adapted to F'rovide a Record of Operations for 

the Owner 



56 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



in the progfram and was also completed at the time speci- 
fied which would make the progress line and the program 
line coincident. In order, however, to illustrate the prog- 
ress of the work, it was necessary to establish another line, 
which during the course of the casting process became a 
line parallel with that in the program. The completion 
of the "Casting" progress line, therefore, overlaps the 
item below. 

A later form of schedule will indicate one of the methods 
used to overcome this defect. 

In the form presented in Figure 1 there are other features 
which are equally subject to criticism and upon employ- 
ment of a progress schedule this would be readily appar- 
ent. The fact remains, however, that there are a suffi- 
cient number of good points about this or any other form 
of progress schedule to counterbalance the effect of those 
points which might be considered of little value. The 
principal feature which the progress schedule, broadly 
speaking, maintains for the general contractor and the 
sub-contractor is in the actual checking of progress of 
their work, in the correlation of the different organiza- 
tions into a single unit, and in the method by which poten- 
tial disagreements may be disposed of in their incipiency 
in such a manner as to preserve harmony in all the differ- 
ent trades. 



At a glance it would seem as though a diagrammatic 
progress schedule would be of little value to the owner of 
the prospective building except as a matter of curiosity 
and general interest, but this is far from the case. The 
owner is able by means of a progress schedule not only 
to prepare for his monthly payments on the certificates of 
the architect, but is also able to approximate payments 
for some time in advance. 

The advantage of this is obvious in that many times 
the entire financing of the proposition is not completed at 
the time the contract is signed, and it is not definitely de- 
termined just how the loans shall be made in order to 
meet the payments at regularly stated intervals. An 
owner, however, by consulting his progress schedule may 
readily approximate months in advance, with a very close 
degree of accuracy, payments which may then be due, 
and is able to have sufficient time at his disposal to 
properly arrange these loans to his best advantage. 

Without a progress schedule frequently a requisition 
comes in and certificates are issued by the architect for 
a greater amount than the owner anticipates, which may 
occasion a slight delay in arranging his payments for his 
contractors. This is a potential source of embarrassment, 
as contractors, as a rule, arrange all of their payments on 
the supposition that the money will be forthcoming as 
soon as the certificates of the architect are issued, and 
in many instances the contract is so worded that the pay- 
ment must be made within ten days after the filing of the 
requisition. It is, therefore, obvious that anything which 
will give the owner a fair idea of how the payments will 
be requested a sufficient length of time in advance so that 
he may be able to provide for his loan, is distinctly a mat- 
ter of interest to every owner and real estate operator. 

Another way in which the progress schedule can be of 
tremendous value to the owner and real estate man is in 



approximating the time of completion and in checking 
over the progress in such a manner that he can determine 
whether or not there is any likelihood of dates of occu- 
pancy being subject to change. Where no progress 
schedule is employed it is necessary to rely entirely upon 
the hypothesis of the contractor as to whether or not there 
will be any delay until very clo.se to the date of comple- 
tion, at which time it is frequently embarrassing to the 
owner if he finds it necessary to substitute a new date in 
leases already arranged with tenants. 

This diagrammatic progress schedule eliminates in a 
large degree the possibility of such an occurrence in that 
the progress of the contractor can be watched carefully 
through the months of construction, and whenever leases 
are made the relative status of the work, as compared 
with the status assumed under the contract, can readily 
be noted. This feature in itself should be sufficient to 
warrant the existence of some such record for the use of 
the owners of buildings. The feature of enabling him to 
approximate his probable payments to the general con- 
tractor is also of sufficient importance, but there are other 
features which the use of a progress schedule develops, 
which are in themselves of equal or greater importance 
than those enumerated. 

Figure 2 illustrates a form of progress schedule which 
is particularly of value to the owners, real estate operators, 
and trustees of estates, in that it contains all these types 
of information, which is of extreme value to them during 
the process of construction of the building and which is of 
value to them as a record after completion. 

An analj'sis of Figure 2 will show how exactly the 
owners or trustees can approximate in advance the prob- 
able payment which will be required on the first of any 
month. It will also show how a progress schedule will 
give the information in regard to the changes of dates of 
tenancy. Another factor of value of a progress record to 
the owners is in its comparative value in regard to other 
buildings already completed and other projects under way. 
Very frequently the owners in preparing for the erection 
of a new building find a record of a previous structure of 
inestimable value. The record, however, such as occurs 
in Figure 2, which on the completion of the building shows 
the duration of the various sub-contracts, is of far greater 
value than any other form yet produced, in that the owners 
may readily refer to the time consumed by any particular 
branch of the building operation rather than to be confined 
to the duration of the building operation as a whole, and 
by means of a schedule of this character a real estate 
operator or a trustee or an owner could closely approxi- 
mate the time required for the construction of a building, 
even though it be a little different in character or larger 
or smaller than the one of which he has the progress 
schedule at hand. 

Figure 2 will show the program lines only, the progress 
schedule not having been completed as this is purely a 
hypothetical case. It does show, however, how easily 
extensions can be made in various subdivisions of the 
contract or in various additional items of interest to the 
owner but not to the general contractor, such as vacuum 
cleaner, sprinkler system, insurance rates, land costs, 
assessments, etc., all of which can be added to this 
schedule with perfect facility making a complete record of 
the tran.saction. 



I 



The High School. 

II. DOMESTIC SCIENCE, COMMERCIAL, AND MAN- 
UAL ARTS DEPARTMENTS, AND SPECIAL ROOMS. 

By WALTER H. KILHAM. 



THE domestic science de- 
partment comprises ac- 
commodations for instruc- 
tion in cooking, sewing, and 
housekeeping, and requires the 
space of at least four or five 
classroom units. 

Cooking Room. The pupils' 
tables are placed in the form of 
a hollow rectangle or oval, with 
the teacher's demonstration 
table in the center, in much the 
same arrangement as described 
in a previous article (The 
Brickbvilder, June, 1915) for 
the elementary school. A small 
gas stove on top of the table, 
with an aluminum plate under it, is often provided ; but 
more recently each pupil is given a four-cover gas range 
complete with oven and all appliances, standing on the 
floor at the side of each table. Acting upon the theory of 
reproducing as far as possible conditions actually met with 
in most peoples' homes, 
a regular coal range is 
also installed, together 
with a kitchen sink and 
a ' ' dresser ' ' for dishes. 
A refrigerator and if 
possible a pantry should 
be added, and unless a 

model flat " is in- 
cluded, there should 
be space for setting a 
dinner table. 

Model Flat. The ex- 
tent to which the devel- 
opment of the " model 
flat ' ' is carried gener- 
ally rests with the 
authorities. Some are 
contented with a small 
dining room, sometimes 
tastefully equipped with 
a fireplace, china cup- 
boards, and "dome" electric light. With these sur- 
roundings the pupils practise the giving of dinnerparties, 
act as hostesses, and are responsible for the entertainment 
of their guests. Other authorities add a bedroom, and 
some cities. New York for example, install a complete 
suite, adding living room, hall, kitchen, laundry and bath- 
room to the above. These may be arranged as a 
series of alcoves, about 8 feet square with one side open- 
ing to a continuous space about 8 feet wide where instruc- 
tion may be given. At the other side of this space is a 




Laundry, High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass, 

Kirkham <t Parlctt, Architects 




Cooking Room, High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass. 

Kirkham & I'arlctt, Architects 



row of large store closets con- 
taining changes of furniture, 
pictures, rugs, and wall papers 
mounted on cloth, the pupil be- 
ing given an alcove and expected 
to select harmonious decorations 
and furnishings for it. 

Laundry . A complete laundry 
outfit is rarely installed, some 
earthenware trays with ironing 
table and electric irons being 
considered adeciuate. 

Srd'ing Room. The sewing 
room requires blackboards, 
workcases with racks, and cases 
of special design for materials 
and work. For dressmaking, a 
separate room is necessary with dressing booths, either 
built in or made by curtains. A sink or basin with run- 
ning water is needed, and outlets for electric irons for 
pressing, etc. The following list gives the equipment as 

installed in schools built in Boston, Mass. : 

30 Portable tables (inserted 

yard measure), * 
50 Chairs in girls' school* 

and 
30 In mixed schools, vary- 
ing in height from 14 
to 21 inches from 
floor.* 
1 Glass show case about 8 
feet long, 2'1' or 3 feet 
wide. 
1 Cutting table, 8 feet 
long, 3 feet wide, and 
2 feet 6 inches high, 
inserted yard meas- 
ure, 3 drawers in 
table, blackboards, 
minimum of 30 square 
feet. 
Closet for teachers' 

wraps, 
.Stationary wash bowl 
with running hot and 
cold water. 
1 "'ii-lb. electric iron, 
1 4-lb, electric iron. 

Standard box rack with 
box for each girl. 
(See drawing,) 
1 Sewing machine for 500 
or fewer girls. 

The Commercial /hparlmcnt. The rooms of this depart- 
ment require little in the way of special equipment unless 
a bank is included. This should face either on a corridor 
or be near it, so that a school savings bank system may 
be handled through it if necessary. Its construction is 
shown by the illustration. Some rooms are generally 
e(|uipped with special desks for instruction in bookkeep- 
ing, stenography, and typewriting, the number of these 
rooms depending upon the purpose of the school. An 

• Not required when no reKular " sewinx room " is availal)le. 



57 



58 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



office equal in size to about a third of a class room is a 
useful feature when it can be provided. 

The Manual Arts Department . The development of this 
branch of hig-h school instruction has afforded perhaps the 
most striking: feature of modern high school planning-. It 
forms the most popular feature of high school work, being 
barely equaled by the com- 
mercial department, and it 
provides a striking indication 
of desire of American boys 
for technical and practical in 
preference to general or classi- 
cal education. The writer of 
these articles does not intend 
to venture into a field which 
is properly purely one of ped- 
agfogy ; but his observations 
in this respect have led him to 
the belief that in spite of the 
large sums of money a])pro- 
priated by many cities for this 
purpose, there has been a 
failure of efficiency' in reach- 
ing the ultimate object de- 
sired. The public school is of 
necessity a school for the masses, and it is the boys com- 
ing from the homes of the masses who need training in 
manual work of a practical sort. Too much " kid-glove " 
atmosphere is ruinous to this sort of training. vSome 
large cities have recognized this and are showing a ten- 
dency to erect separate buildings for Manual Arts or 
"Vocational" High 



Schools, but even 
when this is done, the 
writer believes that the 
coeducational feature 
should be avoided and 
the boys' departments 
kept rigidly separate. 

In smaller cities 
this cannot be accom- 
plished because of the 
expense, and obviously 
the carpentry, machine 
too], and forge work 




Bank in High Scliool of Commerce, Boston, Mass. 

Howard Walker and Kilham & Hopkins, Associated Architects 




First I'loor Plan, Carter H. Harrison Technical High School 



have to be carried on in the same building with the regu- 
lar courses. When this occurs it is highly desirable to 
separate these portions of the building as much as pos- 
sible from the rest, so as to prevent the noise resulting 
from their operation reaching the rest of the building. 
This has been admirably accomplished in the Carter 

Harrison Technical High 
School at Chicago, of which 
Mr. A. F. Ilussander is the 
architect, and the plans re- 
produced here are worthy of 
careful study. The wood- 
working, machine tool, foun- 
dry, forge room, and electrical 
construction departments are 
arranged at the rear of the 
building in a manner to inter- 
fere as little as possible with 
the other exercises of the 
school. Adjoining this section 
is a two-story wing, running 
off at right angles to the side 
of the building and contain- 
ing besides the power plant 
space for instruction in car- 
pentry, masonry, plastering, sheet metal work, house and 
sign painting, plumbing, and gas fitting, and even tanning 
and soap manufacturing. 

The spaces for these various departments are arranged 
along a 12-foot corridor and are separated from each other 
by masonry walls. While much thought has been given 

to the arrangement of 

r 



this department, it is 
worth while to consider 
whether much of this 
work could not be ef- 
ficiently handled in a 
long, factorylike build- 
ing free from perma- 
nent partitions. Such 
an arrangement would 
approximate more 
closely actual shop 
conditions and allow 
much greater flexibil- 




Carter H. Harrison Technical High School, Chicago, Hi. 

A. F. Hussander. Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



59 




Lunch Room, High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass. 

Kirkham & Parlett, Architects 

ity of instruction. Manual and vocational instruction i.s 
still passing through a period of development and is lia- 
ble to many changes, even from year to year, causing 
variations in the amount of floor space demanded, and 
it would seem to be a mistake to define by 
permanent walls the portion allotted to each 
branch, when the work could probably be as 
well carried on by groups working in different 
parts of one long room. 

Adequate wash rooms are an essential part of 
this department, for in order to save time it is 
necessary to allow an entire section to wash at 
once and similarly ample lighting is highly es- 
sential. By arranging these rooms in wings at 
the rear of the building many of them can be sky- 
lighted and at the same time easily ventilated. 

Raised steps for demonstration seats are 
often, but not always, provided in one corner of 
the workrooms. 

Another arrangement of similar nature to 
that of the Chicago school is in the Central 
High School at Minneapolis, Mr. William B. 
Ittner, architect, where the section allotted to 
metal working is placed at the rear in a low wing 
on one side of the center, and a corresponding 
wing containing the woodworking department 
at the other side, each being skylighted. Each 
of these wings also contains the additional fea- 
ture of a small lecture room with raised seats 
and blackboards. It is needless to say that the 
construction and finish of this portion of the 
building ought to be of the plainest and most 
durable description. The walls should be of 
painted brick and free from plaster or other 
easily damaged material. Salt glazed brick 
may be employed if desired for the lower por- 
tions. The floors in the woodworking rooms 
are best made of waxed maple, while cement 
is suitable for the machine tool room. A floor 
of wood paving blocks is admirable for the forge 
room and foundry and if made of round blocks 
it will not give trouble by swelling and shrink- 
ing. Such a floor obviates the danger from 



flying fragments of concrete and a slight amount of 
dampness occurs which is desirable for the mould- 
ing sand. 

l.uuih Room. Another very modern development 
of a high school is the lunch room. Until very re- 
cently this has been located in the least attractive 
portion of the building and usually restricted to the 
space in the basement directly behind the front 
steps, which, being badly lighted, has not been 
available for any other use. The accommodations 
were generally limited to a counter with perhaps a 
small storeroom and gas stove, and slight provision 
was made for the comfort of pupils while eating. 
Tables and chairs were unknown and the eating 
was done in the corridor. 

Recent years have shown a material change in 
this condition of affairs, and the lunch room has not 
only become an organic part of the establishment, 
with carefully thoughtout provision of adequate 
space for the pupils, but also care is now taken to 
make the lunch room an attractive part of the building. 
The temptation still remains to locate it in the basement, 
the space under the auditorium being naturally the most 
available now that the basement gymnasium is becoming 




Plan of Lunch Koom in Bcisement, Carter H. Harrison Technical High School 





smJbri: 






117 



^SfiB- .a.a_D.g n n^aai] a J"^ ^.a □ a d n d □ n d a 'eet || V^r—^ 



OB ificuM % un^n 



Plan of Manual Arts Department, Carter H. Harrison Technical llitfh School 




Irrterior of Woiiilworkina Shop 

Carter H. Harrison Technical High School. Chicago, 111. 
A. r. Ilussander, Architect 



60 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



a thing: of the past. This gen- 
erally gfives sufficient area, 
but is apt to be dark and of 
insufficient heijjht. It is ex- 
plained in defense of this plan 
that the pupils at the best 
spend only a short time at 
lunch, the tendency of the ris- 
ing generation being against 
" Fletcherizing, " and that 
after lunch they wish to go 
out of doors ; hence, a loca- 
tion near the ground is de- 
sirable and sunlight is not 
essential. The recently built 
Chicago high schools, how- 
ever, contain lunch rooms in 
the upper stories, that in the 

Carter H. Harrison being located in the second story and 
that in the Nicholas Senn, on the roof. The Washington 
Irving High School in New York contains three lunch 
rooms, all located above the ground floor. The lunch 
room at the Carter Harrison School 
is 58 by 248 feet in size, 14 feet 
high, and is lighted by ranges of 
windows on each side. There is 
a kitchen with serving counter at 
each end with a rail to keep the 
pupils in line. On entering the 
room through a door leading to 
the space inside the rail, each 
pupil obtains a check, then suc- 
cessively takes from the counter 
a tray, a plate, knife and fork, 
paper napkin, and such articles of 
food as he desires. On leaving 
the "queue" his slip is pimched 
to the proi:)er amount by an attendant and he goes to a 
table. Drinking water is obtained from fountains located 
at the side of the room through faucets, which can be 
turned on by pressing the tumbler against a bar, obviat- 




.Assembly Hall, High School of Commerce, Boston, Mass. 
C. Howard Walktr and Kilham ii Hopkins, Associated Architects 




First Floor Plan of Boys' Gymnasium 

Carter H. Harrison Technical High School 

Chicago, III. 

A. F. Hussander, Architect 



ing the necessity of touching 
them with the hands and al- 
lowing a pupil to obtain two 
glasses of water at one time. 
Cashiers stationed at each of 
the two exits from the room 
receive the money and checks 
from the pupils as they pass 
out. The serving equipment 
requires a counter with shelv- 
ing, kitchen with gas appara- 
tus, dish washing appliances, 
storeroom, refrigerator, etc. 

The accompanying illustra- 
tion shows the lunch room at 
the High School of Commerce 
at vSpringfield, Mass., Messrs. 
Kirkham & Parlett, archi- 
tects. This is located in the basement under the as- 
sembly hall. The walls are lined with glazed brick for 
their full height and the pupils are seated at small round 
tables, each supplied with four chairs. 

A/iisic Room. Many cities re- 
quire a room where singing and 
chamber music can be taught. A 
room about the size of one and 
one-half or two class rooms will be 
sufficient and it may have a small 
stage. White paint and Ionic 
pilasters are usual but not obliga- 
tory. Other schools omit the 
music room and substitute a room 
equipped as a large class room or 
study hall, sometimes handsomely 
paneled, where elocution and ora- 
tory may be practised. No defi- 
nite rules can be laid down for the 
design of these rooms that will apply in all cases. 

Mcchaiiica/ a)id l''rcc Hand Drawing. The rooms for 
drawing classes are best located on the north side of the 
building so as to profit by the steady light. There is some 




View Looking Toward Stage \ kw Looking Toward Rear Balcc 

Assembly Hall, High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass. 

Kirkham & Parlett, Architects 



\ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



61 



advantagfe in keeping- the 
mechanical drawing class 
near the manual training de- 
partment, but the free hand 
drawing- room may well be 
located in the top story 
where skylig-hts can be had. 
The best form for the latter 
is the "sawtooth," with 
windows toward the north 
or high windows in the wall, 
similar to those in a studio. 
These rooms require a large 
sink with faucets high 
enough to permit of wash- 
ing drawings, facilities for 
blue printing, and racks and 
cases for drawing boards, 
etc. Blackboards are desir- 
able as well as tack boards 
for hanging drawings. 

Botanical Laboratory . 
This department may be 
about the size of an ordinary 
class room. A sink is nec- 
essary and also cases and 
drawers for specimens. An 
ideal arrangement is to 
locate this room on the 
ground floor on the south 
side and have adjoining- 
it a greenhouse, and if 
the land permits a small 
garden . 

Assembly Hall. This sub- 
ject has already been 
touched upon in a previous 
article dealing with the elementary school (The Brick- 
BVILDER, June, 1915) and but little remains to be added. 
For a high school it will usually be necessary to introduce a 
motion picture booth with vent, and frequently to provide 
space for an organ, while on the whole a more elaborate 




View of Swimming Tank Room 




First and Mezzanine Floor Plans of Swimming Tank Room 

Carter H. Harrison Technical High School, Chicago, 111. 

A. F. Hussander, Arciiitect 



architectural scheme is 
generally expected. 

CiV mil as iu in . G y m n a - 
siums have now become 
pretty well standardized and 
a school gymnasium will 
not vary greatly from one 
designed for a Y. M. C. A. 
Side galleries for spectators 
are desirable, together with 
rooms for the physical di- 
rector, extra apparatus, and 
for the visiting team, dry- 
ing room, sterilizer, etc. In 
fact, this part of the build- 
ing deserves more consider- 
ation than can be given to 
it in this paper. Where the 
school is coeducational and 
of sufficient size, two gym- 
nasiums are desirable or a 
single large gymnasium 
may be built, divided into 
halves by a removable par- 
tition. Very large schools 
may have two or more gym- 
nasiums. 

The swimming tank has 
now become an important 
feature and most large 
schools make some provis- 
ion for one. At the Carter 
H. Harrison vSchool in Chi- 
cago the tank is 24 by 60 
feet, graded from 5 to 7 
feet deep. The boys' and 
girls' dressing rooms are 
arranged in the gallery, which also contains seats for 
spectators. On the main floor are rooms for bathing 
suits, storerooms, and showers. The floor around the 
tank is of cork carpet and the combination draining groove 
hand rail is used. 





Gymnasium, High School of Commerce, Boston, Mass. 
C. Howard Walker and Kilham & Hopkins, Associated Architects 



Gymnasium, Carter H. Harrison Technical High School, Chicago, III. 
A. F. Hussander, Architect 



The New York Orthopaedic Dispensary and Hospital. 

YORK & SAWYER, Architects. 



Hy LINDLEY M. FRANKLYN. 



THE work of this charitable institution consists in the 
treatment of crippled children and adults adminis- 
tered in the dispensary, in the hospital, in the home 
by the visiting nurses, or at the country branch for con- 
valescents at White Plains, N. V. 

The special conditions which the architects had to study 
in designing: a building to house this institution, and 
which proved to be the controlling factors in determining 
the plan, may be stated briefly 
as follows : 

1. The site is in the middle 
of the block. It has a frontage 
of about 88 feet on 59th street 
and 127 feet on 58th street, the 
level of 58th street being four 
steps higher than 59th street. 

2. A single entrance was 
required for all employees, 
patients, and visitors. 

3. Numerous small rooms 
were necessary, and to light 
these a building with a long 
perimeter. 

4. A very large dispensary, 
well lighted, with good natural 
ventilation, had to be arranged 
conveniently for the surgeon to 
attend to his four classes of pa- 
tients : new, continued, male, 
or female. 

5. Ten-bed ward units were 
determined upon; at least three 
units to be placed upon a floor. 

With these fixed conditions 
the problem was to plan a 
hospital which should have not 
only light wards and a well arranged dispensary, but an 
enormous basement, covering 80 per cent of the lot, in 
which practically every room should have good, natural 
light and ventilation. After thorough study and the prep- 
aration of numerous schemes, the cruciform plan was 
selected, as it proved by comparison to be the best solu- 
tion of the problem fulfilling all the requirements. 

By referring to the floor plans it will be seen that the 
first, second, and third floors cover less area than the floor 
below, and that there are no enclosed courts above the 
basement. Planned in this way, it is possible to provide 
additional overhead lighting for the more important 
rooms in the lower stories ; and even in the basement the 
kitchen, laundry, servants' dining rooms, and most of the 
bedrooms have direct sunlight for a good part of the day. 

The building is of the most modern type of fire- 
proof construction. The exterior walls are self-sup- 
porting, the structural steel carrying only the floor loads. 
The floor construction is of reinforced cinder concrete and 
the partitions of hollow terra cotta tiles. The horizontal 
pipe lines are run below the floor construction and the 




Open-Air l.oggias in Northeast Court 



ceilings hung below these lines. Access doors, flush with 
the plaster, are provided wherever there are valves or 
clean outs. 

The two main staircases, located in the north and south 
parts of the building, are entirely enclosed and separated 
from the corridors by fireproof doors. The elevators, di- 
rectly across the corridor from the staircases, are equipped 
with self-closing doors and a check to prevent the doors 

striking when they close, thus 

avoiding noise. A fire-escape 
stairway leads down from the 
main roof into the northeast 
court. 

The exterior of the building 
is designed in the Renaissance 
style of northern Italy. The 
wall surfaces are of stucco and 
the cornices, trim, copings, and 
sills of a special red terra cotta. 
The sloping roofs are covered 
with tile of the same color as 
the terra cotta. The windows 
on the ward floors have tran- 
soms hinged at the bottom to 
swing in. 

The interior finish throughout 
is as simple and inexpensive as 
is consistent with good hospital 
construction. There are painted 
cement floors in the sub-base- 
ment and basement, and in the 
bedrooms for the stafT, nurses, 
and servants. The kitchen 
department, however, the laun- 
dry, most of the rooms in con- 
nection with the dispensary, 
the operating suite, dressing rooms, pantries, and the 
toilets and baths have tiled floors. A special colored 
battleship linoleum is used in the offices, gymnasium, 
wards, quiet rooms, and in the ward corridors, with a 
terrazzo sanitary base and a floor border flush with the 
linoleum. At the junction of the linoleum and terrazzo 
(^ which are flush) there is a built-in brass strip which not 
only serves as a guide for running the terrazzo, but also 
protects its edge until the linoleum is laid. 

Tile wainscots set flush with the plaster are used in the 
kitchen, pantries, operating rooms, dressing rooms, plas- 
ter rooms, and in the toilet and bathrooms. The interior 
doors throughout have steel framed trim, flush with the 
plaster, thus avoiding the use of wood. In the corridors, 
wards, and certain other rooms there is a painted dado 
about four feet high, so that the lower portion of the walls 
when defaced or finger marked may be repainted without 
touching the upper portion. 

The plant for supplying heat, power, light, ventilation, 
and refrigeration, and the suction and hot water tanks, 
filters, and pumps, are in the sub-basement at the south 



62 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



63 




Operating Room Showing Visitors' Gallery 

end of the lot. The heating: is by direct radiation. The 
ventilation, reduced to a minimum, is divided into five sepa- 
rate units, namely, a fresh air supply and exhaust system 
for the sub-basement ; an exhaust for the brace shop de- 
partment, X-ray rooms, gymnasium, and waiting- room ; 
an exhaust for the laundry, kitchen, and pantries ; an ex- 
haust for the toilets, baths, and maids' closets ; a fresh air 
supply and exhaust system for the operating suite. This 
division of the ventilation into small units is economical, 
as the independent fans are only operated when the rooms 
which they ventilate are in use. In general, natural ven- 
tilation is relied upon rather than artificial. 

All supplies, except those for the brace shop, are de- 
livered at the service entrance on 59th street and dropped 
to the receiving room in the basement on an electric lift. 
When impacked and checked, they are taken to the adjoin- 
ing store rooms. 

Directly across the corridor from the receiving room is 
the entrance to the kitchen department. Here are store- 
rooms for groceries, canned goods, etc., a cooled vege- 
table room, three large refrigerators, and an ice-cream 
room with a stock ice-box, power ice crusher, and power 
freezer. The kitchen, lighted on the south and overhead, 
is completely equipped with modern cooking apparatus. 
Two automatic power dumbwaiters, serving the pantries, 
open directly from the kitchen. The servants' dining 
rooms are on the opposite side of the main corridor. 

The laundry, lighted on two opposite sides, is equipped 
with individual motor-driven apparatus. Directly across 
the corridor are rooms for soiled linen, general linen stor- 
age, and assorting and marking. 

The brace shop with its auxiliary rooms for polishing 
and grinding, forge work, sewing and leather work, store- 
rooms and office, is on the 58th street side of the lot. 
There is a separate entrance from the street for supplies 
for this department. The shop has windows on three 
sides, the polishing and grinding room has overhead light 
and windows on opposite sides, opening on areas, while 
the leather and sewing rooms have north light. All 
machines are individual motor driven. 

In the basement also there are bedrooms for the male 
help, a room where plaster jackets are made, a sterilizer 
large enough to take mattresses, a carpenter shop, store- 
rooms, and toilet and locker rooms for the female day help 
and other employees. The engineer's and foreman's 



toilet is also on this floor instead of in the sub-basement 
on account of the high level of the sewer. 

The entrance on 59th street is the only one on this floor 
(the door on 58th street serving only as a fire exit) . 
Opening directly from the entrance lobby are the office, 
reception room, consultation room, and telephone booth 
with the various offices, locker and toilet rooms, and the 
board room in close proximity. Doctors, nurses, and 
visitors going to the wards or operating suite take the 
first elevator without passing through the dispensary. 

The waiting room opposite the entrance is planned so 
that every one entering or leaving the dispensary passes 
in front of the registrar's desk. Opening from this room 
are two toilets, and behind the registrar are the history 
library, and the head visiting nurse's office. Adjacent is 
a room where plaster casts are taken and prepared for the 
brace shop, another where the patient's history is recorded, 
and two toilets. 

The main dispensary room, separated by a short corri- 
dor from the waiting room, is two stories in height and 
lighted by ten large, circular headed windows. It is 
designed with a vaulted ceiling. The floor is of buff 
quarry tile with a black terrazzo base and border, and 
the walls show a high, painted wainscot. The clerk's 
desk is in the center of the room with a stairway to 
the basement directly behind it. The screens, of rein- 
forced cement plaster supported on brass legs, divide 




Typical Pantry Connected by Dumbwaiter with Kitchen 




View of Kitchen in Basement 



64 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 






the room into the several departments for examination 
and treatment. 

The dispensary operating room, the scoliosis depart- 
ment with a large g3-mnasium, dressing rooms, office, and 
plaster room, and the X-ray department are in the south 
wing. The X-ray is planned with 
the coil room between two operating 
rooms, each furnished with small 
dressing rooms. Across the corridor 
are the dark room, library for devel- 
oped plates, and the view room. The 
operating rooms, dark room, and view 
room have light-tight sliding shutters 
at the windows with a light-tight ven- 
tilator below the sill. 

The living quarters for the super- 
intendent and internes are on the 
second floor in the 59th street wing. 
The contagious wards are between 
this wing and the upper part of the 
dispensary and are isolated from the 
rest of the building. This is a com- 
plete unit with two wards opening on 
flat roofs, toilet, diet pantry, and a 
nurses' room with bath. This de- 
partment is entered through a vesti- 
bule where the doctor may wash and 
change his gown. The maids' quar- 
ters are in the 58th street wing on this 
floor. 

The entire third floor is devoted to 
living quarters for the supervisor of 
nurses, housekeeper, and the nurses. 
The five bedrooms in the west wing are shut off by a cor- 
ridor door and occupied by the night nurses. On this 
floor there is also a dining room with its pantry, a sitting 
room with casement sash opening on a balcony, a recep- 
tion room, a sewing room, and a kitchenette. 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth floors are each occupied 
by three ten-bed wards controlled by the charge nurse, 
who has her desk in the central hall. The fourth floor 
has wards for men and boys, the fifth for women and 
girls, and the sixth for children alone. Each unit is 
separated from the main corridor by double doors and 
consists of a ward lighted on three sides, a dressing- 
room, and a toilet and bath room. The loggias open 
directly from the central wards and from the main corri- 
dor. On each of these floors there are also two quiet 
rooms, a diet pantry served directly from the kitchen by 
two power dumbwaiters, an alcove off the main corridor 
with a lavatory for the doctors, a nurses' toilet, and closets 
for ward accessories, patients' clothes, linen, etc. On the 
fourth floor there is an office for the supervisor of nurses 
and an admitting room where patients are examined and 
bathed before being placed in the wards. 

The operating suite at the north end of the first ward 
floor is planned with the main operating room in the center, 
with the anesthesia, plaster, preparation, and sterilizing 
rooms opening from it. The small septic operating room 
adjoins the preparation room and is conveniently near the 
room for anesthesia. The work room for the preparation 



Tf 



SatJ^ 



J I L 



Plan of Roof 




Plan of Sub-Basement 



of bandages, pads, etc., is to the west of the sterilizing 
room. There is also a doctors' locker room with toilet 
and bath and an oflfice for the chief surgeon. The recov- 
ery room is just outside the suite. 

The main operating room is arranged with an amphi- 
theater seating forty-six. This is 
reached by the students and visiting 
doctors by an inclined passage from 
the floor above, thus obviating the in- 
convenience of having visitors in the 
operating suite. The seats in the 
gallery are supported on brackets and 
made of cast-iron, modeled in the form 
of a bicycle saddle. This type is not 
only sanitary, but take so little space 
from the passageways as to enable the 
observers to be placed much closer to 
the operation than is usual. The room 
is lighted by a north window and sky- 
light constructed of steel and glass 
and provided with condensation gut- 
ters. Inside the window is a glass 
screen in a steel frame. As hot air is 
introduced between the sash and this 
screen, there is no down draft even in 
the coldest weather. The floor and 
wainscot in both operating rooms are 
of dark green tile, while the upper 
walls are of plaster painted a light 
color. With this dark wainscot and 
floor, the surgeon, looking up from 
the patient, does not encounter a 
glare of light and find his eyes use- 
less for a moment when he returns to his work, as is the 
case with white floor and walls. The ventilating appara- 
tus for this department is in the attic space directly above 
the operating suite. 

The drug room and laboratory are on the fifth floor. 
The latter is equipped for doing all the necessary patho- 
logical, bacteriological, biological, and chemical work of 
the hospital. On the sixth floor is an autopsy room and 
an isolation room with its bath and toilet room. 

Only the central portion of the building is carried up 
above the seventh floor, thereby leaving a large area of flat 
roof for outdoor treatment and recreation. The loggia 
in the center gives ample protection in stormy weather. 
On this floor is a rest room for nurses, two toilets, a mat- 
tress room, and a tank room in connection with the refrig- 
erating apparatus. A stairway leads to the attic space 
above, where are located the house tank, two of the exhaust 
ventilating fans which discharge the foul air through the 
cupola, and considerable storage space. 

There are nine wards planned for ten beds each, or a 
total of ninety ward beds. Six quiet rooms, a two-bed 
isolation room, and six beds in the isolation department 
make a total of one hundred and four patients' beds. 
There are twenty-eight single rooms for nurses, three 
suites for the superintendent, supervisor of nurses and 
housekeeper, four rooms for internes, accommodation for 
twenty maids and five male help, giving a total bed capac- 
ity of one hundred and sixty-four. 



VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 33. 




EAST 59TH STRRKT FACAUF. 



NEW YORK ORTHOPAEDIC DISPENSARY AND HOSPITAL, NEW YORK. N. Y. 

YORK & SAWYER. ARCHITFXTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 34. 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN FIRST FLOOR PLAN SECOND FLOOR PLAN 

NEW YORK ORTHOPAEDIC DISPENSARY AND HOSPITAL, NEW YORK. N. Y. 

YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS 



I 



VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 35. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 36. 



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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 37. 




"fW.'JWP^ 







TOWER AND ENTRANCE PAVILION OF ACADEMIC BUILDING 



HIGH SCHOOL GROUP, SANTA MONICA, CAL. 
ALLISON & ALLISON. ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25. NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 38. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE ,39. 




DETAIL OF END PAVILION, ACADEMIC BUILDING 

HIGH SCHOOL GROUP, SANTA MONICA, CAL. 
ALLISON & ALLISON. ARCHITECTS 



FIRST FLOOR AND PLOT PLANS 



VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 40. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PLATE 41. 



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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 12. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE «. 




VIEW OI-' SIDE AND FRONT 



GRADE SCHOOLHOUSE, FRAMINGHAM, MASS. 
CHARLES M. BAKER, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 44. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 46. 




1^ 

DETAIL OF DOORWAY 



HOUSE OF DANIEL ENGLAND, ESQ., PITTSFIELD, MASS. 
ALBRO & LINDEBERC, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 47. 






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VOL. 25, NO. 3. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 48. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE SEVENTEEN. 




/J GREAT deal of the charm of the architecture 
-^ of early New England was obtained by very 
simple means — a Judicious use of carved ivood or 
composition ornament, well designed mouldings, and 
a fine sense of scale and proportion. It is this sim- 
ple, dignified character which the modern architect 
so highly appreciates, yet it is the most difficult 
quality to reproduce in modern work. 

The mantel shown above is composed of simple 
elements, yet it has the same mark of distinction 
that is seen in the most elaborate of the examples of 
Samtiel McFntire's work which are preserved. The 
interest centers about the frieze, which is ornamented 
by a series of grooves and applied composition orna- 
ment on the plain surfaces. The same motive is 



carried out in the room cornice, bringing the mantel 
into intimate relations ivith the whole room. The 
single head which finishes the wood fascia against 
the cement facing is worthy of note, for it is much 
more effective than any strongly defined moulding 
could ever be. The mantel shelf unfortunately has 
a heavier appearance than luhen it was built, owing 
to the addition of another member to give more 
shelf room. 

In a room in this house now used as a kitchen, 
but formerly a dining room, there is a very interest- 
ing cornice and dado treatment, details of which are 
given on the following page. They are built of 
wood and the decoration is effected by grooving, 
reeding and other simple forms of carving. 



CHAMBER MANTEL, CROWNINSHIELD, DEVEREUX HOUSE, SALEM, MASS. 



Built in 1805. 



lEASURED DRAWING ON FOLLOWING PAGE. 



65 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE EIGHTEEN. 




r/y/.S" quaint dooi-zvay of excel/etit proportions 
presents very original details with its ivide pro- 
jecting yet thin cornice, the deep frieze, and stunted 
architrave. The arrangement and shape of the 
panels of the door are doth unique and pleasing. 
The arched doorway and the columns and pediment 
are brought into close relation by the moulded 



course just above the door, which is a continuation 
of the mouldings forming the column capitals. 
The leaded fan light has an unusual and interest- 
ing pattern . 

The payieling of the door jambs which follows the 
main divisions of the door is flush with the rails 
and defined by a single bead. 



DOORWAY, SNOWDEN HOUSE, SOUTH LEE STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 

Built in 1790. 
MEASURED DRAWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 

68 



An English Housing Scheme. 

DUCHY OF CORNWALL ESTATE AT KENNINGTON, LONDON ; ADSHEAD & RAMSEY, ARCHITECTS. 

By R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 



FROM the architectural point of view there has been 
in Eng-land more than enough discussion of housing- 
practices during recent years. Not that too much 
attention can ever be directed to the sohition of one of 
the greatest problems of the present 
day ; not that continued discussion 
of housing topics is fruitless ; but be- 
cause there has been a superabun- 
dance of general talk about housing, 
so mixed up with ethics, morals, and 
a hundred other things that the real 
matter of the houses themselves has 
been very largely swamped ; and 
when an attempt has been made to 
give architectural expression to the 
varied fancies and whims of housing 
enthusiasts, the result has generally 
been indifferent. Moreover, so much 
attention has been directed in Eng- 
land to housing schemes on semi- 
rural lines, that the equally important 
subject of urban housing has been 
left in the hands of borough engineers and similar munici- 
pal ofificials, whose architectural capacity is not of a high 
order. 

Being concerned in this article with a town housing 
scheme, we may pass all that belongs to the "garden 
city " with the brief remark that its ideals, and the build- 




CtOUNB-FLOOePUiN' 



Plan of St. Anselm's Vicarage 



ings in which these ideals are expressed, must necessarily 
differ so acutely from the scheme for an urban area as to 
be apart altogether from consideration in connection with 
the latter. The " garden city " ideal, for instance, counts 
it necessary, or at least extremely de- 
sirable, that every house shall stand 
within its own plot of ground, with a 
strip of garden in front or at the back , 
or both, where a taste for country life 
can be indulged. All that is impos- 
sible in the midst of a town where 
the communal garden is the best that 
can be obtained. As has been said, 
there are only two ways of housing 
people, — either by spreading them 
out thin, or by piling them on top of 
one another ; in other words, you can 
put them into cottages covering a 
large area, or you can put them into 
tenements. In the case of the houses 
on the Duchy of Cornwall Estate at 
Kennington, London, S. E., built for 
the Prince of Wales, as Duke of Cornwall, the former alter- 
native has been adopted ; and any one who will study what 
has been done on this estate will recognize not only the 
architectural quality that has been given to quite simple 
little buildings, but also the proper town system on which 
the estate has been developed. Kennington to-day is a 




St. Anseims Vicarage, Kennington, London, S. E. 

Adshead & Ramsey, Architects 

69 



70 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




General View of Workingmen's Houses on Courtenay Square, Kennington 



poor quarter of London, though, like many another part, 
it was once esteemed as a very respectable residential dis- 
trict ; but, as Swift makes Nevermont say in his " Polite 
Conversation", "Why, Sir John, London has gone out 
of town since you saw it." London is forever going out 
of town, and that is the explanation for the drop in social 
status which certain districts have experienced. 

Whatever may be the merits of housing outside the 
confines of the town, it is yet the fact that large numbers 
of people are bound to live close to their work ; and such 
people have not the time to spend in making what may 
be quite a journey night and morning. In these circum- 
stances it becomes necessary to provide them with suit- 
able housing in the midst of the town where they are 
occupied. At the same time it is necessary to remember 
that there are many people to whom the lure of the coun- 
try means little, who prefer rather to live a town life — 
in which connection we may note, in passing, that the 
Parisians are a far greater town-loving people than Lon- 
doners are. Now 
the problem is to 
provide these 
people with suit- 
able housing ac- 




commodation. The tenement is certainly not the ideal 
arrangement ; the tenement, in fact, is generally a forbid- 
ding place, where all sense of individuality is swallowed 
up in a dull block of brickwork. On the Duchy of Corn- 
wall Estate at Kennington there is no such thing as a tene- 
ment. Instead, we find pleasant little streets and squares, 
spick and span in appearance, all forming part of a gen- 
eral scheme, yet all and each marked by a touch of individ- 
uality and variety which gives a lively air to the whole 
district. The architects, Messrs. Adshead & Ramsey, 
have not attempted to do anything startling in the way of 
architectural design. We are not affronted by what may 
be called " queer " architecture. They have had to pull 
down a large area of old houses dating from the end of the 
eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, and with rare perception and remarkable ability 
they have translated into their own new houses the spirit 
of the old. It requires a clear mind to do this. The 
temptation to make individuality predominant is so strong 
that most archi- 
tects are unable 
to resist it. No 
such mistake has 
been made at 



'•■imat^^-^^. 




Detail of Workingmen's Houses 
on Courtenay Street 






Plan of Workingmen's Houses 
on Courtenay Square 



Detail of Workingmen's Houses 
on Courtenay Square 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



71 




GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS FLATS, CHESTER STREET, KENNINGTON, LONDON, S. E. 

ADSHEAD & RAMSEY. ARCHITECTS 



72 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Pair of Single Family Houses on Courtenay Street 

Kenningfton. There are streets of 
houses, squares of houses, two story 
cottag-es, flats for workmen, flats for 
middle class tenants, a hostel for old 
people, a mr/zr where babies can be 
left by mothers who have to go out 
to a day's work, shops, a church ; 
and while all these are treated dif- 
ferently, and have an essentially 
modern air, they are all part and 
parcel of one common style of de- 
sign, and so possess the merit 
which belongs to every harmonious 
scheme. As Professor Abercrombie 
has pointed out, instead of ransack- 
ing Holland or facsimiling Cheshire 
"black-and-white" the architects 
have dared to dispense with travel 
sketches and to hide their store of 
exotic architectural whimsies. 

" A couple of houses in this quiet 
London manner may not be notice- 
able ; it is only in extended use that 
its fitness and charm become appar- 
ent. It is, therefore, doubly fortu- 
nate that the Kennington estate 
provides a sufficiently continuous 
quantity for its qualities to be 
rightly appreciated. The more 
emphatic treatment of eaves and roll 
tiles lends a distinctive character to 
the Vicarage and the Old Tenants' 
Hostel that, without symbolical 
laboring, appears subtly suitable ; 
delicate balconies, enriched panels, 
balustraded parapets, and columnar 
porches give the flats an air of re- 
finement that wholly dissociates 
them from the necessitous tene- 
ment ; the trellis porch, interlaced 
bars, and a squat proportion pro- 
duce in the new square the homely 
aspect of the Englishman's own 



house. The way these difTerentiating characteris- 
tics have been seized upon by the authors, and, 
within the frame of a harmonious style, worked so 
as to express the inner significance of these build- 
ings, promises well for the further use of this 
medium. Again, within the same type — as, for 
example, the flats, of which several blocks have 
been erected — there is scope for endless variety of 
surface treatment, in the judicious disposal of bands 
and panels, by which an individual interest is given 
to blocks of similar outline form. And what is par- 
ticularly notable is the way in which the architects 
have combined refinement and delicacy of detail with 
an absence of frigid scholarship. The entrance to 
the Old Tenants' Hostel is exactly where a lesser 
hand might have gone wrong : an archway 13 feet 
high, flanked by Ionic pilasters — what a chance 
here for pulling out the full diapason of the neo- 
(jrec organ, and how incongruous it would have 




-f/K.^ ri-QOK. DLH.N —•f—QK.OuND rumK. R.AU — >| 

-rrrrrrrrtrs n ts 1. 



Two-Family Flat on Newburn Street 



Floor Plans of Two-Family Flats 




Flats at Entrance to Courtenay Street, Kennington 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



73 




EXTERIOR VIEW SHOWING GROCER'S SHOP AT CORNER 




OLD TENANTS' HOSTEL, KENNINGTON, LONDON, S. E. 

ADSHEAD & RAMSEY, ARCHITECTS 



74 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



been to the old people whose 
front door it is ! Instead, com- 
bined with a certain largeness 
and breadth, reflecting its ro\'al 
founder, there is a homely 
quality, obtained by the effort- 
less grouping of overhanging 
wood cornice, cupola, bell, and 
weather-vane. Such architec- 
tural self-restraint is rare in 
these self-conscious days. . . . 
The importance and significance 
of the Kennington estate is thus 
twofold ; it is the first example 
of urban housing carried out on 
town i)lanning lines and con- 
ceived in no apologetic mood, 
as though it were a makeshift 
caused by the dii^iculty of carry- 
ing people out to the suburbs. 
No, this is frankly a group of 
town houses for town dwellers, 

and sets up a standard of its own, quite distinct from 
that of the suburb. The e-Ktent of the area dealt with, 
and the radical rearrangement in the proportion of 
built-on land to open space which is being effected in 
the site planning, lift this work above the piecemeal 
rebuilding of street blocks, which is always taking 




Entrance to Court, Old Tenants' Hostel 



place to a greater or lesser 
extent. The other reason of its 
importance is that it is artis- 
tically sound. That this should 
be achieved at the outset is in- 
deed fortunate. We know how 
usual is the early fumbling of 
a new departure — the garden 
suburb is only now beginning 
to find its permanent idiom after 
endless experiments. At Ken- 
nington, a satisfactory result 
has been obtained by the close 
study of a local tradition and 
usage which, carefully modified 
to suit modern requirements, 
was admirably adapted to its 
present purpose." 

There is no need to go into 
any detailed description of the 
houses, for the accompanying 
illustrations speak for them- 
selves. It may be stated very briefly, therefore, that 
they are all of brick, with artificial stone dressings, and 
have, for the most part, flat roofs, constructed of a 
waterproof material covered with gravel. All have elec- 
tric light (which up to a certain consumption is included 
in the rent) and all have baths. 




View in Court of Old Tenants' Hostel, Looking from Entrance Archway 



The Ventilation of Special Rooms. 



Bi/ CHARLES L. HUBBARD. 






« 



IN any greneral consideration of ventilation it is not pos- 
sible to take into account individual rooms which, by- 
reason of peculiar conditions, demand special equip- 
ment. In this article a number of these rooms, which 
vary from the usual type, are discussed and their special 
requirements, together with the gen- 
erally accepted means of meeting them, 
are given special, though brief, treat- 
ment. 

Toilet Rooms. The older method of 
ventilating toilet rooms was by open 
windows or by means of general room 
ventilation through wall or ceiling re- 
gisters connecting with flues leading 
outward. Later, the local vent came 
into use and has been considered the 
most effective method yet devised, es- 
pecially when connected with a flue 
having a strong draft to insure constant circulation. 

Until recently the result sought has been the removal of 
odors before they had a chance to spread throughout the 
air of the room, and all efforts 
have been directed along this line. 
Within the last year or two special 
attention has been given to what 
constitutes the real danger from a 
poorly ventilated toilet. It seems 
to be a well established fact that 
the odor from excreta and gases is 
harmless, although unpleasant, and 
the real danger lies in the excre- 
tions themselves, especially if they 
are allowed to dry and take the 
form of dust. 

While the usual method of venti- 
lation through openings or horns 
attached to the closet may be effec- 
tive in the removal of odors, it is 
not always a safeguard against the 
spreading of dangerous germs which 
may be contained in the substances 
passing to the sewer through the 

closet. As a matter of fact, the usual design of closet 
with its local vent opening may, in certain cases, catch 
and hold small portions of the excreta which may spatter 
into it, and later discharge them into 
the surrounding atmosphere in the 
form of dust, together with any harm- 
ful germs which they may contain. 
In order to be perfectly safe, a local 
vent opening must be so placed as to 
make it absolutely impossible for 
anything to spatter into it from the 
closet, and this with the usual form 
is often a difficult thing to do. One 
suggestion is to make the lower por- 
tion of the flush pipe serve as a local 
vent also, by enlarging it and con- 



o o 



rF> 



Fig. 1. Showing Use of Local Vents 



7~e /'^/\/ 



@ 



f=^ 



Fig. 2. Showing Vent from Flush Pipe in Tank 




Fig. 3. Showing Independent Vent Registers 
75 



necting it with a fan suction as shown in Fig. 1. With 
this arrangement the opening into the closet is kept clean 
through frequent flushings, and, in any case, matter which 
may stick to the walls of the vent opening has no oppor- 
tunity to dry and turn into dust. 

An arrangement adapted to another 
form of flush valve is shown in Fig. 2, 
in which a water sealed cap is ])laced 
over the to]) of the flush i)ipe in the 
tank. 

A safe and often satisfactory way is 
to omit the horn or local vent from 
the closet and provide a small vent 
register just above the seat, as shown 
in Fig. 3. In this case it is entirely 
separate and cannot possibly pick up 
any dust from the interior of the closet, 
and a strong draft created by a fan 
should readily dispose of any odors which may find their 
way into the room. In addition to these wall vents it is 
well to place one or more registers in the ceiling to catch 
any foul air which may pass them. 
Theoretically, the greater part of 
the ventilation from a toilet room 
should be through the fixtures in 
order to remove the odors at their 
source, before mixing with the air 
of the room. An examination, how- 
ever, of a number of installations 
without local venting .seems to in- 
dicate that it is practicable to main- 
tain a good degree of air purity by 
means of wall and ceiling vents 
alone, provided a sufificient volume 
of air is handled to keep the cur- 
rents moving in the right direction. 
This may easily be done in the 
case of schools, factories and other 
buildings, where the toilets arc 
used by a large number of people, 
by the use of an exhaust fan of 
sufficient size to provide a com. 
plete air change once in six or seven minutes. The com- 
mon practice of providing a closed chamber at the rear of 
the fixtures for concealing the connections and serving 
as a common collecting chamber for 
the local vents is ideal, in a way, for 
the removal of odors ; but it is also 
ideal for collecting and retaining any 
germ-bearing dust which may form 
in the vent outlets from the closets. 
Like all theories, the above may be 
carried to extremes far beyond those 
necessary for reasonable safety ; but 
it is well to consider the possibilities 
noted and plan the ventilating sys- 
tem in such a manner as to eliminate 
them so far as possible. 



% 









76 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Locker Rooms. Closely connected with the toilets of a 
school, shop, or gymnasium are the locker rooms. Al- 
though clothing may contain harmful germs in certain 
cases, they are not likely to be carried by air currents 
passing over them at moderate velocities. In this case 
the best results are obtained by local ventilation, either by 
means of a fan or under gravity circulation. A common 
arrangement is shown in Fig. 4, which may be improved 
in certain cases by running a 
couple of lines of steam pipe 
through the lower part of the 
lockers below the clothing for 
use in rainy weather when the 
lockers may contain wet gar- 
ments. 

In many cases, room ventila- 
tion alone is depended upon for 
work of this kind, but the ar- 
rangements described are more 
effective in rooms containing a 
large number of lockers. 

Here, as in the case of toilet 
ventilation, a fan is to be preferred to natural draft, as 
there is considerable resistance to air flow, and an even 
velocity through the entire system of lockers is best se- 
cured by carrying a fairly strong suction on the main dis- 
charge duct and regulating the flow from each locker, or 
each series of lockers, by means of an adjusting damper. 
For a comparatively small 
number of lockers a heated 
flue will usually provide suffi- 
cient draft for satisfactory re- 
sults. With this arrangement 
larger ducts should be em- 
ployed, as the velocity of flow 
will be considerably less than 
with a fan. The volume of air 
removed from a locker room 
should be about the same as 
from a toilet. In both cases 
the air supply is best drawn 
in through louver openings, or 
grilles, connecting with cor- 
ridors or similar rooms, as it 
is desirable to maintain a slight 
vacuum within them in order 
to prevent any outward leak- 
age which might carry odors 
to other parts of the building. 

Chemistry Laboratories. These require special treatment 
owing to the fumes given off by various chemical proc- 
esses. Work of this kind should always be done under 
a hood, a very efficient form of which is shown in section 
in Fig. 5. 

This consists of a fume closet, with a porcelain or slate 
bottom, and a curved or slanting top, which deflects the 
gases to a narrow slot at the front, through which they 
are drawn at a comparatively high velocity by means of a 
fan connecting with the duct " A ", which is common to 
all of the hoods in the same row. Each fume closet is 
provided with a sliding sash in front, which is left open for 
2 or 3 inches when the closet is in use in order to provide 





re •>?/• 






r<3 








1 














\ 














^ 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


4 


L 




















, 



Fig. 4. Method of Ventilating Lockers 




Fig. 5. A Type of Labora- 
tory Hood Insuring Good 
Ventilation 



eral, the greater part of the room ventilation should be 
through the hoods, although wall registers are necessary, 
especially in school laboratories, for use at such times as 
the hoods may not be in service. 

The demonstrator's desk or table should be provided 
with a strong down draft opening for carrying away 
fumes which may be generated during demonstrations 
before the class. A hood cannot be used in this case as 

it would obstruct the view too 
much. Fans for chemical ven- 
tilation should be constructed 
with copper blades or coated 
with a preparation which is im- 
pervious to the fumes given off 
in the hoods. The connecting 
ducts and flues should be coated 
on the inside with the same ma- 
terial or be constructed of tile. 
Kitchen Ventilation. The 
kitchen should be furnished 
with a strong, outward ventila- 
tion to prevent the odor of cook- 
ing from reaching other parts of the building. The 
greater part of the ventilation should be local rather than 
general, in order to remove the odors as soon as generated. 
This applies to the range hood, vegetable steamers, coffee 
and tea urns, etc. Local ventilation, however, should be 
supplemented by sufficient general ventilation to remove 

the heated air from the upper 
part of the room when de- 
sired, the general ventilation 
to be controlled by dampers 
under the direct charge of 
someone employed in the 
room. The fresh air supply 
may usually be taken, in part 
at least, from adjacent rooms, 
such as serving room, ser- 
vants' dining room, etc., mak- 
ing the discharge from the 
kitchen so strong that there 
will be no tendency to create 
back drafts. Cool outside air 
is best admitted near the ceil- 
ing, in front of the range and 
ovens, through inlets which 
may be made to discharge in 
any direction desired. Under 
ordinary conditions this air 
supply will not need to be warmed, there being sufficient 
heat in the upper part of the room to prevent uncom- 
fortable down drafts. In large kitchens, where there is 
likely to be a considerable volume of air required in cold 
weather, it is well to provide a heater or coil in the sup- 
ply duct to temper the air before admitting it to the room. 
For small and medium size kitchens sufficient air will 
enter through the openings provided, if there is a good 
outward draft through the vents. 

In very large hotel and restaurant kitchens it is usually 
necessary to furnish a supply fan, taking care that the 
air introduced in this manner does not exceed about 
60 per cent of that exhausted. Efficient hood ventilation 




/T'-^/V(?/F 



Fig. 6. Showing Method of Secur- 
ing Local Ventilation Through a 
Range Hood 



an air supply sufficient to carry off the fumes. In gen- depends upon the removal of air at a high velocity through 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



77 



a comparatively small opening, as has already been de- the maximum seating capacity, allowing, at least, 40 cubic 

scribed m connection with chemistry laboratories. This feet per hour per occupant. 

condition may be secured in practice by constructing a Bar and Smoking Rooms. The air flow from these 

hood as shown in Fig. 6, in which the air is drawn partly rooms should be strongly outward to prevent smoke and 

through a narrow slot about an inch in width, extending the odor of wines and liquors from passing to other parts 

entirely around the perimeter, supplemented by one or of the building. 

more small openings in the top, as indicated in the dia- This result is easily brought about by the use of direct, 

gram. This same general scheme should be carried out indirect radiators through which the outside air is drawn, 



in the construction of hoods 
for other pieces of apparatus 
requiring local ventilation. 

All ducts and flues beyond 
the range connections should 
be made fireproof on account 
of the inflammable coating 
formed on the inside from the 
vaporized oils which are given 
oflE in cooking. When con- 
structed of metal it is best 
to use black iron as heavy as 
No. 12, and insulate the out- 
side of the flue with a couple 
of inches of plastic material, 
in the same manner as a 

smoke pipe from a boiler is insulated. All discharge ven- 
tilation of this kind requires the use of a fan in order to 
secure the necessary air velocity. A fire damper, held 
open by a fusible link, should be provided that will shut 
off the flue automatically and at the same time stop the fan. 

A kitchen should be provided with suffi- 
cient air to produce from fifteen to eighteen 
changes per hour, if the room is less than 
14 feet in height. 

Dining Rooms. The dining room of a 
large hotel or restaurant should be provided 
with a positive air supply by means of a fan, 
either in connection with other rooms of the 
building or independently as is found most 
convenient. If the air is taken from the 
general ventilating system at a temperature 
of 70 degrees, heat must be supplied either 
by placing supplementary heaters at the 
bases of the flues or providing direct radi- 
ating surface in the rooms. 

When the dining room is ventilated by a 
separate apparatus the entire heating may be 
done by the main heater at the fan, sending 
the air to the room at a temperature suffi- 
ciently high to offset the losses by transmis 




Fig. 7. Plan of a Typical Laundry, Showing Arrangement for 
Good Ventilation 



due to the slight suction pro- 
duced by the action of the ex- 
haust fan. These radiators 
should be of sufficient size to 
warm the room in addition 
to meeting the ventilating 
requirements imposed upon 
them. Rooms of this type 
should have at least eight 
changes of air per hour. 

Laimdyy. This is an im- 
portant room in an institution 
or hotel and should receive 
careful attention in the mat- 
ter of ventilation. As the air 
in a laundry contains a high 
percentage of moisture and is likely, at times, to become 
overheated, the conditions are such as to have a decidedly 
enervating effect upon the occupants unless the room is 
well ventilated. While open windows and roof ventilators 
may work satisfactorily in warm weather, the introduction 
of cold air will produce excessive condensa- 
tion and also set up dangerous drafts. 

The best results are obtained by removing 
the warm, moist air from the upper jiart of 
the room and admitting tempered air near 
the floor. 

Air is best removed by means of an ex- 
haust fan, and a considerable portion should 
be taken from hoods placed over washers 
and mangles. In addition to this there 
should be a certain amount of general or 
room ventilation through vent registers 
placed in the side of the main duct. Fresh 
air may be drawn in through shallow coils or 
radiators called induction heaters, which are 
placed either in front of windows or special 
openings. 

The general arrangement of the ventilation 
for a laundry is shown in diagram in Fig. 7. 
(itirage. The two points to be considered 
sion and leakage, thus simplifying the arrangement and in the heating and ventilation of a garage are the absence 
doing away with a secondary or direct radiating surface. of fire and the removal of gasoline vapor through openings 

In general, the air is best introduced at an elevation near the floor. In case of a private garage located near 




Fig. 8. Vent to Outside at Floor 
Level of a Garage 



either in the window sills or through registers in the outer 
walls. When the system is used in the summer for cool- 
ing, separate inlets are sometimes provided near the floor 
which may be thrown into use by means of switch damp- 
ers. The reason for this is to avoid cool drafts from the 



the main house, the simplest method is to carry under- 
ground pipes from the house boiler for supplying a radi- 
ator of sufficient size for heating the building. The only 
precaution in this case is to make tight joints where the 
pipes pass into both buildings, in order to prevent any 



falling air, which are likely to occur when cool air is possibility of inflammable gas working back into the 

introduced' from above. basement of the main house. 

Exhaust ventilation should be partly at the floor and When the garage is located at a considerable distance 

partly at the ceiling to give a slight upward current in from the main house, or when a furnace system is em- 

case there is smoking in the room. ployed, it will be necessary to provide a separate heating 

The air volume for a dining room should be based upon outfit. This may be either hot air, steam, or hot water, as 



78 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



l>J.^^^,^'.Vx^^^'^^^^V>-V^V^-.Wvk^K'--^^^S.SSf,^<.V'<,^<<<K'<^^^^ 




most convenient, the only particular requirement being 
that the stove or boiler be placed in a wing outside the 
garage proper, with a separate outside door and no com- 
munication with the main portion except for the pipes or 
flue leading from the heating plant. 

Supply pipes and flues should 
pass through the partition 6 or 8 
feet above the floor, and care 
should be taken to make all joints 
tight. Return pipes must neces- 
sarily be carried at a lower eleva- 
tion ; but by placing the radiator 
upon a shelf in the upper part of 
the room, the danger of gasoline 
fumes passing through the wall 
openings may be greatly reduced, 
as this gas is heavier than air and 
will fall to the lower part of the room below the returns. 

Vent openings, therefore, should be located at the floor, 
a common form being shown in section in Fig. 8. 

Slad/c. Although the use of stables is not so common as 
formerly, there 
are many coun- 
try estates where 
horses are kept 
and where suit- 
able ventilation 
is necessary to 
secure the best , 
results. 

Theoretically 
a cow or horse 
weighing 1,000 
pounds requires 
about 4,000 cu- 
bic feet of fresh 
air per hour, but 
it is not possible to provide this without the use of special 
fans and heaters, which are hardly ever resorted to in 
practical work of this kind. 

The difficulty experienced in stable ventilation is due to 
the fact that animal heat is relied upon for maintaining 
the proper temperature (35 to 45 degrees), and this neces- 
sarily limits the amount of fresh outside air which can be 
admitted in cold weather without injury to the stock. 



7 




Fig. 9. Method of Ventilation Adapted to 
Low Stables 




Fig. 10. Showing One Method of Stable 
Ventilation 



Very good results, however, may be secured by a suit- 
able compromise, depending upon the outside tempera- 
ture. There are various methods employed for the supply 
and removal of air, one of which is shown in Fig. 10. 
In this case air is admitted through 
side windows hinged at the bottom 
and having the triangular open- 
ings at the sides filled in so that 
the air will enter as indicated by 
the arrows. 

This, however, should not be of 
sufficient volume to cause danger- 
ous drafts upon the animals, and 
must be regulated according to 
outside conditions by varying the 
amount of sash opening. 

Discharge ventilation is through 
monitor windows and is due to rising air currents caused 
by the animal heat. Another method, similar in princi- 
ple, is shown in Fig. 9, and is adapted to low stables. 
In this case air leakage through doors or special open- 
ings into other 
parts of the 
building are de- 
pended upon for 
discharge ven- 
tilation. An- 
other method 
is illustrated 
in Fig. 11, in 
which the air is 
delivered to 
the stalls above 
the mangers 
through special 
uptake flues. 
The principal 

feature of this arrangement is the supplying of air to 
the uptakes through a long underground duct open at the 
ends. 

The temperature of the earth 6 feet below the surface 
is considerably above that of the outside air in ex- 
tremely cold weather, and in its passage through the 
duct the air temperature is raised somewhat before admis- 
sion to the stable. 




Fig. 11. Method of Stable Ventilation with 
Special Uptake Flues 




Entrance Gates, High School Group, Santa Monica, Cal. 
Allison & Allison, Architects 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



High School Group, Santa Monica, Cal. Plates 
37-39. This group of school buildings is indicative of 
the broad scope upon which California authorities have 
entered into the development of public school education. 
They have perhaps paid greater attention to the teaching 
of special trades and occupations than the educators of 
any other section of the country. In the development of 
this educational system there has been evolved a type of 
school building which meets the varied requirements from 
the teaching standpoint and is most appropriate for the 
climatic conditions. 

The Santa Monica School has a large tract of ground 
and this permitted the segregation of the principal de- 
partments in separate buildings. The academic building 
forms the center of the group and contains the adminis- 
tration unit, class rooms for academic studies, and a large 
auditorium which is so arranged that it may be used for 
social and civic purposes aside from its school use. The 
second floor has a series of open-air class rooms, the south 
side of each being entirely open and only protected by 
awnings in wet weather. 

The science, household, and fine arts courses occupy the 
building to the right of the main structure, and the man- 
ual arts and commercial courses occupy a building similar 
in size and arrangement to the left. These buildings, 
because of the contour of the land, are located at a grade 
lower than that of the academic building. The second 
floors are on the level of the first floor of the main build- 
ing and direct communication between all the buildings is 
had at this level. In the manual arts building there are 
rooms for bookkeeping, typewriting, shorthand, and a 
section devoted to applied arts and mechanical drawing 
on the second floor. On the same floor of the science 
building there are three drawing class rooms, sewing and 
millinery rooms, and the domestic science department 
comprising a large cooking room, laundry, and a com- 
plete model flat. 

Because of the ample area of the lot, boys' and girls' 
gymnasiums are located in separate buildings in close 
proximity to the athletic field. They are separated by 
two tennis courts and an exercise court for boys. The 
boys' building has only a locker room, with showers, etc., 
and a bowling alley ; but the girls' building, in addition 
to these features, has also a gymnasium 44 by 70 feet. 

High School of Commerce, Springfield, Ma.s.s. 
Plates 40, 41. This school is designed to accommodate 
1500 pupils and in plan follows the generally accepted 
arrangement in large schools of placing the auditorium in 
the center of the building with easy access from the prin- 
cipal entrance. This hall will seat all of the pupils. An 
unusual feature of the plan is the placing of the gymna- 
sium in the sub-basement. It occupies two floors in 
height and is lighted by large skylights at the base of an 
interior court. This court gives an opportunity on the 
upper floors to have a double row of class rooms in the 
rear of the building. 

For a plan of such large and compact area, the lighting 
of corridors and inside rooms is especially well con- 
sidered. Two smaller light courts are at the front of the 
building on either side of the auditorium. Around them 
are grouped staircases and toilets, insuring good light and 



natural ventilation. Skylights at the foot of these smaller 
courts light the lunch room in the basement, and the sky- 
lights in both gymnasium and lunch room are taken 
advantage of to light the basement corridors through win- 
dows in the corridor walls of these rooms. The upper 
corridors are lighted by windows opening on the courts. 

The building is of fireproof construction with steel 
framing, reinforced concrete floor slabs, brick walls, and 
gypsum block partitions. It is built on filled ground and 
supported by concrete piles. The exterior is faced with 
dark red Pennsylvania shale brick of varying shades and 
trimmed with Bedford stone. The roof is of tar and 
gravel and all skylights are copper. The lunch room, 
corridor, and toilet-room floors are of terrazzo with coved 
bases. The basement walls are faced with white 
enameled brick and all corridor walls with a light gray 
enameled brick to a height of five feet. Staircases are 
iron with slate treads, with the exception of the short 
flight at the main entrance, which is of pink Tennessee 
marble. 

Large locker rooms, providing an individual locker to 
each pupil, are located on each floor about the large court. 
Gymnasium suits are stored in ventilated lockers which 
are mounted in groups on trucks that can be wheeled into 
the drying rooms. 

The building is heated from a battery of four boilers. 
The warmed air in the building, except that from the 
drying rooms and toilets, is washed and recirculated with 
automatic temperature and humidity control. Electricity 
for light and motor power is generated in the building. 

The cost of the building, including heating and ventilat- 
ing, plumbing, and electrical work, but exclusive of light- 
ing fixtures, furniture, and movable fittings, was 19V4 
cents per cubic foot. 

House of C. A. Goodwin, Esq., Hartford, Conn. 
Plates 44, 45. The main axis of the house is in a north 
and south direction, the porch being at the southerly end 
and the principal entrance facing Scarborough street on 
the west. The walls are constructed of common bricks, 
which were of good quality and color, and were used as 
they came from the kilns without any selection. They 
are laid in Flemish bond and the joints raked to give tex- 
ture. The exterior finish is stained oak, except window 
cases, etc., which arc painted wood. The roof is of grad- 
uated slate with a quiet variation in color. 

A point of practical interest is the arrangement of the 
kitchen chimney which projects from the wall of the 
house, allowing windows on either side. Over the range 
is a large ventilating flue into which is led a cast iron 
smoke pipe, thus forming an aspirating flue. 

House OF Daniel England, Esq., Pittsfield, Ma.ss. 
Plates 46-48. This house is located on an average sized 
suburban lot, and though it is in fact a detached town 
house, in its general spirit it shows the character of a 
country house. The exterior walls are of a rough tex- 
tured red brick with wood cornices. The entrance door- 
way and the columns and panels of the loggias are of 
white marble. The roof is of rough variegated slate. 
The living room is finished in oak. The dining room is 
paneled in whitewood, painted, and the hall and stair- 
case are of butternut. 



79 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 
AN D^N OTES ^ * 
FOR.'^THE^ MONTH 




THE effort to obtain recognition by the government of 
certain obligations incurred in instituting the competi- 
tion for the three buildings on the Mall in Washington, 
which competition had the approval of the President and 
Secretary of the Treasury at the time, still continues, and 
despite the usual fog of legal procedure, the facts seem to 
be as follows : 

A competition was instituted and what amounted to a 
contract was signed by the President and a member of 
his Cabinet, which guaranteed that when appropriations 
were available the premiated competitors should be re- 
spectively employed upon the work. The competition 
occurred in good faith and certain architects were pre- 
miated. Time passed, the political complexion of the 
administration changed ; the money became available for 
the Department of Justice Building designed by Mr. Donn 
Barber, and the Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. McAdoo, 
while stating he has no objection to Mr. Barber, shows 
a disposition to place the commission elsewhere, and 
claims the power and the right to do so if he sees fit for 
the public good in his own estimation. 

His claim is based upon these facts as he states them : 

First — At the time of the competition there was no 
act authorizing competitions, the Tarsney Act being in- 
operative. 

O/z^n' ^Was the act of the President and Secretary of 
the Treasury legitimate without consent of Congress ? 

Second —The requirements of the building have changed ; 
more moneys are needed, therefore no matter what the 
provisions of the competition were, the facts at present 
make the competition plans inoperative, and the archi- 
tect can therefore be changed. 

Third — The terms of- payment stated were that the 
architect was not to receive more than 6 per cent, and 
the implication (because nothing was stated) was that he 
could receive less, and it is the duty of the keeper of the 
Treasury to do as well as he can (that is the implica- 
tion paralleling the other), thus it is his duty to bargain. 

Query — Is bargaining a duty of the Secretary of the 
Treasury ? 

The fog of legal procedure has enshrouded the issue, 
and the final statement that an act of Congress can 
straighten a complication which is regrettable, etc. An 
Act of Congress ! This is indeed a case in chancery of 
Jarndyce and Jarndyce in " Bleak House." Are techni- 
calities an impregnable defense to the desire for autocratic 
action ? What are the actual objections to the employ- 
ment of Mr. Barber upon a building which he has shown 
his ability to design ? The reasons assumed are manifestly 
inadequate, as Mr. McAdoo admits they do not prevent 
his employment. Why should Mr. McAdoo call them to 
his aid except to further his desire, and in that case why 
his desire, unless it be autocratic and personal ? If that is 
admitted, there is naturally no appeal to an official who 



places his own desire before the keeping of an obligation 
in which both parties were acting in good faith, and the 
carrying out of the obligation would not be an injury. If 
Mr. McAdoo considers that the employment of Mr. Barber 
is inadvisable, why does he not state that fact and his rea- 
sons for his opinion, instead of retiring behind a series of 
technical possibilities, and thereby dodging the issue? 

There is another element to be considered, and one that 
is broader than the attention to minor detail. For many 
years the city of Washington was an incongruous collection 
of unrelated units of mongrel character. These had been 
planned, placed, and erected without any coiirdination of 
thought and with a varied ignorance, by different depart- 
ments and Congresses, with the constant statement that 
each and all, as they resided in Washington, and were mem- 
bers of the government, were preeminently qualified to treat 
the architectural problems of their residence. Locality of 
residence was a credential for knowledge in the Fine Arts. 

Within some decades, men whose training and whose 
work has justified the request for their advice have formu- 
lated a scheme for the development of Washington. They 
have already proved their skill and justified their employ- 
ment. It is with the approval of these men that the archi- 
tects' designs for buildings are made. It is futile for any 
official, no matter of what rank, to place himself in oppo- 
sition to accomplishment which is already recognized ; for 
while there may be temporary obstacles, the conception 
of the development is too admirable to be long checked. 

There is frequently a tendency to consider the various 
expressions of the Fine Arts as subject to the discrimina- 
tion of average knowledge and taste, rather than to the 
appreciation of cultivated and educated good taste. The 
assumption carries with it a contradiction of the fact that 
men are but judged by their peers, and that encourage- 
ment toward the highest achievement is but obtained by 
the commendation of those capable of that achievement. 

THE New York State Association of the American 
Institute of Architects held its annual convention in 
Albany, February 24, at which time resolutions were 
adopted protesting against the government heat, light, 
and power plant, the erection of which has been started 
on the Potomac River near the Park in Washington, 
D. C. The Association recommends that before the 
work further proceeds, the National Art Commission 
should make a thorough investigation into the matter, 
obtaining competent advice, and give adequate considera- 
tion to the sites more appropriately located. 

THE activities of architects outside the confines of 
their profession have recently been augmented by two 
New York architects, George S. Chappell and Kenneth M. 
Murchison, who are joint authors of the new musical 
comedy, "Come to Bohemia." Mr. Murchison has writ- 
ten the music, and Mr. Chappell the book and lyrics. 



80 




LETTERPRESS Author 

PORTRAIT OF JACOPPO TATTI SANSOVINO Froniispiece 

THE NEW GROUP OF AGRICULTURE BUILDINGS AT CORNELL 
UNIVERSITY 

Green &: Wicks, Architects. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 
STOCK JUDGING PAVILION AT UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
W. Carbys Zimmerman, Architect. 

Illustrations from Photographs and Plans 

DIAGRAMMATIC PROGRESS SCHEDULES. PART IV. Charles A. IVhiitemore 

Illustration from Diagram 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XIX. Measured Drawing of Doorway of House m , - „, , 
Alexandria, Va J- L. Keister, O.J. Munson, J. A. Weber 

XX. Measured Drawing of Hall Doorway, Homewood, 
Baltimore, Md. R.ggin Buckler 

THE SCHOOL POWER PLANT Harold L Alt 

Illustrations from Diagrams 
HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Frank B. Meade, Architect. 
AN EXPERIMENT IN CO-OPERATIVE TRAINING IN ARCHITECTURAL 
DESIGN 

Illustrations from Drawings 
PLATE DESCRIPTION 
EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 




Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 

Advertising Department, 42 West }9th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possesions and^ Cuba ^5.00 

Canada _ -^5.50 

Smgle Copies 50 cents 



Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892. at the Post Office at Boston, M«s. 

Copyright, 1916, by RoRers and M 



t N lN|rTIT|'i|W'ljlM''X!M 




Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 
All Copies Mailed Flat 
Entered as 



T5on Company 



\3"l|IJH"|ll]i;'lltijni 



20 



THE BRICK BVILDER. 



k 




!•! 



A MATERIAL that can express the life and warmth desirable for all buildings 
in cold climates and can with equal sincerity produce effects so typical of the 
warm days and bright sunshine of the South, as the above example so well 
illustrates, is worthy of the consideration of the master architect. Such a material is 

CLAYCRAFT "INDIAN BRAND" BRICK 

A WELL MADL PRODUCT SUITABLE FOR ALL GOOD BUILDINGS 

In this material the designer has at his disposal a brick of wonderful texture which in com- 
bination with various bonds and joints will produce a great variety of wall surfaces. He 
further"" has' 'a palette of colors including grays, buffs, reds, browns, mingled shades and 
flashed iron spots that will enable him to carry to actual buildings the finest color harmonies 
his mind can devise. 



^ 



Th 






'X 



e> 



'Craft ^prick V^o. 

tbliimbtiJ! ^''A^^o Ohio 




JACOPPO TATTI SANSOVIXO 



BORN 1479. DIED 1570. .ARCHITECT OF CHURCH OF SAN 
GIOVANNI OF THE FLORENTINES, ROME. LIBRARY OF 
ST. MARK, PALACE OF THE CORNARL AND CHURCHES 
OF SAN FANTINO AND SAN MARTINO IN VENICE 



THE BRICKBVE.DER. 



VOLUME XXV 



APRIL, 1916 



NUMBER 4 



The New Group of Agriculture Buildings 
at Cornell University. 



GREEN & WICKS, ARCHITECTS. 



TWELVE years ago, when the scientific study of 
agriculture was in its infancy, the State of New York 
established, in connection with Cornell University, 
Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. In the 
years following there has been increasing recognition 
given to the value of agricultural training particularly ; 
and it is only a logical outcome that this should be so, 
because agricultural education, correlated with study in 
the shop and laboratory, provides preparation for a place 
in the great constructive and productive industries which 
are now assuming the economic position in the develop- 
ment of this country that they deserve. The State of 
New York has continued to promote active interest in the 
study of agriculture, through financial aid, offered to 
county and public schools that would inaugurate agricul- 
tural courses. Its concerted effort, however, has been 
directed toward the development of the College at Cornell, 
till in this institution there is represented the collective 



knowledge and experience of educators who have special- 
ized in laying the foundation and perfecting the details of 
this branch of education which develops vocational inter- 
est into personal efficiency. 

The growth of the College has been so great during the 
past six years that recently there have been eight new 
buildings constructed in addition to extensive alterations 
to the original buildings, and still another large building 
for plant study exclusively is contemplated. The original 
group of agricultural buildings is located on a knoll over- 
looking a wide expanse of field stretching into surround- 
ing hills. A good deal of this open area has been reserved 
for athletic purposes, since it lies between the I'niversity 
Stadium and the Drill Hall. Because of their location, 
therefore, the Agricultural Buildings have come to com- 
mand a very important position in the complete university 
group. 

The entire property of the imiversity has been plotted 




Agronomy Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Green & Wicks, ArchitecU 



82 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



and the positions of all pro- 
jected building's have been 
carefully determined so that 
in the future development 
of the agricultural school 
no haphazard results will 
occur. Up to the present 
time there has been no ef- 
fort made to complete the 
layout of the land in the 
vicinity of the new build- 
ings because of the necessity 
for placing all emphasis on 
the construction and equip- 
ment of the buildings, in 
order to meet the immediate 
demands of the school. 
Plans are, however, now in 
process for grading and 
planting which will insure 
the buildings a proper and 
beautiful setting. 

The original group of 
buildings was designed by 
the state architect and they 
were built of yellow hard 
burnt brick with Indiana 
limestone trim. In the new 
buildings, which have been 
designed by Green & Wicks, 
aided by Professors Mar- 
tin, Hebrard and Young of 
the College, on the Home 
Economics and Poultry 
Husbandry Buildings, a yel- 
low rough textured brick, in 
general lighter in color than 
that of the early work but 
varying in shade, was se- 
lected for the exterior walls 
and the same limestone trim 
used. The architects 'in 
designing: the various new 
buildings followed as far as 
practicable the style adopted 
in the old group so that 
there would not be too great 
a variation among the build- 
ings of the completed group. 

The state appropriation 
for the construction of the 
buildings was not large enough to provide funds for the 
erection of monumental structures of great beauty ; mon- 
umental effect, therefore, had to give way to the primary 
consideration of providing substantial, fireproof, and prac- 
tical school buildings. A definite architectural quality 
has nevertheless been g-iven each of the buildings through 
careful study of the proportion of window openings to 
wall surfaces, general mass and contour, and a fortunate 
choice in color and texture of the constructive materials. 
The paucity of appropriations with which to carry out the 
design of important buildingfs is a condition with which 
the architect is very often confronted, and in meeting it 




Basement Floor Plan 
Agronomy Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 



the ingenuity of the de- 
signer is taxed to provide 
means of creating an archi- 
tectural scheme which will 
indicate to as great a degree 
as possible the importance 
and dignity of the struc- 
tures and at the same time 
bring the cost within the 
stipulated figures. In the 
case of prominent buildings 
which represent the State, 
it is unfortunate that a larger 
view of the importance of 
constructing them with the 
best architectural character 
possible cannot obtain to a 
gfreater extent. 

All the buildings have 
brick exterior walls, steel 
framing, tile partitions and 
floor arches, concrete floors, 
slate roofs, and stairs. The 
interior finish in all cases 
has been carried out in as 
simple a manner as possi- 
ble with plain plaster 
painted walls and plain 
wood trim. They are heated 
by a central heating plant, 
only half of which is now 
constructed. The supply 
pipes are brought to the 
different buildings under- 
ground in tile conduits hav- 
ing frequent concrete man- 
holes. 

Each of the buildings has 
been designed to provide 
space and equipment for 
the study of a definite 
branch of the agricultural 
profession. They are each 
equipped with laboratories 
and special rooms for the 
study of the various sci- 
ences. 

A list of the buildings, 
with their costs, is given 
below : -^ 



I'er sq. ft. 

Forestry Building {11.35 

Agronomy Building 11.25 

Poultry Husbandry Building 12.18 

Headquarters Building 11.50 

Home Kconomic's Building 11.00 

Stock Judging Building 2..'?5 

Central Heating Building 

Auditorium and Laboratories 

Building 6.25 

Clinic and Hospital Building of the 
College of Veterinary Sciences . . - 10.00 



The Auditorium and Laboratories Building of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture group and the Clinic and Hospital 



I'ercu. ft. 


Total. 


$ .25 


$86,208.00 


.25 


90,000.00 


.22* 


88,001.85 


.20i 


90,982.00 


.23i 


133.856.75 


.08i 


27,796.00 




50,898.00 


.11 


132,500.00 


.16 


140,544.50 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



83 



Building of the College of 
Veterinary Sciences en- 
tailed special consideration 
in planning and perhaps 
deserve particular men- 
tion. 

In building the Audi- 
torium it was the intention 
that it would not only fur- 
nish accommodation for 
large gatherings of farmers 
and agricultural students, 
who congregate for special 
lectures, but also for the 
general use of the Univer- 
sity at large. The build- 
ing is built on the plan of 
a Greek hemi-cycle. It 
has a seating capacity of 
approximately 2,500 peo- 
ple, with a small gallery 
located over the corridor 
but not extending over the 
seats on the main floor. 
A row of columns circle 
the auditorium reaching 
from the balcony to the 
roof, which create with 
the height an imposing 
interior. A wide corridor 
extends around the main 
floor from which radiate 
aisles to the seats ; oppo- 
site each aisle there is a 
direct exit from the cor- 




Sccond Floor Plan 




First Floor Plan 
Poultry Husbandry Building, Cornell University 



ridor to the exterior por- 
tico, so that the hall can 
be quickly emptied or 
filled. This is a very im- 
portant reciuircment in a 
university hall where it is 
necessary to have a great 
many audiences during the 
day, and besides being a 
practical arrangement, the 
spectator is furnished an 
impressive sight in seeing 
the hall filled (|uickly 
through these various en- 
trances. 

In the basement all the 
available sj^ace outside of 
that reciuired for housing 
the ventilating system has 
been given over to labora- 
tories which may be en- 
tered inde]:)endently of the 
auditorium from the rear 
of the building where the 
grade is lower than at 
the main entrance. The 
building commands an im- 
portant position among 
the others of the group 
because of its size and 
scale, and the imposing 
effect which the style of 
architecture adopted lends 
to the facjade. A special 
interest has been given to 




Poultry Husbandry Building, Cornell University, Itiiaca, N. Y. 

Professors Martin, Hebrard and Youn«, Architects. Green & Wicl<s, SupcrvisinK Architects 



84 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



the circular arcade by 
means of the open tim- 
bered roof and the frieze 
above the columns, which 
has a pierced ornamental 
pattern, the detail of 
which is repeated in the 
co^-perc/uneaK on the roof. 
The Clinic and Hospital 
Building was built for the 
use of the State Veteri- 
nary College in the study 
of the diseases of animals. 
It is situated in close 
proximity to the main 
agricultural group, and^ 
although of a slightly dif- 
ferent style of architec- 
ture, it harmonizes with 
the latter because the con- 




Second Floor Plan 



contains stalls for the 
housing of horses and 
operating rooms for the 
larger animals. The am- 
bulatory stable is also lo- 
cated on this flooi". The 
next floor is given over to 
the lecture room, labora- 
tories, and experimental 
rooms in addition to a 
second ward for horses 
which is reached from the 
lower floor by a large 
elevator. The upper floor 
contains further labora- 
tories and lecture rooms, 
besides living apartments 
for the hospital atten- 
dants. 

The remaining build- 





Bascirn-nt Floor Plan 



First Floor Plan 



Forestry Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 



structivc materials are the same in all the buildings. 
The plot on which it is built slopes to the rear, so that it 
was possible to have entrances on two levels. This fact 
also determined to a large degree the uses of the various 
floors. Thus the ground floor, entered at the lower grade. 



ings of the group — including the Headquarters Building, 
containing the general office, lecture rooms, and labora- 
tories ; the Forestry Building, having, in addition to test- 
ing rooms and laboratories, a museum ; the Poultry 
Husbandry Building, devoted to the study of raising fowls 




Forestry Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Green & Wicks, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



85 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN SECOND FLOOR PLAN 

HOME ECONOMICS BUILDING, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y. 

PROFESSORS MARTIN, HEBRARD AND YOUNG. ARCHITIXTS. GRKEN & WICKS, SUPERVISING ARCHITECTS 



86 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




\ 



Headquarters Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y, 

Green & Wicks, Architects 



and preparing' them for market ; the Agronomy Building, 
given over to the scientific study of economic value and 
distribution of land, and the Home Economics Building, 
in which the study of food is carried on — were designed 
primarily to provide buildings to house the students en- 
gaged in these various sciences in such a manner that 
study could be 
carried on with 
the largest effi- 
ciency. In the 
Home Economics 
Building the 
greater portion of 
the basement is 
occupied by a large 
lunch room, adja- 
cent to which is a 
kitchen and a ba- 
kery. There is 
sufficient accom- 
modation in the 
lunch room for 
meeting the de- 
mands of the entire 
body of students 
connected with 
the agricultural 
course. The fact 
that this portion 
of the basement is 
above grade pro- 
vides good natural 
lighting by means 
of large glass areas 
in the three ex- 
terior walls. 

All available 
space in each of 
the buildings has 



most of the buildings, have 
been given over to private 
laboratories for research work. 
They are sufficiently lighted 
by as many dormer windows 
as could be incorporated with- 
out destroying the unity of the 
fa(,-ades of the buildings, and, 
in addition, each laboratory 
has large skylights. 

While the buildings are 
approximately of the same 
size, and similar in general 
plan, a good deal of ingenuity 
has been expended in diversi- 
fying the treatment of the 
facades to make each individual. 
Though the buildings represent 
the greatest size and best con- 
struction that could be obtained 
with the appropriation at the disposal of the architects, 
architectural effectiveness has not been unduly sacrificed, 
and as a complete group, housing an institution devoted 
to the study of a utilitarian science, they may be con- 
sidered a successful solution of a most intricate problem 
from both architectural and educational standpoints. 



II I 



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been utilized, even 
to the extent of 
that in the attic 
stories which, in 








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Second Floor Plan 



Third Floor Plan 




n. lire I 



1rt 





Basement Floor Plan First Floor Plan 

Headquarters Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



87 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HALCONY FLOOR I'LAN 



AUDITORIUM AND LABORATORIES BUILDING, COKNKLL UNIVKRSITY. ITHACA. N. Y. 

GRKKN & WICKS, ARCHITKCTS 



88 



THE BRICKBVILDER 










GENERAL VIEW FROM UPPER GRADE 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




i[ II in 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN 






CLINIC AND HOSPITAL BUILDING 
NEW YORK STATE VETERINARY COLLEGE, CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, N. Y. 

GREEN & WICKS, ARCHITECTS 




Stock Judging Pavilion at University of Illinois. 



W. CARBYS ZIMMERMAN, ARCHITECT. 



THIS building- was erected at the University of Illinois, 
Champaign, 111., for the purpose, as its name im- 
plies, of judgfing and studying: stock, and comes 
within the scope of the Agricultural College. 

As the judging of stock carries with it the inspection 
and observation of animals while in action, it was essen- 
tial to have a certain distance of travel, and an arena of 
such shape as to make this travel reasonably continuous. 
An oval arena would not en- 
tirely answer this purpose, as it 
is necessary, for certain pur- 
poses, to have a continuous 
straight course. This require- 
ment accounts for the rectangu- 
lar shape of the arena, with the 
semicircular wings. This plan, 
incidentally, has proven very 
desirable, from the view-point 
of economical administration, 
because it readily lends itself to 
the subdivision of space, which 
permits the use of separate parts 
of the building for different pur- 
poses at the same time. Thus 
the two semicircular wings are 
easily cut off from the main 
body of the arena by curtains, 
enabling them to be used as 
class rooms where an animal at 
rest may be studied close at 
hand by the students ; the rec- 
tangular space, at the same 
time, being in use for the 




Balcony Floor Plan 




Main Floor Plan 
89 



general examination of stock by students and others. 
The sight lines of a building of this character are, of 
course, all important, and in determining them great care 
was taken to be certain that the entire animal, includ- 
ing foot action, would be visible from every scat in the 
building. 

Natural lighting is another essential reciuirement, and 
this has been provided for by the use of skylights and large 

glass surfaces in each end of 
the building over the semi- 
circular wings and on the sides 
above the balcony. 

The building forms part of a 
quadrangle on the campus of 
the University about which arc 
grouped the other buildings de- 
voted to agriculture and allied 
branches of instruction. A well 
defined plan for the future de- 
velopment of the University 
cami)us has been adojUcd to 
insure a homogeneous and well 
arranged group when all the 
buildings will have been com- 
pleted. The plan embraces not 
only recommendations for the 
placing of the various contem- 
plated buildings, but also in a 
general way defines their archi- 
tectural treatment. This fact 
was accordingly of much in- 
fluence in determining the 
exterior style of the structure. 



90 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




DETAIL OK ARCADE 




GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIOR 



STOCK JUDGING PAVILION. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, CHAMPAIGN. ILL. 

W. CARBYS ZIMMERMAN. ARCHITECT 



Diagrammatic Progress Schedules. 



PART IV. 1 Concluding Paper. 

% CHARLES A. WHITTEMORE. 



WITH the exception of the owner, the architect is 
probably more vitally interested in the satisfactory 
prosress and consummation of the building- than 
any of the other persons engaged in or employed upon the 
work. With him begins the development of the concep- 
tion of the building ; on his ability to arrange the plan in 
a concise, coherent, utilitarian arrangement depends the 
value of the investment for the owners; and his artistic 
ability in designing an attractive exterior, interesting in- 
terior, and pleasing details not only enhances the value of 
the building by virtue of its advertising, but also classifies 
the structure as an adornment to the city in which it is 
erected. The architect in a large measure is known by 
his work and gets full credit for all of the good things 
about the building which the average layman sees, in 
addition to some slight appreciation on the part of other 
architects whose discernment is a trifle more keen than 
that of the average real estate owner or tenant. On the 
other hand, the architect also gets blamed — and the full 
measure of blame, sometimes unjustly — for everything in 
connection with the building which seems to be in the 
nature of a delay, of an error, an oversight, or of poor 
workmanship or material. It is unfortimately true that 
the profession is subjected to more unjust criticism than 
any other profession possible to call to mind. 

The reason for this is also sufficiently obvious, although 
in presenting the reason the defense of the architect is at 
the same time presented. Owners and real estate men look 
to the architect to produce miracles, to do the impossible 
in the nature of changing entirely the characteristics of 
contractors, and to work wonders with their pocketbook in 
the nature of returns on the investment. 

The number of times that the architect is called upon to 
answer the question — what is the architect for? — are 
legion. Many owners and real estate men think that the 
architect is engaged primarily to pry from an unwilling 
contractor value beyond that for which they are paying, 
to pry from him concessions in payments after contracts 
are completed, or to worm out of him, by some magical 
process, workmanship which is beyond the limits of his 
ability. Why this should be so is a mystery. The same 
people who would use architects and the architectural pro- 
fession in such a manner would no more think of conduct- 
ing other parts of their own business in a similar way than 
they would think of giving the architect the commenda- 
tion he deserves after having done the things they desired. 
Rather than express their appreciation of the way the 
work has been carried along, they even attempt to pry 
from the architect a small percentage of his commission 
in the nature of a concession rather than pay him his 
commission in full. 

Fortunately this is true of a relatively small proportion 
of the real estate operators, and this percentage is dimin- 
ishing year by year. The emphasis is laid on this partic- 
ular phase of the architect's profession in order to more 
clearly crystallize the idea that it is essential for an archi- 



tect to be continually on his guard in a systematic manner 
to prevent causes for criticism on his own part, and also 
to bring together the various elements in the building 
construction in .so thorough, complete, and harmonious a 
manner that upon the completion of the building there 
may be no occasions for embarrassing <iuestions or ex- 
planations, and both contractor and owner may feel fully 
satisfied with the execution of the work. 

There is no one agent able to effect this for the archi- 
tect to a greater degree than a competent office system. 
From the standpoint of system there are two kinds of 
architects : one who is so buried beneath a load of so-called 
system that he has become its servant ; the other who 
operates without any real system whatever except a collec- 
tion of various mechanical devices which he nominally 
calls a system, but which are of little or no value to him 
beyond the nature of tiling away memoranda. 

It is surprising to find, upon examination, how little actual 
systematic effort is put forth in connection with many archi- 
tects' offices. A filing device for letters, a book or card 
system for bookkeeping, and some sort of a catalogue for 
drawings and advertisements is the extent of the average 
office equipment, and so long as it serves its purpose it 
is quite sufficient. A diagrammatic progress schedule, 
however, is, and can be demonstrated to be, of such ines- 
timable value that it is difficult to see how architects can 
satisfactorily conduct their work without something which 
closely approximates the results of a progress schedule, if 
a schedule itself is not used. 

It woiild be obviously of no permanent value to any 
architect to so cumber his office and his work with syste- 
matic efforts along various lines that his office force had 
little time for anything else. On the other hand, it is of 
great value to have a simple record which can be kept 
without materially increasing the duties of any one in 
connection with the office ; a record which gives a com- 
plete history of every building from the day the contract 
starts until it is completed ; and a record which can 
readily be filed away for future reference. 

Possibly the reason why architects, as a rule, hesitate 
to adopt anything which seems in the line of business 
system, is due to the fact that the idea seems to be preva- 
lent that anything in the nature of a systematic business 
conduct for the office work produces an atmosphere which 
is not conducive to good imaginative work along artistic 
lines and makes the office assume the character of a 
factory where plans are in the process of being ground 
out. This might readily be true to a certain extent, i^ar- 
ticularly if time clocks and factory rules of various kinds 
were introduced and all of the work in the office was con- 
ducted along the same lines ; but every architect's office 
can be thoroughly eciuipped with efficient, systematic 
devices which do not consume time to operate, but which 
keep the architect's office records complete and up to the 
minute. 

In presenting the diagrammatic progress schedules 



91 



92 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



which have been illustrated, it has not been the idea that 
those schedules present the last word in the solution of the 
problem. The only thoug-ht is that those types which 
have previously been illustrated are types which have been 
of proven value and are not in the nature of experiments. 

The illustration accompanying this article shows a type 
of progress schedule which in many points is far superior 
to the other types previously illustrated, and an analysis 
of the schedule and its operation may bringf out some fea- 
tures which might otherwise be overlooked. 

In the first place, the form of the program lines being 
curved is an advantage over the straight lines of the other 
schedules. When the straight lines are used to indicate 
the program and also the progress, it is more difficult to 
detect slight variations between these lines. This is an 
important fact, as the value of the schedule to check 



I)rogress depends on the facility with which these varia- 
tions may be noted. The divergence of the two sets of 
lines indicates either a tendency toward a future delay or 
an acceleration in the completion of the particular portion 
of the contract to which these lines refer. The delay 
must be corrected at the earliest possible moment, or other 
parts of the work must be " speeded up "to have the 
whole contract completed on time. On the other hand, it 
is important that any acceleration be noted as earlj' as 
possible so that arrangements may be made for the other 
portions of the work which are dependent upon or related 
to the part under consideration. 

It is wrong to assume that every contract is either fin- 
ished "on time" or delayed. It is equally incorrect to 
assume that once a contract is executed, the possibility of 
completion before the specified time is remote. Archi- 



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-■PAINTIHCS 



Type of Progress Schedule Designed to Detect Slight Variations Between Program and Progress 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



93 



tects and contractors can point with pardonable pride to 
many cases in which the completed building has been 
delivered to the owners in advance of the expected com- 
pletion. This condition is of great value to the owner in 
that it lessens his carrying charges and increases his 
income. A recently completed contract illustrates this 
point. The building in question was to have been deliv- 
ered to the owners on January 1. By fortuitous circum- 
stances the work was finished sufficiently in advance of 
this date so that the tenants took possession on the 1st of 
November. This gave the owners two months' rent on 
which they had not counted. The progress schedule 
records such conditions in such a manner that the ad- 
vanced completion date may be predicted sufficiently early 
for the owner to make revised dates of occupancy for his 
tenants. 

A comparison of the schedule herewith illustrated, with 
some of the schedules previously given, will illustrate the 
difference in the functions of the straight and curved 
lines which has been described above. It will also j^re- 
sent other features by which the merits of the two types 
may be judged. , 

The type under consideration here also has the advantage 
of its predetermined size. In arranging a schedule it is al- 
ways advisable to provide for unforeseen contingencies 
which may affect the date of completion, and this can best 
be done by allowing extra spaces for time to be consumed 
in case of a delay. It is not extremely difficult to form a 
reasonably accurate opinion as to the allowance to be 
made for this contingency. The state of the market, 
freight conditions, labor reciuirements, and past record of 
the contractor all enter into this consideration and, except 
for such extraordinary' events as those that occurred in 
the fall of 1914, will determine with a fair degree of accu- 
racy the necessary extensions to the contract date. These 
extensions may not be required, but in a progress sched- 
ule of this type they must be provided for in making the 
divisions. 

It is a decided advantage to have all the schedules which 
are being kept at one time of the same size. This is not 
alone for convenience in filing, but also for the added sim- 
plicity in recording events. Having determined the size 
of the record sheets, a printed form may be used on which 
the circles are indicated, the radial divisions being deter- 
mined for each special case. It would not be impossible 
to provide two standard forms which would be complete 
ready for the information pertaining to each contract : one 
could be arranged with, say, eight radial divisions, and 
one with fifteen. The majority of contracts would proba- 
bly fall within these limits, and any contracts for which 
these would not serve would be treated as special cases. 

The schedule illustrated consists of two distinct records, 
separated by the double heavy line. The outer circles 
are for the subdivisions of the general contract and the 
inner set of circles for those contracts which may be 
awarded independently of the general contractor. The 
schedule shows the contracts which are usually awarded 
separately; but the record could be maintained in this 
same manner even though the contracts were all under 
the one contractor. In some cases the progress has been 
noted on the rcj^roduced schedule, in order to show more 
clearly the working of the device. It would be of a dis- 
tinct advantage to have the progress and program in 



ditYerent colors. This would make the record more clear 
in all parts, but more especially in those portions where 
the contracts are similar in time of commencement and in 
duration. For example, the " Heating " record of prog- 
ress could be carried out in blue, the " Plumbing" in 
red, the "Electric" in green, and these same colors 
could be used for other divisions where the conflict in line 
would not be confusing. If colors are used, a line of the 
same color drawn under the name denoting the division 
would be of great help in reading the record. 

In connection with the name of the subcontracts, as will 
be noted in the illustration, are two sets of figures : the 
first refers to the ciuantities, and the second to the esti- 
mated value of these items. This feature is a great aid 
to the architect's superintendent who checks the monthly 
requisitions of the contractor. A glance at the progress 
record shows the proportion of the work completed during 
the month for which payment is asked and at the same 
time the proportionate amount due. It also enables the 
bookkeeper, or whoever issues the certificates for pay- 
ment, to do all the preliminary work without any consul- 
tation except a study of the schedule. 

The value of this record in proportioning payments is 
sufficient in itself to warrant any office in adding the sched- 
ule to its system. There are, however, two other con- 
ditions under which this record may prove to be almost 
indispensable. In the first place, the schedule affords the 
architect a comparison between buildings erected, build- 
ings in process of construction, and projected buildings. 
In making a preliminary estimate for an owner the archi- 
tect need only refer to a completed record and a " going " 
record of a similar structure to be able to give a very 
close estimate of the probable cost. He can also check 
the cube price as well as the (juantity jirice of any ])artic- 
ular part of the contract. 

If the approximate cost of buildings could be based 
upon information as accurate as that supplied by the 
schedules used in this manner, the average owner would 
undoubtedly be obliged to change his opinion of the 
architect's estimates. Who has not heard an owner say, 
" That is the architect's estimate ; you must add ten per 
cent to that," or words to that effect ? 

A second condition which proves the value of the prog- 
ress schedule is found when a contractor is compelled to 
relinquish his contract and have the work completed by 
another. This occasion does not frequently arise, but 
having arisen may be a source of embarrassment to the 
architect who is not prepared for it. It will be obvious 
upon examination of the schedule that the architect and 
owner have in their hands the contractor's own estimate 
of the value of the contracts under his control at any time 
during the construction period. If the schedules are 
signed monthly by the contractor, or if he accepts his pay- 
ments as based on the schedule record of work done, the 
opportunity for disagreement as to an equitable settle- 
ment, in case another contractor is called in to complete 
the work, is minimized. It will also be noted that the 
retpiisitions as based on the schedule always automati- 
cally reserve the estimated cost to comi)lete the work from 
that date. 

It would he possible to further analyze the value of these 
schedules and tr) i^ointout other phases which might l)e of 
great assistance to the users. Each one who adopts a 



94 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



record of this kind can readily develop features which may 
meet his particular requirements to better advantage than 
some of those already noted, and it is in just such a man- 
ner that a device can best prove its worth. Some might 
find that an entirely different form or arrangement would 
be more suitable to their needs. The underlying princi- 
ple would, however, be alike in all cases and the value 
would be present whatever the method of keeping the 
record might be. The types illustrated have already 
been in use and have demonstrated that they represent a 
more compact and simplified form of report than those 
which they have superseded. 

If the architect and the contractor agree upon keep- 
ing a progress schedule, they will both find it a great 
convenience to have the contractor send a blueprint 
of his schedule to the architect at the same time that he 
sends in the monthly requisition. The architect then may 
consult his record and any differences may be then ad- 
justed. This saves future settlements of questions which 
are best settled when the events are fresh in each 
mind. The architect in sending the owner the certificate 
for payment, sends also a copy of his progress schedule. 
The owner can readily follow the progress of the work and 
know that each copy of the record as presented to him 
has been certified by both contractor and architect. He 
may thus be entirely free from the anxiety caused by lack 
of accord between the contractor and architect and feel 
that the contract is being executed properly and that his 
interests are properly safeguarded. 

In cases where this ])rogress schedule has been main- 
tained and reports made to the owner as indicated above, 
the owners have found it to be of great assistance. In 
comparison with the method usually maintained by archi- 
tects in keei)ing records of the progress of their work, the 
progress schedule stands very high, and any architect who 
maintains one, would find this to be a fact upon trial. 

A great many of the architects' offices confine them- 
selves in the nature of progress reports to a report which 
embraces weather conditions, number of men on the work, 
the character of the progress of the work — whether the 
work is being pushed rapidly or going along slowly. 
These reports are sometimes, rendered daily and some- 
times weekly. Where a progress report is made, how- 
ever, the superintendent, after daily or regular visits to 
the building, dictates his reports on the condition of the 
building as outlined above and then every week, or more 
often, if desired, carries out the progress of the building 
on this schedule. This requires but very little additional 
time and is well worth the extra effort. 

Those in connection with the office who do not regularly 
visit the building can, by reference to this progress sched- 
ule, familiarize themselves much better with the actual 
status of the work than from a perusal of the written re- 
ports, and this fact has already been demonstrated by the 
use of the schedules. 

There is one phase of an architect's work to which the 
progress schedule is of great value which has not been 
presented for consideration, and that is when work is 
being done under the architect's direct supervision at a 
considerable distance from his home office. 

Many architects under these conditions prefer to have 
a local representative either from their own ofifice, who 
makes his home temporarily in the city in which the work 



is being done, having complete charge of the work, or in 
the person of a local architect of reputable standing to 
whom a commission is paid for his superintendence. In 
either case it is obvious that the principal difficulty of the 
architect is in keeping himself thoroughly informed as to 
just what is going on at the biiilding in his absence. His 
own personal visits to the building obviously cannot be 
as frequent as if the work were close at hand and in order ; 
therefore, to satisfy himself as to ji:st exactly what is being 
done, he must depend on some form of report from his 
local representative. In cases where the progress sched- 
ule is not employed, this becomes either a letter or a report 
similar to the reports made by the daily visits. 

A progress report, however, would mean more and 
would present more facts regarding the actual condition 
of the building to the architect than any other form of 
report which can be maintained at so little expense and 
trouble. The architect may be interested in questions of 
contract and questions of interpretation of drawings and 
in questions of instructions to the various contractors, 
but these in the majority of cases can be handled perfectly 
well by the local representative. The architect, however, 
is vitally interested in the records of the respective parts 
of the work and can feel as thoroughly conversant with 
the conditions of the building after having reviewed his 
progress schedule as though his own personal visits were 
made far more frequently. In addition to this he can lay 
out the specific points of the work which he cares more 
particularly abovit informing himself, at his next visit, by 
a consultation with the progress schedule. 

The objection undoubtedly has already occurred to 
those who have considered the progress schedule but 
have not adopted it ; that it would be difficult to arrange 
with the contractors and the sub-contractors to adopt a 
system of this kind. This is true to a certain extent and 
still it would be surprising to those who have never inves- 
tigated it, to find how many of the better class of con- 
tractors at the present time are maintaining a progress 
schedule of their own without reference to the reporting 
of the progress to the architect. 

It was as difficult to get contractors to use concrete 
mixing inachines when they were first placed upon the 
market ; it was as difficult to have the contractors intelli- 
gently use steel construction when this first became a 
feature of modern buildings ; and it was as difficult to 
have contractors adopt any method different from that 
which they have become accustomed to through use and 
tradition as it would be to have them adopt this progress 
schedule, and probably the difficulties would be no greater. 
Certainly the value which the contractor would place upon 
the progress schedule after a sufficient use of this system 
for him to become thoroughly familiar with its advan- 
tages would be as great an aid to modern building as 
some of the different types of construction which are now 
used, have been over those previously employed. 

In previous articles the value of the progress schedule 
has been noted as applied to the use of the contractor, to 
the use of the sub-contractor, and for the benefit of the 
owner. It seems obvious to those who have used this 
schedule that it is of even greater value to the architects 
than to the others who are interested in the building, and 
undoubtedly a further use of the progress schedule will 
develop benefits which as yet have not been discovered. 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 49. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE 



HADDINGTON BRANCH, THE FREE LIBRARY OF PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

ALBERT KELSEY, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 50. 



■-■fv^>^y^STg^s^s^?"r> ^i ,^ 




INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD CHII.Dki;.N S ROOM 



HADDINGTON BRANCH. THIi FREE LIBRARY OF PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

ALBERT KELSEY, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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WALTER H. THOMAS, ARCHITECT 



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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 56. 




DETAIL OF WINDOW 



INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD PULPIT PLATFORM 



THE ST. ANDREW METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
C. E. SCHERMERHORN, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 57. 




DETAIL SHOWING ENTRANCE TO GARAGE 



STABLE AND GARAGE OF W. D. STRAIGHT, ESQ., WESTBURY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

DELANO & ALDRICH, ARCHITECTS 



.^ 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE .'58. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 59. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 60. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 61. 




VIEW OF REAR 



HOUSE AT RADNOR, PA. 
BISSELL & SINKLER, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 62. 




VIEW FROM STREET 



HOUSE OF JOHN JACOBS, ESQ., MERION, PA. 
D. KNICKERBACKER BOYD. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 63. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



DETAIL OF DOORWAY 



HOUSE OF JAMES COUZENS, ESQ., DETROIT, MICH. 
ALBERT KAHN, ARCHITECT: ERNEST VVILBY, ASSOCIATE 



VOL. 25, NO. 4. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 64. 





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W. T. DOWNING, ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE NINETEEN. 




rHE dale of this stately doorivay of ivood is type in vogue at that time. The e.xaet propor- 

unknown, but it is probably early nine- lions of the order and its pediment, the studied 

leenth eentury work. It is of an entirely differ- and pleasing eon tour of the mouldings, and the 

cut character from the other early work in architrave framing the openingareworthyof note. 

Alexandria, resembling more the formal classic The house was originally a hotel or tavern. 

DOORWAY OF HOUSE ON PRINCE AND ST. ASAPH STREETS, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 

MEASURED DRAWING ON FOLLOWING PAGE. 
95 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 









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APRIL 1916 



• HALL • DOOC WAY- HOMEWOOD • 

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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE TWENTY. 




/XTER/OK doors of this characlcr are un- 
comvion and are a pleasing variation J rem 
the eonvcntional hallway arch. A long narrow 
hall runs the length of the building, and where 
it crosses the entrance hall the ceiling is vaulted. 
This doorway leads to the front hall and an 



arch of similar design to the rear. The detail 
is very delicate and all the mouldings are enriched 
with carved ornament. .Softened by time, the 
effect of this enrichment is very pleasing. The 
leaded fan and side lights are particularly good 
examples of their kind. 



HALL DOORWAY, HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Built in 1804. 
MEASURED DRAWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 



98 



The School Power Plant. 



By HAROLD L. ALT. 



THE subject of a school power plant is one most inter- 
esting- to the taxpayer and the school board, and for 
these reasons also to the architect. Even where a 
power plant is not to be considered there are many cases 
where provision by the architect for a possible future 
power plant gives the school board a sufficient advantage 
over the local lighting company to obtain substantial re- 
ductions in rates even if a plant is never actually installed. 
On the other hand, in some instances, the local service 
company is supplying current at an entirely fair and equi- 
table rate so that its use by the school under this circum- 
stance is much better judgment than the installation of a 
separate plant. 

As a gfeneral proposition a power plant in a building 
will show the greatest saving : first, where the building: 
is used twenty-four hours per day ; second, where the 
power and lig^ht requirements are heavy and continuous ; 
third, where the rates for outside current are high ; and 
fourth, where the power can be produced on the premises 
without excessive expense or discomfort. 

It is interesting- to note that the g-eneral idea of install- 
ing a plant for the purpose of producing light and power 
and then, as an afterthought, utilizing- the exhaust steam 
in the heating- system is entirely a wrong- perspective. 
With a power plant or without, the building: must be 
heated and, if laundry or steam cooking is done, steam 
will be required at 40 to 60 pounds pressure ; while even 
without these additions the steam for the heating- system 
must be supplied at a pressure between atmosphere and 
5 pounds. In any way the building may be arranged, 
steam will be required. Since it is necessary to have 
steam, why not obtain its full valuation ? Experiment 
and actual test show the surprising: fact that with steam 
at 100 pounds pressure there is but little practical differ- 
ence whether it is let into the heating- system by being 
expanded through a reducing- valve or whether it is ex- 
panded behind the piston of an engine and then enters 
the heating: system after passing through a grease ex- 
tractor to separate the oil. In fact, the additional 
amount of steam required for the eng-ine operation is only 
some four per cent ! 

In exchang-e for this four per cent the engine will light 
the building: — all daylong- if desired, run every motor 
and supply all the other power needs with no need of 
additional coal, as long as heat is kept up in the building-. 
On this point a school has a great advantage o-(^er every 
other class of building, as it is almost entirely operated 
during- the season when heat is required and is closed for 
a large part of the summer. Thus, while a school may 
be charged a minimum rate for the summer months by 
the service company (this charge often being $50 to $60 
per month), with its own plant all expense ceases as soon 
as the building: is closed. 

As a general statement, every building: uses steam 
enough in heating to more than supply any ordinary 
power and lighting: load. In fact, a make-up connection 



is always installed between the high pressure steam main 
and the heating system steam main so that additional 
steam (over and above that used by the engines) can be 
obtained through a reducing- valve. 

The main point of loss in the isolated plant is the coal 
required to be burned on warm days to keep up steam 
where otherwise the fires could be banked, but there is 
always some demand for hot water, and, where cooking 
or laimdry needs are to be satisfied, this loss becomes 
practically nil. 

Night school also makes a big- difference in the amount 
of current used for lights, this current generally being 
charged for at a higher rate than current used for motors 
or power. 

To determine accurately the saving, if any, by the in- 
stallation of a plant in a school, a careful study of the in- 
dividual conditions must be made in each case — probable 
hours of operation, amoimt of power used, future exten- 
sions and a multitude of other things are considera- 
tions. Accurate information on these points is often 
unattainable, and in its stead wild guesses are substi- 
tuted, the errors in which are shown when accurate data 
is received. 

Since practical examples are always more interesting 
and generally far more easily understood than a mis- 
cellaneous group of generalities with no definite and con- 
crete application, let us consider a typical instance where 
a school of the older type contemplated the installation of 
a plant. This case is offered here because the school was 
right on the border line between a ' ' plant ' ' and ' ' no 
plant " and also because some very exact information 
(later obtained) showed that this plant would not be prof- 
itable ; yet when figured on the basis of the janitor's esti- 
mates (evolved from his guess as to the number of hours 
operated and horse power of apparatus run) figures were 
produced indicating a power consumption of between four 
and five times the amount actually used, the true amotmt 
being later determined by the discovery of the bills show- 
ing the electric meter readings month by month for the 
year previous. 

This error in the janitor's estimate would have cost the 
school board some $450 a year had they decided to put 
in a plant on the basis of the consumption that the janitor 
claimed. 

The conditions under which the building was operating 
as far as they were obtainable from bills and other data 
are as follows : 

The school was burning 450 tons of coal per year to 
heat the building at $4.50 per ton, or $2,025 per year. 

Total motor horse power for some 26 motors was 130 
H. P., or about 97 Kw. 

Total lights equaled the equivalent of 1,000 — 60 watt 
tungsten lamps, or 60 Kw. 

The total current consumj^tion month by month con- 
sisted of the quantities as given in the table on the follow- 
ing page. 



99 



100 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





Light. 




Power. 




Kw 


Hours. 


Cost. 


Kw. Hours. 


Cost. 


Jan. 


900 


$86.00 


4370 


1192.00 


Feb. 


680 


66.00 


5260 


210.00 


March 


730 


80.00 


4218 


190.00 


April 


670 


65.00 


3088 


166.00 


May 


620 


61.00 


2728 


160.00 


June 


600 


59.00 





58.00 (a) 


July 


400 


40.00 





58.00 (a) 


Aug. 


270 


27.00 





58.00 (a) 


Sept. 


440 


44.00 





58.00 {a) 


Oct. 


621 


51.00 


4498 


195.00 


.\ov. 


740 


72.00 


5788 


220.00 


Dec. 


1113 


104.00 


5178 


208.00 




7784) 


S755.00 


35128) 


S1773.00 



Av. rate per hour, 



.097 Av. rate per hour, .05 



(a) Indicates minimum rate charge per month. 

Total light bill $755.00 

Total power bill 1,773.00 

Total electric bilL-_ $2,528.00 



Total light Kw. H. . 
Total power Kw. H.^ 
Total electric Kw. H. 



7784 
35128 
42912 



(The janitor's estimate was 166,100 Kw. H., or four 
times as much as actvial.) 

To all intents this building appears to be one in which a 
power plant would effect a considerable saving, yet when 
carefully analyzed it was proved conclusively that the 
school was being operated at least as cheaply, if not more 
cheaply, through the use of outside current as it would be 
with its own plant. This is owing to a large extent to the 
fact that a low pressure boiler plant was installed, which 
would recjuire excessive expense to tear out and remodel 
into a high pressure plant, and the fact that the building 
was not complete, thereby requiring the installation of 
units >io7c whose full capacity would not be required until 
the future building program had been completed. 

Added to this was the fact that there was, in this partic- 
ular case, no night school to be considered and a load, 
generally averaging much below the maximum, which 
could, however, be thrown on entirely at one time during 
certain intervals. 



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A careful estimate made of the cost and operating ex- 
pense for a power plant in this building is most instruc- 
tive. The total connected load (allowing for ordinary 
electrical losses) was 130 motor horse power, or 

About 110 Kw. for power and 

About .60 Kw. for light 

or 170 Kw., total 

The school board contemplated certain changes in the 
courses, involving additional power requirements of some 
50 Kw. This increased the load to 220 Kw., to which had 
to be added an allowance of 30 Kw. to cover an addition 
to the building under consideration for the near future. 
This resulted in a total future load of 250 Kw. 

It was decided that it would be necessary to install two 
125 kilo- volt-ampere alternators driven by steam engines 
so that one would carry the load at normal times and two 
could be used at periods when the whole building, includ- 
ing gymnasium, auditorium, etc., might be in use. Two 
units were desirable so that in case of breakdown the nec- 
essary portion of the school could be run on one unit. 
Without duplicate units, breakdown service must be ob- 
tained from the local service company, and it is usually 
only to be had at such exorbitant rates as to make the 
operation of a private plant unprofitable, which is the 
very reason that the rates are made excessive. 

The cost to install a plant of 250 Kw. capacity laid out 
as indicated in Fig. 1, which shows the installation con- 
templated in this instance, would require expenditures as 
follows : 



Two 125 K. V. A. alternators and exciters 
Freight and mounting on engine shaft - . . 

Switchboard and voltage regulator 

Recording watt meters 



$3,560.00 
400.00 
800.00 
200.00 

Two engines erected complete 4,0(X).00 

Foundations 500.00 

Electric wiring 750.00 

Additional partition to form engine room 200.00 

Tearing up and replacing floors 150.00 

Steam piping, pumps, feed water, heater, and 

accessories 5, 500. 00 

Engineering fee .' 800.00 

$16,860.00 



n iLPSreomtb Bulletins 



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ROOM 



T 



^Pbe</ VoJ^ /b Sc//ers 

Fig. 1 



This gives the total 
additional invest- 
ment rec|uired for the 
power plant from 
which interest and 
depreciation can be 
figured to obtain the 
annual operating 
cost. This is as 
follows : 



Interest (5 percent ), depreciation (5 percent), 
maintenance (2 per cent), or a total of 12 
per cent on $16,860.00 $2,023.00 



Additional coal for power (estimated) 

Extra labor 

Supplies, oil, waste, etc. 



450.00 
400.01) 
100. 0<J 
12,973.00 
Annual cost of electric current when pur- 
chased outside 2,528.00 

Balance in favor of outside current $445.00 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



101 




It must be remembered, however, that this was a com- 
parison between power consumption at present as com- 
pared with the cost of operating a power plant big- enough 
for all the future needs. It has been seen that the exist- 
ing consumption consists of 

7,784 Kw. H. for lamps 
35,128 Kw. H. for power 

and that the total connected load for power is some 110 Kw.; 
but what happens when the increased demand for current 
contemplated by the 
board takes place? 
The connected load 
increases from 170 
Kw. to 220 Kw., or 
about 30 per cent, and 
the current consump- 
tion will jump at about 
the same rate. Then 
instead of 35,128 Kw. 
H. per year for power, 
there will be used 

35,128x1.30 = 
45,660 Kw. H., 

which at the average 
rate of .05 perKw. H. 
(cost from public service company) makes the 

Power bill $2,283.00 

Light bill 755.00 

Total power cost $3,038.00 

Against this is operation cost of plant 2,973.00 

or a saving of $65.00 

Consumption of coal will also be increased 30 

per cent, or 135.00 

Net saving, or balance in favor of outside 

current $70.00 

This shows a plant which operated at a loss would come 
up to about an even break with the increase in current 
proposed, while at the time of the completion of the addi- 
tion it will be fairly desirable, as the following indicates : 

Total connected load 160 Kw. for power 

60 Kw. for light 
220 Kw. 

30 Kw. increase for addition on building equals about 
30/220, or 14 per cent. This may be considered as about 
proportionately divided between the light and power, mak- 
ing the 

Light bill, $755.00 x 1.14 or $860.00 

Power bill, $2,283.00 x 1.14 or 2,602.00 

Total for outside current $3,462.00 

Plant operation 2.973.0 

Saving $489.00 

Cost of additional coal : 

.00 4- $135.00 = $585.00 \ 

5.00 X 14 per cent = 81.90' $216.90 

$135.00 -h $81.90 = 216.90 ) 

Saved per year, $272.10 



Considering the fact that this building is not one of the 
newest type, and that its power requirements are not 
equal to those of the average up-to-date school, that it is 
contemplated to tear out and discard a large amount of 
low pressure steam piping, and that new partitions must 
be built, old walls cut, and more or less alteration work 
done as shown in Fig. 1 (most of which expense would 
be avoided in a new job), is not this fairly conclusive 
evidence that in a great number of cases a power plant is 

an economy in the 
\ stoc/r p i ^ modern school ? 

The trend is all in 
favor of increased 
current consumption ; 
more elaborate equip- 
ment, more interest- 
ing experiments, more 
pumps, fans, vacuum- 
cleaning machines, 
laundry equipment, 
etc. All these demand 
current and still cur- 
rent; and the more cur- 
rent used the greater 
is the advantage of 
the isolated plant. 
Suppose the school considered above should decide to 
hold night sessions. This would jump the lighting cur- 
rent to three or four times as much as at present, resulting 
in a saving not of $272.00, but of $2,042.00 to $2,797.00 
additional. In fact, it is not at all impossible to save 
$2,000.00 per year where conditions are right, and this is 
actually being done in more than one case. 

Any school whose monthly electric bill is $400.00 or over 
should be investigated in order to ascertain the cost and 
probable saving which would be obtained by the installa- 
tion of a power plant for its own use. 

This makes clear the architect's duty to every school 
board to at least provide for a possible economical instal- 
lation. Had this matter been in mind in the case cited, 
an approach to the ideal arrangement shown in Fig. 2 
could undoubtedly have been made. Here the same iden- 
tical equipment is installed in a ship-shape systematic 
arrangement, with the smoke breeching short and direct, 
the high pressure steam main a loop header, giving less 
liability to break down and a much shorter length of 
underfloor trench in the engine room. 

Besides this there is the element of extension always to 
be considered. No school board, when it builds a new build- 
ing, has any idea that future extension will be required 
for many years. Yet extensions often come altogether 
too soon for comfort, especially if the boiler room cannot 
easily be enlarged. It will be noted in Fig. 2 that ample 
provision has been made for future extension on the side 
opposite the stack either by another installation of equal 
size with another stack on the far side, or by the addition 
of only one unit using the present stack. 



102 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




HOUSE AT CLEVELAND, OHIO 

FRANK B. MEADE. ARCHITECT 



An Experiment in Co-operative Training in 

Architectural Design. 



% 



THE proximity of one institution of learning to an- 
other has often led to proposals from one to the 
other that have resulted in mutual material savings. 
These proposals have led further to still more desirable 
results in the fields of study, owing to a spirit of co-oper- 
ative endeavor naturally fostered by such agreements. 
There are a variety of ways in which schools so similarly 
organized may draw closer together for mutual benefit. 
These remarks will be confined to a consideration of an 
experiment in training in architectural design recently 
undertaken in Boston. 

For many years the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology and Harvard University have been carrying on 
departments of architecture which, in the courses in 
design, have required very similar work from their ad- 
vanced students. A series of six or seven problems given 
through the year have been done under similar conditions 
and have covered very much the same ground. 

The Boston Architectural Club has been able to provide 
courses in design modeled on those recommended by the 
Society of Beaux Arts Architects and in construction, 
history, mathematics, etc., courses so arranged as to 
meet the requirements for the Rotch Traveling vScholar- 
ship. These courses have been very helpful to the 
younger draftsmen who have been unable to obtain an 
architectural education elsewhere. 

In design the method in vogue at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, which has met with such universal approval, has 
been followed at the Boston Architectural Club since the 
foundation of its Atelier, and was adopted some years pre- 
vious to this by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
and later by Harvard University. The student goes cti /ooe 
with his program for a number of hours, and when his 
solution is decided upon it is definite and to which he must 
rigorously adhere in the working out of his final drawing. 
He retains a copy of the rough sketch which he has turned 
over to his instructors for reference, beside him during the 
time that he spends in working up and finishing his draw- 
ings. At the time of judgment the original sketch is 
pinned to the drawing to give the jury the key to the 
student's method of thought, and is of great value in 
gauging the ability of the student in the handling of his 
problem. If the sketch has not been adhered to nor car- 
ried out in its essential scheme, the finished drawing is 
not considered for award. 

This method — almost universal to-day in the teaching 
of architectural design in America — has proven itself of 
great disciplinary advantage and also made the accom- 
plishment of more work possible in a given time. 

The spirit of competitive endeavor, without which the 
work of the younger designer must languish, is kept alive 
in all schools by exhibition of the student's work. Nor is 
this the only advantage of the exhibition. Comparison of 
his own work with that of his fellow is undoubtedly of 
great value to the student, who is then given a real oppor- 
tunity to weigh the merits of the numerous solutions of 



the problem after he has become thoroughly familiar with 
the given conditions ; to derive benefit from suggestion 
and also to nourish in himself the ability to criticize judi- 
cially the work of others. 

The scope of benefit to be derived from the exhibition 
is thus unlimited in theory and becomes actually wider 
as the number of drawings in the exhibition is increased. 

Students at the Boston Architectural Club have been 
unable to see the exhibition of their work done under the 
auspices of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects because 
of the difficulty, generally due to expense, of getting to 
New York where these exhibitions are held. 

Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
have always exhibited their drawings at the end of each 
/r>/{/!/ in the halls at their disposal. 

It was the realization of the undeveloped possibilities in 
Boston in this direction that led the Committee on Educa- 
tion of the Boston Society of Architects last year to pro- 
pose to the two schools and to the Architectural Club a 
scheme of co-operation in their work in design. This 
proposal was met by the hearty approval of all, and in so 
far as dissimilar schedules in the three schools have made 
it possible, dates have been set for problems to be done 
simultaneously and exhibited in common. 

For a year the principle of co-operation as applied to 
architectural training has thus been on trial and seems to 
have proven itself successful and capable of development. 
To-day, however, owing to different calendars. Harvard 
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are still 
doing the greater part of their work in design indepen- 
dently, though it is confidently expected that as opportunity 
permits, more and more of these problems will be done in 
common. The Boston Architectural Club still continues 
its work under the Beaux Arts Society system and will 
continue to do so. The work of its students under this 
system is sent off as usual to New York for judgment. The 
problems arranged in common with Harvard and the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology are supplementary 
and are offered as an option to the student. 

A jury consisting of three representatives from each 
school judges the finished drawings, which are alternately 
exhibited at Harvard, Technology, and the Architectural 
Club. The meetings of this jury have been interesting 
and have led, through consideration of the drawings in 
question, to discussions that have been of benefit to all 
concerned. A close understanding now exists which 
should lead to a more comprehensive and valuable course 
offered to the student. 

The drawings illustrated on the following i^iages are 
those premiated in a recent problem given at the same 
time to the three schools. The program required a design 
for a large ornamental clock to be suspended from the 
second story of a jeweler's establishment on an important 
city street. Two vertical faces which could be illuminated 
at night and each of which should have a dial three feet 
in diameter were to be provided. 



103 



104 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




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105 




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106 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Haddington Branch, the Free Library of Philadel- 
phia, Philadelphia, Pa. Plates 49-51. This library 
building- shows an interesting treatment of simple wall sur- 
faces througfh which distinction is gained for the whole com- 
position. The design of the fagade is composed of five 
arches, the central one of which is slightly larger and 
carried out in ornamental terra cotta to mark the principal 
entrance. The intervening wall surfaces have been car- 
ried out in a simple brick bond so that all emphasis is placed 
upon the central bay. The open portico is an exceedingly 
good example of the use of polychrome terra cotta. It 
is finished in a lustrous glaze in blue, yellow, and green. 
The interior walls of the portico are rusticated, and at 
regular intervals there are conventionalized blocks orna- 
mented with old-looking volumes in low relief. This treat- 
ment forms a sort of diaper pattern which culminates in 
deeply cofTered panels around a central rosette forming 
the vault overhead. The exterior lighting of the entrance 
has been so arranged that the beauty of this feature will 
be distinctly brought out at night. 

Polychrome terra cotta has similarly been used in the 
frieze to give a touch of color and ornament, and here 
special plaques have been incorporated bearing various 
printer's marks. 

The interior of the building has been executed with 
simple plaster walls and dark stained oak woodwork with 
linoleum covered floors. 

Charlestown Branch, Boston Public Library, 
Charlestown, Mass. Plate 53. This building is lo- 
cated on Monument Scpiare, Charlestown, on a lot which 
slopes sharply to the rear. This fact was taken advantage 
of in planning the building, so that a large lecture room 
was provided in the basement with a direct entrance from 
the street. 

The library proper is reached through two entrances 
located at the grade, one of which leads directly to the 
children's reading room on the first floor and the other to 
the main reading room on the second floor. 

Practically all the space on the first and second floors is 
given over to the use of the public, there being no neces- 
sity of stack room other than that which is provided 
through shelves on the walls and in bookcase alcoves 
arranged between windows. 

The exterior is faced with a dark red brick laid in run- 
ning bond with headers in every sixth course. The trim 
is limestone, and the sculptured seal, which provides a 
note of accent on the entrance fayade, is that of the Bos- 
ton Public Library. 

Chapel of St. Simon the Cyrenian, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Plates 54, 55. This church shows an interest- 
ing use of brick in a building of the Gothic style. The 
exterior is faced with a red repressed stretcher brick. 
This material has been used for practically all details of 
the fagade, including copings, sills, and mullions, and in 
addition to eliminating the cost of stone trim it gives the 
building a distinctive character not to be had through more 



elaborate means. The roof is of variegated slate, and 
gutters and leaders are copper. 

The present window mullions are of wood and are 
temporary, it being the intention at a future date to insert 
limestone mullions with permanent memorial windows. 
The interior is simply carried out in plaster with an open 
timbered roof of oak. The chancel fittings and pews are 
also of this wood. 

The cost of the building, including furnishings and 
architect's fee, was 25 cents per cubic foot, excluding 
the basement and taking the mean height of the roof in 
the computation. 

The St. Andrew Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Plate 56. This small church has 
been designed following the precedent of Mexican archi- 
tecture. It is constructed of brick, the exterior finish 
being stucco. The roof is of red Spanish tile and trim- 
mings are of white matt glazed terra cotta. The interior 
is chiefly characterized by the large tile dome which covers 
the greater portion of the auditorium, and the manner in 
which the organ has been arranged. 

It is intended at a future date to construct an addition 
to the rear which will provide space for Sunday-school 
purposes. 

Stable and Garage of W. D. Straight, Esq., West- 
bury, Long Island, New York. Plates 57, 58. This 
building is built with an L-shaped plan around a large 
scjuare court, the other two sides of which are formed by 
a high brick wall. The entrance to the court is at the angle 
of the enclosing walls on the main access of the building. 

The garage is situated in the center of the group, and 
long wings to the right and left contain, respectively, the 
stable and carriage room, and a group of three cottages 
for help employed on the estate . The latter has a distinctly 
domestic appearance and shows many charming character- 
istics of English country buildings. 

The exterior walls are constructed of a rough texture 
red brick laid in a wide white mortar joint. The roofs 
are covered with small shingle tiles, as are also the cheeks 
of the dormers. 

House of Hudson Mooke, Esq., Atlanta, Ga. Plate 
64. This house is located on Peachtree Road, about 
five miles from Atlanta. It is constructed of a rough tex- 
ture brick on the lower story and half timber and plas- 
ter on the second. The brick wall is laid in Flemish bond, 
the colors running through dark reds and browns. The 
timber work is of undressed lumber, stained brown. The 
plaster is tan color. The terrace and porch floors are of 
tile and the sun parlor is faced with the same brick as 
used on the exterior walls. An interesting detail of the 
house is the carved barge boards over the entrance and 
the heads which appear imder the belt course at the 
second story level and on the gable brackets. 

The interior is finished throughout in birch and the 
total cost was $15,000. 



107 



ED1TOR.1AL COMMENT 
AN D*N OTES 



<t 




FOR.<>THE^ MONTH 



s 



THERE have been numerous and able protests from 
writers and scientific associations ajjainst the erec- 
tion of the power house in Washington on the banks of 
the Potomac. These bodies and individuals are quali- 
fied by knowledgfe and experience, represent varied inter- 
ests, have received honors of far greater merit than are 
conferred upon the majority of federal legislators, and are 
dealing with a subject of which they are thoroughly cog- 
nizant. Vet, despite this fact, the Congressional Records 
of February 14th and 25th display on their pages remarks 
and controversy by legislators which are evidently made 
in the sincerity of ignorance, in opposition to these able 
protests. What is the cause for this condition of affairs ? 
In matters of life and death, the word of the physician 
and the surgeon is sought ; in matters of law, that of the 
able jurist is desired ; but in matters of art and of the 
word of the artist, there is no man so mean as to do him 
obeisance. And yet the question of art and of architec- 
ture is as vital as that of health and justice, as it is the 
permanent and conspicuous environment of both. 

The legislator is supposed to represent his constituents, 
and the majority of his constituents are as ignorant of all 
appreciation of art as they are of medicine or law ; but 
they know they are ignorant of the latter, because they 
get into immediate material difficulties if they attempt 
either, but treatment of artistic problems carries no pen- 
alty with it that an uneducated man recognizes. He 
therefore feels safe in making decisions without qualifi- 
cations and belittling protests which he does not appre- 
ciate and which irritate him. 

Artistic expression is varied and of many degrees and 
can be judged only by comparisons. 

A protest against a disfigurement of the architectural 
scheme of Washington, of which the ix'ople are already 
proud, must be such as to convince the public, and then 
there will be no opposition of the legislators. That this 
conviction is already taking place is evidenced by the 
resolutions of the American Institute of Consulting Engi- 
neers and the National Association of Builders Ex- 
changes, and many others who are in no way affiliated 
with artistic professions. It is possible that this very 
discussion, which is so well presented in the " Appeal 
to the Enlightened Sentiment of the People of the United 
States," will be a very definite factor in the education 
of the people on these matters, which education cannot 
be too widespread or undertaken by too many different 
interests. 

IN the annual report of the American Academy in Rome 
which has just been received it is gratifying to read 
that the European war has not had such dire effects on 
the administration of the school as was generally ex- 
pected at the beginning of the conflict. The enrolment of 
students has not been lessened and activities have been 



carried on without any serious curtailment save for such 
inconveniences as the closing of certain districts in north- 
ern Italy to students and travelers and the need for pru- 
dence in sketching in other parts of the country. Consid- 
ering the fact that the Academy also embarked upon the 
occupancy of its new quarters on the Janiculum during 
this perilous period, it is indeed a commendable record of 
achievement that is presented. 

SIR THOMAS JACKSON'S admirable volumes upon 
(iothic Architecture* are of very great value if only 
for the charm and beauty of his pencil drawings, which 
are both skilful and appreciative of the qualities of the 
subjects, and have the delicate, affectionate touch of the 
man who loves his art, and also because his book is a very 
compendium of Gothic work throughout Europe in its 
text and illustrations, and his sensitiveness in regard to 
the phases of Gothic Art is refreshingly free from dogma- 
tism. 

Naturally he defines the term " (iothic " and considers 
that it is an art which grows from structure without con- 
ventional bonds, is as free in its expression as it is sane in 
its methods, and is based upon the intention of good build- 
ing with true economy developed and embellished by 
aesthetic detail. It therefore has amazing variety and 
possibility of protean changes, controlled by the desires 
stated. When its structural qualities approach perfection, 
as at Amiens, there is always the danger of the coldness 
of a precision, which is absent in the less skilled and ten- 
tative intimate efforts of a less perfect knowledge. It 
developed from the well intentioned incompetence of the 
Romanesciue into an art which became as nearly scientific 
as the times permitted in France, and Sir Thomas Jack- 
son thoroughly comprehends that so sensitive a means of 
expression, unhampered by canons of form such as the 
orders of architecture, would at once reflect the character 
of its builders. 

He acknowledges that the French are devoted to preci- 
sion to the ultimate point in their work, while the English 
make constant compromises ; that the French reason out 
their achievement, while the English cling to traditions, 
and that therefore French Gothic develops in setiuence 
logically and its phases are definite and progressive, while 
in England the Roraanescjue wall lingers between the but- 
tresses, and the immediate precedents dovetail into the 
new experiment. Also, he feels that homely imperfections 
create a certain charm in themselves. It is natural that 
Mr. Moore's book on the same subject does not content 
him, but he treats it with the respect it deserves and with- 
out acerbity, and is himself so far from being a doctri- 
naire that he is absolutely sympathetic by nature with the 
Gothic styles. 

* " (Jothic Architecture in France. Kngland. and Italy." by Sir Thoma.s Craham 
Jackson. Bart.. K. A. F.S. A. The I'niversity of Chicago I'ress, Crown. 4t(). Two 

volumes. $14.50. 



108 




NUMBER 5 



MAY 



9 1 6 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS . , , , 

Architects 
APARTMENTS, ALLSTON, CHARLES STREET, BALTIMORE, MD. 

. Parker, Thomas & Rice 

BANK, FALL RIVER FIVE CENTS SAVINGS, FALL RIVER, MASS. 

IVilliam Luther Mowll 

FRATERNITY HOUSE, PSI UPSILON, AMHERST, MASS Putnam & Cox 

FRATERNITY HOUSE, PHI DELTA THETA, AMHERST, MASS. ^ ^Putnam & Cox 

HOTEL WINECOFF, PEACHTREE STREET, ATLANTA, GA. . . .W . L. Stoddart 

INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS, NORTHAMPTON, MASS Thomas M. James 

MUSEUM, ADDITIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Wilson Eyre & Mcllvaine, Ste'wardson & Page, Day Brothers & Klauder, Associated 



if 





mP--^MI 



65-68 



LETTERPRESS . . 

Author Page 

PORTRAIT OF GIULIO ROMANO Frontispiece 

MODERN PRACTICE IN THE DESIGN OF BANK VAULTS __Fre(/<?ric,^ 5. Holmes 1C9 

I. Protective Principles and Construction Methods. 
Illustrations from Photographs 

SOME RECENT SMALL BANK BUILDINGS 114 

First National Bank, Montclair, N. J. 

Crow, Lewis SC Wickenhoefer, Architects. 
Security Trust Company, Rockland, Me. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 
First National Bank, West Orange, N. J. 

C. Howard Walker and Ralph H. Doane, Associated Architects. 
Winchester Trust Company, Winchester, Mass. 

Wait SC Copeland, Architects. 
Hampden Branch, Provident Savings Bank, Baltimore, Md. 
Ellicott & Emmart, Architects. 

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES OF THE GARDEN. — I John T. Fallo 

Illustrations from Photographs 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XXI. Measured Drawing of Entrance to " Homewood," 
Baltimore, Md. 

XXII. Measured Drawing of Stairway in Johnson House, 
Newburyport, Mass Gordon Robb 

OLD ENGLISH PLASTER WORK _'_! J. JV. Orerend 127 

Illustrations from Photographs 
COMPETITION FOR DESIGN OF NEW YORK STATE ARCHITECTS' 

CERTIFICATES 131 

Illustrations from Prize and Mention Designs 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 133 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 
INDEX TO ADVERTISING ANNOUNCEMENTS 



^"" rriiir.iH.m, ,„„ n,.-. 




119 



Riggin Buckler 123, 1 24 



125, 




Jl 



^ 







Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 

Advertising Department, 42 West 39th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 

Canada ^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Company 

| | r igg iii m all| m (fl \jij|li|Hyii|||IIKi(|||lj||ii(( 



'il l l! l | il l ll ||nH^ ii | ) «| ||'i 





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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 

Ceiling Over the Auditorium in the Museum Building 

University of Pennsylvania 

COMPRISING A STRUCTURAL TILE DOME HAVING A SPAN OF 
90 FEET AND CARRYING FLOOR ABOVE. THE PLAIN SURFACES 
OF DOME AND WALLS ARE LINED WITH RUMFORD ACOUSTIC 
TILE, WHICH HAS GIVEN EMINENTLY SATISFACTORY RESULTS 

Wilson Eyn' & McIIvaine, Stewardson & Page, and Day Bros. &• Klauder, Associated Architects 

R. GUASTAVINO CO., New York u.kI Boston 



II 

II 
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GIULIC) ROMANO 

BORN 1492. DIED 1546. ARCHITECT OF VILLA MA- 
DAMA AND PALACE OF CICCIAPORCI ON STRADA DI 
BANCHL ROME, AND PALAZZO DEL TE AT MANTUA 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXV 



MAY, 1916 



NUMBER 5 



Modern Practice in the Design of Bank Vaults, 

I. PROTECTIVE PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS. 

By FREDERICK S. HOLMES. 



ENSHROUDED in mystery, chicanery, and deceit to 
a degree not approached in any other mechanical 
line, the manufacture of safes and vaults, until within 
a few years, had been so handicapped that relatively little 
progress was made in the essentials of the art, and even 
now these sinister influences are frequently in evidence. 

Such conditions are, in a way, probably a logical corol- 
lary of the large element of empiricism that exists and 
must always be considered in any design intended to pro- 
duce work that will satisfactorily comply with constantly 
changing requirements, many of which are of unknown 
quantity — as the skill and resources of the burglar. 

Put otherwise, while many of the elements of vault 
planning are governed by the rules of mechanical and 
structural engineering, there will always remain large 
and obscure factors of resis- 
tance which can be termed the 
mob or burglar ' ' stress ' ' ; 
new methods of attack that 
may at any moment be 
evolved, either by a sudden 
individual inspiration, the 
regular progress of scientific 
investigation, the discovery 
of some new principle, or the 
perfection of a well-known 
one, which may nullify in 
whole or in part present 
schemes of defense. Such 
things have occurred in the 
past and are happening to- 
day. 

For instance, long ago safe 
and vault doors were made 
with straight, stepless edges 
— a design strange to say, 
and for reasons which will be 
explained, now considered de- 
sirable. This type was found 
to permit of successful attack 
by wedging and, as a result, 
it was superseded by one hav- 
ing joints provided with one 
or more rebates ; this pretty 
well obviated the weakness of 
the straight joint, but was 
soon found to permit lodg- 
ment for explosive substances, 
to circumvent which the so- 




Exterior View of a Modern Forty-ton Vault Door 



This illustration shows a crane hinge and pressure mecha- 
nism. Note combination lock dials and bolt-throwing handle 
on the jamb, also portion of movable platform in lower posi- 
tion and hand wheel for operating same. 



called " tongue and groove " stepping was then designed. 
This appeared to be a final improvement ; the grooves 
were packed with felt and it was shown that gunpowder 
could not be forced beyond the packing, and that it was 
difficult to force wedges around the tongues. 

Then came liquid explosives ; the felt absorbed nitro- 
glycerin and became dynamite, automatically placed just 
where it would do the most damage ; so a non-absorbent 
packing was stibstituted, such as asbestos, rubber, or 
more recently a trade article consisting of a rubber base 
or matrix filled with graphite. All of these stop the flow 
of a liquid explosive, loiti/ it is fired, then the space that 
they have occupied becomes a hole or pocket, ready made 
for a fresh and mightier charge, for anything like soft 
rubber cannot resist nitroglycerin — it simply vanishes. 

Will it be believed that all 
of these packings are widely, 
almost universally, used to- 
day in both old and new work 
for the purpose of stopping 
explosives? Such is the fact, 
and the owner remains in 
blissful ignorance of the 
danger. This is only one of 
many examples that might be 
used to illustrate the point. 

Other conditions, unfortu- 
nately, have also operated to 
retard progress, such as com- 
mercial competition, always 
strenuous and frequently 
unfair, the inactivity of the 
burglar in this particular field , 
and a lack of knowledge on 
the part of most bankers of 
the difference between good 
and bad design. 

vSo long as vault builders 
were permitted to design 
work, and so long as archi- 
tects and their clients re- 
mained in ignorance of the 
fundamental principles of pro- 
tection, little real advance was 
made ; but since the vault 
engineer started his campaign 
of education, tmcovering the 
sophistries of the trade, ex- 
posing the fallacies of their 



no 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Exterior View oi I'ilty-ton Door 
Note movable platform in lower position 

arguments and the inefficiency of their designs, and 
demonstrating the serious inadequacy of the work that 
was being built, the salesman is frequently eliminated 
from the problem and the engineer substituted, with the 
result that work is designed to meet the real needs of 
the banker instead of following the general methods of 
the manufacturer, which however profitable are largely 
obsolete and should have been abandoned years ago. 

Under the older system many vaults have been and 
are even now being built, some of them costing hundreds 
of thousands of dollars that are neither burglar nor fire- 
proof, and not even waterproof. Only the fact that they 
are installed in fireproof buildings and well watched can 
account for their safety to date. Many of these vaults 
are mere masses of metal, without a vestige of fireproof- 
ing on the outside, and in the event of a conflagration 
sufficient to sweep through the building, their contents 
would undoubtedly be incinerated. This is not theory, 
but has in part been demonstrated in a recent fire. 

Furthermore, the entrances to some of these vaults are 
protected by doors having bolt-work which is operated 
by spring-boxes, tripped by time-locks. Even a burglar's 
apprentice could put a hole through the wall of such a 
vault near the door in a few minutes with a cutter-burner, 
reach through with a rod and trip the time-lock lever, 
when the bolts would automatically retract and the door 
could be opened as easily as at nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing — only another illustration of the truth of the state- 
ment that the integrity of vault-work lies chiefly in its 
design. 

The designs upon which such vaults are built might 
almost be called criminal. It is hardly to be supposed. 



however, that the institutions which purchase work of this 
character can know that they are buying " gold bricks." 

Banks and trust companies are not the only disciples of 
unpreparedness. During an investigation made for the 
United States Government a few years ago conditions 
came to light that were appalling. Fortunately, the worst 
of these have been remedied, although many remain with 
little or no improvement. 

The report of this investigation was termed by the then 
Secretary of the Treasury a " Burglar's Guide" and has 
never seen the light of day. As a matter of fact, it might 
well have been termed " Guide Number Two," as an in- 
vestigation carried on under the auspices of the Fifty- 
third Congress about twenty-five years ago, the results of 
which were put in pamphlet form and scattered broadcast, 
was then considered as containing ample instructions for 
the looting of Uncle Sam's treasure houses. 

That the first report had no appreciable effect upon the 
then existing conditions was disclosed by the second in- 
vestigation, where one typical finding was that of a brick 
coal-vault in the cellar of a Government building contain- 
ing ten million dollars' worth of gold bars. The oldest 
employee could not remember when this coal vault was 
used for any other purpose. 

Much has been said of late regarding the practicable 
use of the oxy-acetylene or oxy-blau-gas cutter burner in 
mob or burglarious operations ; the field is wide and in- 
teresting. In the earlier days of this invention it was 
not looked upon by the safe-building fraternity in general 
as much of a menace, but the prophetic imagination of a 
few discerned its almost unlimited possibilities, and some 
designs of recent years show attempts to provide factors 
of res i. stance. 

To-day it may be said that there is absolutely no ma- 
terial, nor combination of materials commercially avail- 
able that will afford full and adequate protection if to 
the cutter-burner outfit is added the welding torch and 
the blau-gas flame. Ordinary concrete loses its strength 
upon the application of great volumes of intense heat and 
is readily removed even when heavily reinforced. 

Steels of all kinds are pierced and cut with what, to 
the layman, is almost unbelievable rapidity. In a recent 
demonstration made before a party of bankers a hand 
hole six inches in diameter was cut through a sample of 
vault lining three inches in thickness in just three minutes. 
A hole sufficiently large to admit the body of a man can 
be cut in ten minutes, and all of the apparatus to do this 
can be carried in a suitcase. 

Anti-cutter-burner alloys are a help to the situation, 
but even they, although not able to be cut as steel is cut, 
can be melted when several welding torches are combined. 

The best that can be done to-day is to provide concrete 
walls of great thickness, two and a half to three feet or 
greater, if space will permit ; the concrete to be formed 
of especially dense cement and a non-hygroscopic aggre- 
gate, strongly reinforced with heavy interlocked metallic 
sections and backed by contact with a heavy lining, com- 
bining steels of high tensile strength and ductility, with 
toolproof and cutter-burner resisting sections, arranged 
and interlocked to produce the greatest possible resistance 
to all of the varioiis methods of attack. It is necessary to 
require not only that each of these methods be used, but 
that they alternate, to extend the time of attack to the 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



111 



greatest possible length, compatible with an economical 
cost of construction. 

Less difficulty is experienced in producing doors and 
frames of the requisite strength, mainly because greater 
expenditure is permitted at the entrance for the double 
purpose of providing the greatest protection at the point 
oftenest attacked, and to indicate by its appearance that 
the vault combines the necessary elements of strength and 
resistance; in other words, it is the entrance of a vault 
which can best be made to advertise its presumed inher- 
ent qualities. 

Doors up to three feet in thickness have been and are 
being built, and this thickness is divided into layers com- 
prising materials highly resistant to all known methods of 
attack, and by a modification of the ordinary locking sys- 
tems, whereby the time lock is located upon the door and 
the combination locks and bolt-throwing mechanism upon 
the jamb, all of this work being heavily housed upon the 
inside, both the door and jamb, in the event of an attack, 
must be penetrated to defeat the locking mechanism, or a 
complete man-hole must be put through the vault walls ; 
this maintains the proper relative strength of the doors 
and walls and constitutes what is known as a balanced 
design. 

The entrance can be, and usually is, made several 
times stronger than the walls. Here again, however, the 
question of correct design is the key to successful con- 
struction, as mass, weight, and thickness do not of them- 
selves necessarily spell strength, nor is it logical to design 
work in which the factors are of disproportionate strength. 

Among other recent improvements in important de- 
tails is a unique and interesting 
substitute for the usual combination 
lock- dial. It takes the form of a 
steel cylinder approximately six 
inches in diameter, disappearing 
angle wise into the top of the front 
pressure mechanism housing on the 
door jamb. The front end is pro- 
vided with an oval glass window be- 
hind which, at a distance of some 
eight inches, is an electrically illu- 
minated stationary dial provided 
with two revolving pointers, each 
of which is connected to a combi- 
nation lock and to an operating 
knob located on the side of the 
housing. This device is not only 
one of convenience, as its window 
is located at a height corresponding 
with the normal line of vision, but 
also one of efficiency ; it absolutely 
prevents any one from overlooking 
the setting up of the combination 
numbers. 

The stepless round door, or a 
door without rebates which is 
ground into its frame as a glass 
stopper is ground into a bottle, is 
another logical improvement, due 
to the fact that with increased 
thickness of doors as a whole, and 
of their component sections, all 



methods of attack have been pretty successfully met, 
with the exception of the use of liquid high explosives, 
for which the usual rebates or steps of doors form re- 
action seats, against which the explosive force can act 
to blow out the doors. By the elimination of these 
seats and the grinding of the doors practically metal to 
metal, it is almost impossible to insert liquids into the 
joint ; while the force of an explosion in the crack, finding 
no seat upon which to act, expends itself both inwardly 
and outwardly without affecting the security of the 
door. 

Vault engineering is recognized to-day to be as neces- 
sary as any branch of specialized engineering, and the 
banker and architect who employ such services get far 
better results than can be had in any other way, both as 
regards the quality of work and economy of cost. 

Broadly, the functions of the vault engineer include 
consultation with the bank, a study of the requirements 
of all departments which in any way relate to the vault, 
and the making of recommendations looking to the better- 
ment in methods of storage and the handling of securities 
and moneys. 

He is at the service of the architect who may consult 
him in order to effect a proper relation between the vault 
construction and that of the building, including such fea- 
tures as location, supporting foundations, connections be- 
tween the vault and the building framing, arrangement 
of observation spaces and patrol passageways, lighting, 
ventilating, and general finish, and for whom he prepares 
detailed plans and specifications covering designs that 
will permit of the fairest competition among the build- 




Thirty-six Inch, Fifty-ton Entrance Door and Frame 

Note level walk-way, bolt-throwing hand-wheel and illuminated dial-case on frame, and 
combination lock-operating knobs on front jamb pressure housing. All surfaces of door, 
frame, hinge, and other mechanism finished in draw filed steel. 



112 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



ers, with a minimum requirement of special patterns or 
methods of manufacture. 

The cost, a factor in which, needless to say, the banker 
is always much interested, is kept within economic limits 
by insi:ringf legitimate competition throug'h the submis- 
sion by the architect to the manufacturers of a single 
form of plans and specifications drawn by the eng:ineer. 

The engineer also furnishes a form of contract, since 
the usual "Uniform Agreement" does not cover this 
work. 

He criticizes and approves all shop drawings (which in 
some contracts run into the hundreds), furnishes factory 
and field superintendence, inspects workmanship and 
materials, and conducts tests; in other words, he corre- 
lates the retjuirements of the owner and the architect with 
the manufacturer's ability to produce. 

The subject of vault design falls naturally into four 
divisions represented by the view-points of the banker, 
the architect, the engineer, and the manufacturer ; and 
no scheme should be considered complete until the recjuire- 
ments of each have been carefully studied and the whole 
intelligently brought together in design. 

Among the major requirements of the bank are those 
of safety, accessibility, and convenience. The location of 
the vault and the surrounding conditions should be such 
as to permit of a maximum supervision during office hours 
and complete patrol or observation of not only the four 
sides, but also the top and bottom at all times. 

Where a vault is located upon the ground, observation 
of its bottom is secured by setting it upon narrow steel 
and concrete piers which raise it from the solid concrete 
foundation. The spaces between these piers are illumi- 
nated and seen by means of inclined mirrors protected by 
glass floor sections ; a similar scheme is often used for see- 
ing the top. In one instance, where the vault is located 
above a basement space not under control of the bank, and 
where it is not desirable to permit the bank's watchman 





View Looking into Vault 

The frame of this doorway is thirty-six inches thick. Note double sliding 
day gate, flush, level walkway, and bolt-throwing wheel and illuminated dial- 
case on front pressure mechanism jamb housing. 



Klevation of Bolt-work Designed to Give the Impre.ssion of Strength 
and Solidity 

Note entire absence of all operating' or locking mechanism which is 
concealed behind the background of the bolt-work. The time-lock 
is located within the center drum and protected by a heavy steel 
door. Kach holding bolt weighs approximately two hundred 
pounds. The entire finish is in draw filed steel. 

to patrol, reversed periscopes are installed, making it 
possible to see the under side from above. 

A secure route of communication between the vault and 
banking room cages is essential, and the arrangement of 
the interior of the vault should be such as to provide safe, 
convenient, and systematic administration. 

The interior equipment, consisting of safes, closets, 
shelving, filing devices, etc., which will be considered in 
a second paper, requires special study to take care of 
present business and to provide for future expansion. 
Precautions must be adopted to avoid locking any one 
in the vault, ways provided to learn if such an 
accident occurs, and methods adopted to per- 
mit of releasing one locked in ; this must in no 
way endanger the security of the work. 

As the vault is usually considered a sort of 
holy of holies, its appearances should be at- 
tractive and impressive and serve as an adver- 
tisement of the strength of the structure. 

Proper lighting and ventilation are required 
as well as such further conveniences as special 
sealing devices designed to obviate the neces- 
sity of pasting seals across the joints of safe 
and locker doors during the time of examina- 
tion ; messenger call and emergency alarm 
buttons, located at readily accessible points; 
outlets for portable lights for use in searching 
storage spaces, or for use when repairs are 
being made or the locking devices adjusted, 
which do away with the hitherto inevitable 
candle with its attendant dripping and danger. 
Telephones are frequently made a part of the 
equipment. 

A lowering platform is usually installed to 
provide a level walkway between the banking 
room floor and the interior of the vault. This 
is always desirable, and if heavy omnibuses, 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



113 



coin, or bullion trucks are 
to be used, it is a necessity. 

Day gates of varying- 
strength and beauty are 
used to guard all entrances. 

If the vault is to be used 
for a safe deposit business, 
either separately or in con- 
junction with the bank's 
own business, it is desir- 
able to finish the work 
both outside and inside 
more attractively than 
when it is to be used purely 
for the bank, and the size 
and proportion of the vault 
should be established by a 
determination of all details 
of the interior eciuipment. 

The architect as a rule 
is not interested in the 
technique of vault design ; 
but he is concerned in the 
production of a structure 
that shall satisfy his client 
and be 100 per cent effi- 
cient, and one that shall 
also fit into the design of his banking room in its proportion 
and its finish. He is further concerned with the manner 
in which it shall relate structurally with the floors, founda- 
tions, and framing of the building. He is, furthermore, 
anxious to secure for his client the most satisfactory 
results at the least outlay, and to accomplish all of this 
he includes the vault and its fittings in his work as being 
a part of the building, and devotes to it such study as 
may be necessary to relate it properly to his general 
design. 

There are two usual schemes of external treatment of 




Emergency Door, Thirty-six Inches Thick 

Note crane hinge, three-point pressure mechanism, and time lock 
behind cover door (shown in ojien position) 



vaults. In one, the struc- 
ture becomes (in appear- 
ance) a part of the build- 
ing, and depends wholly 
for effect upon the treat- 
ment of its entrance. This 
condition is sometimes 
made necessary by the 
general scheme of interior 
arrangement and architec- 
tural design, though how- 
ever complete may be the 
result of the general in- 
terior finish of the room 
the vault itself loses much 
of the quality of impres- 
siveness, which is retained 
when the structure is indi- 
vidualized by external 
treatment and made to ap- 
pear as a huge safe ; the 
psychological effect pro- 
duced by such treatment 
should not be lost sight of, 
as it is a valuable asset in 
its effect upon customers 
of the bank and the public. 



In this paper only the general features of the subject 
have been mentioned, but it is hoped that what has been 
said, together with a consideration of interior fittings to 
appear later, will serve to indicate to the architect a few 
of the difficulties and intricacies of conditions that are 
continually met, and show the more efficient solution of 
the problem that may be had through a wider employment 
of the vault engineer. No two installations are ever alike, 
and each one should be studied with relation to its own 
particular problems, which can be satisfactorily solved 
only by the results of wide, specialized experience. 




Interior View of Trust Company Vault Showing Typical Arrangement 

Note security closets and reserve safe, also interior and exterior telephones, flush lighting 
fixtures, inlet register at end of aisle, ventilating fans and cork-tile floor with sanitary base. 
The floor line adjoining truck closets is flush with bottom of doors. The walls are finished 
in light gray paint with a semi-dull surface and the ceiling is stippled white. 



Some Recent Small Bank Buildings. 

SELECTED FROM THE WORK OF CROW, LEWIS & WICKENHOEFER ; R. CLIPSTON STURGIS; 
C. HOWARD WALKER AND RALPH H. DOANE ; WAIT & COPELAND ; AND ELLICOTT & EMMART. 




ENTRANCE FACADE 



7'^///S hank hiitlding is located in a 
suburban community near Neiv 

) 'ork City and zvas designed with simple 
architectural motives to make it fit in har- 
moniously uith the surrounding build- 
ings, 'which are of a simple suburban 
character, and to bring the cost of the 
structure within a moderate figure. The 
7naterials used in the external xcalls were 
red brick of rough texture laid in white 
mortar with Jlush joints, and limestone 
for cornices, entrance, and other details. 

The frame of the door-way and the grille 
over it are bronze. Ornament on the 
exterior has been confined to a well 
designed panel over the entrance door 
and a band of Greek fretwork over the 
windows between the pilaster capitals. 




The arrangement oj the main banking 
room and -working departments is sho'wn 
on the plan reproduced herewith . In the 
basement, irachcd from a stait~way at the 
left of the book vault, compartments are 
provided for gold and silver storage, and 
on a mezzanine floor over the vault is a 
directors' room reached by the stai>~way 
shoivn at the right of the safe desposit 
vault. 

The interior ~walls of the Itanking room 
are finished in plaster and the floor is of 
terrazzo. The batik screen is bronze 
'with a tnarble base. 

The roof is flat, and a large skylight 
over the public space together with the 
large windows on the side afford good, 
natural lighting. 



FIRST NATIONAL BANK. MONTCLAIR, N. J. 
CROW, LEWIS & WICKENHOEFER, ARCHITECTS 



114 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



115 




clzaiBB 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



VIEW OF INTERIOR 



SECURITY TRUST COMPANY, ROCKLAND, ME. 
R. CLIPSTON STURGIS, ARCHITECT 



116 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




lli!li»M;'l!!l!'l<|I|!!l!i|i!!l|SlII^- 



ENTRANCE FACADE 





INTERIOR, LOOKING TOWARD ENTRANCE 

FIRST NATIONAL BANK. WEST ORANGE, N. J. 

C. HOWARD WAI-KER AND RALPH H. DOANE, ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS 



MAIN FLOOR PLAN 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



117 




ENTRANCE FACADE 



rHE Wvichester Trust Company building is planned 
to form a component part of a civic center xvhicli is 
being created in this suburb to the north of Boston. The 
exterior design is of a simple type of classic architecture 
carried out in rough textured red brick for the main 
walls and white tnarble for the columns, pediment, and 
other details. 

The base course is granite and the portico Jloor, tivo 
steps above the grade, is paved with brick. 



The arrangement of the first floor and the small mez- 
zanine floor, on which the directors' room is located, is 
shown on the accompanying plans. Access to the safe 
deposit department is had at the end of the public space 
a?id coupon booths are located to the right of the vault. 
The Jloor of the public space is paved with 9 by 12 inch 
marble tiles attd the remainder of the floor area is covered 
with linoleum. The interior walls are paneled in plaster 
and the ceiling is flat -with ornamental plaster beams. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 



WINCHESTER TRUST COMPANY, WINCHESTER, MASS. 
WAIT & COPELAND, ARCHITECTS 



118 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




7^///S building; is one of several small 
branehes wliicli I lie Provident Savings 
Bank of Balliniore maintains for the trans- 
aetion of suburban business and the eonvenienee 
of depositors. They are open at eerlain hours 
during the day and on certain evenings, and 
inasmuch as no valuables are left in them, 7to 
vaults are inquired. 

The exterior walls of this branch are of roitgh 
textured, dark red, local brick zt'ith white painted 
ivood trim. The roof is covered zcith green slate. 
The construction is non-fireproof and the cost 
per culncfoot was approximately 23H cents. 



HAMPDEN BRANCH OF THE PROVIDENT SAVINGS BANK, BALTIMORE, MD. 

ELLICOTT & EMMART, ARCHITECTS 



Architectural Features of the Garden. — I. 



By JOHN T. FALLON. 



THE art of g-arden design in America is still in its 
infancy. We have not yet grown to feel that the 
garden is as essentially necessary as the house and 
that it is as much an expression of the life of the family out 
of doors as the house is of the indoor life. I am speaking 
of the garden in its broadest sense, that is, any arrange- 
ment of the grounds around the house. 

In a general way the architect should have charge of 
all garden design. Especially should there be left to him 
the fashioning of the various architectural details, such as 
balustrades, pergolas, etc., which reecho in the grounds 
the details of the house itself and unite the two in a 
homogeneous whole. In fact, many of the villa gardens 
of Europe use the house merely as a point of departure 
and carry the accessories to much greater lengths. While 
we can never hope to rival here the gardens of England, 
which supply us with most of our inspiration, the archi- 
tectural details of our modern gardens present a creditable 
showing when compared to modern European work. 

The main purpose of garden design is a skilful division 
into many parts. Just as a house requires a number of 
rooms, and as it needs a careful disposition of its depart- 
ments and corridors, so similarly a garden needs subdi- 
vision. Even the broadest landscape treatment needs to 
be defined by walls or fences, while in the more usual and 



intimate garden the division into self-contained areas pro- 
vides charm, variety, and interest. 

In building a garden wall, steer safely between the un- 
desirable extremes. A wall is a piece of building; it is by 
nature architectural and should have that quality of pre- 
cision in form and outline which architecture demands. 
At the same time it should be of the garden, unobtrusive 
and yielding readily to the mellowing process of time. 
Provided it is well designed and executed in a harmonious 
material, no amount of form or ornament need be out of 
place. Texture in material is especially desirable in a 
garden wall, that is, a texture sufficiently rough to invite 
the growth of plants and vines and to aid the action of 
the weather. Between the immaculate stone steps and 
smooth brick walls of one extreme and the rustic work of 
the other there is a narrow path which leads to good 
taste in walls. 

Ashlar should be employed only on formal work. The 
best stone wall is one of local stone laid with bed joints 
and narrow courses. When of brick the color should not 
be any of the ordinary red bricks, but a dark stock that 
will soon neutralize and blend with the vegetation. In 
laying out the direction of our walls, do not forget the 
possibilities of variation in plan. Instead of stretching 
the wall in a straight line from point to point we can 




steps and Terrace Leading to Veranda 

Garden of Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney, Roslyn, Long Island 

Delano & Aldrich, Architects 

119 



120 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Gate in "The Causeway," Garden of James Parmelee, Esq. 
Washington, D. C. 

Charles A. Piatt, Archittct 

here and there recess it in square or circular bays, round 
an angle in a segmental sweep, or break it backward or 
forward. 

It is well at the outset to convince oneself of the beauty 
and utility of walls — such structural divisions will never 
be regretted. Their beauty will grow with time, they cul- 
tivate a sense of proportion, and by defining the units of 
the garden, they aid in dealing with the remainder of the 
design. 

It is not necessary to furnish the openings with gates 
or to mark them with any architectural motive. A sim- 
ple break in the wall or hedge is all a modest garden will 
re(|uire. When, however, we desire a little more elabo- 
ration, the gateway provides one of the most fascinating 
subjects in garden architecture. It is a delight to see an 
opening to the gardens beyond framed by the formality 
of an architectural gate. It is worth erecting a barrier if 
only to give occasion for allurement beyond. The many 
gateways, gates, and archways that are the pride of so 
many old-fashioned English gardens are not a vain show, 
but witness to the essential idea of a garden plan, of pass- 
ing to and fro between the many rooms of the garden. 

Piers should harmonize with the walls ; in silhouette 
they should suggest the importance of the gateway. Even 
when the actual gates are omitted, it is often desirable to 
build piers, and these may be of many types — ashlar with 
classic cornice and plinth, or formed of the irregular ma- 
sonry of the garden wall. 

The wrought iron gate is particularly suited to garden 
use. At the close of the seventeenth and the beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries the craft of the smith was 
brought to great perfection. Magnificent compositions 



were constructed as open screens, sometimes as the fron- 
tispiece of the garden, or again as a semi-background to a 
fine scheme of garden color. This perfection of artisan- 
ship was carried even into the simplest garden gate. 

Wooden gates may be used where stone or iron is too 
costly. There are many excellent models to follow for 
both the solid oak and the painted door. 

In a broad sense the word " terrace " may serve to de- 
scribe any piece of ground which has been leveled and de- 
lined in relation to a building. Its chief function is to give 
stability to the design, correcting unfortunate levels, and 
generally providing the base on which the entire layout 
depends. As an out-of-door room it can be paved and 
furnished with seats and other garden furniture. As a 
platform from which to enjoy the view, it should be 
bounded by balustrading or an iron railing, combined 
with a flight of steps to a possible lower level. This can 
be made a very attractive composition viewed from be- 
low. On a sloping site, level off the ground adjacent to 
the house to a sufficient distance to give it restfulness. 
We should strive also to make the paved terrace when 
adjacent to the house as habitable as possible for sitting 
out of doors. 

Beyond the main terrace will be others, planned as far 
as possible to provide the best viewpoints to see the gar- 
dens. In some situations the terrace motive can be over- 
done. When the slope of the ground is not steep, it is 
better to accept the slope and to correct it only at inter- 
vals where a level walk seems most desirable. 




Wrought Iron Gate, Garden of Mrs. Harry I'ayinj W hitney 
Roslyn, Long Island 

Delano & Aldrich. Architects 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



121 



*.*s 




STEPS LEADING TO PARTERRE, GARDEN OF W. STORRS WELLS, ESQ., NEWPORT, R. L 

JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 




STEPS AND BALUSTRADED TERRACE, GARDEN OF FRED B. PRATT, ESQ., GLEN COVE, LONG ISLAND 

TROWBRIDGE & ACKERMAN, ARCHITECTS 



122 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



The stone balustrade is the most beautiful finish to the 
retaining wall of the terrace. If this is too costly, lengths 
of plain, unpierced walling may be broken by short bits 
of open balustrading. A low terrace wall sixteen inches 
high with a flat coping provides 
a comfortable and convenient 
height for sitting. Many in- 
teresting forms of balustrading 
are made of brick and tile, 
pierced strap work and geomet- 
rical designs being fairly easily 
arranged with special tiles. 

Projecting bays in the plan 
of a terrace may be made to 
screen a portion of the garden 
or to afford a special view. 
These pleasing variations diver- 
sify the terrace and give interest 
to its wall and balustrade. 

Changing levels constitute 
one of the garden's charms, 
and the steps and stairways 
hold the differing variation in 
levels together. A flight of steps is a graduated walk, 
broken at regular intervals by the vertical and horizontal 
planes. The shape of steps and balustrades should be 
graceful and quiet in outline. The size both in width 
and general proportions should be suited to the parts of 
the garden which the 
steps unite. Buttress 
the steps by some prom- 
inent feature at its side ; 
group the steps with 
some outstanding mass 
of foliage or architec- 
ture and you will find 
their charm thereby in- 
creased. 

Provided there is some 
little depth, the descent 
from a terrace may be 
made into a composition 
of beauty and dignity. 
The steps can be led 
down in two flights, 
turning in opposite di- 
rections to unite below. 
Or they may unite on a 
central platform and 
then turn to land at sep- 
arate points. With fine balustrades to mark the sweeping 
curves or returning flights, statuary or vases may be 
added to heighten the effect. 

Wherever the stairway is not treated in a strictly archi- 
tectural way with stone balustrades, vases or figures guard 
against too finished a surface to the stonework. Steps by 
themselves without architectural detail should appear to 
be formed from the ground itself and should be roughly 
jointed and not rigidly level. However, anything which 
might recall the rustic school of design must be carefully 
eschewed. Let the forms be simply decorous and well 
defined, of a material that will withstand the hand of 
time. Even on wooded and secluded slopes where the 




Garden House at Rosemont, Pa 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects 




h'e produced J' " / ' u ml Kt'vinv, London 

Garden House in Garden of Bridge House, Weybridge, England 



foliage is wild, an ordinary flagstone may be used with a 
low rise and deep tread. 

The sloping balustrade as a parapet for steps is not in- 
variably satisfactory. One of the simplest ways of replac- 
ing it is to carry out the side 
walls at the level of the top 
step, since a stairway always 
looks well between walls, espe- 
cially when the latter are not 
carried higher than the upper 
ground level. There is no end 
to the usefulness in garden de- 
sign of the simple feature of 
the stairway. 

The garden shelter, under 
which heading may be loggias, 
garden houses, and tempictti, is 
a subject of the greatest impor- 
tance to those who desire to 
make their garden really useful 
and to give it at the same time 
a complete and architectural 
finish. It seems almost unnec- 
essary to speak of the usefulness of these shelters, if 
there were not a general reluctance to spend sufficient 
thought and money upon them. The loggia and veranda 
tempt us from the rooms of the house ; the garden house 
persuades us to go farther and to walk as far as its shel- 
ter. Without these ac- 
cessories the usefulness 
of the garden is impaired 
when, although weather 
conditions may be unin- 
viting, the garden still 
is most attractive. 

Nothing furnishes a 
garden better than a 
well designed summer 
house ; it impresses one 
with the idea that the 
owner and his friends 
actually live here and 
enjoy the garden. It is 
part of the principle that 
the garden should be a 
product of man's own 
love of nature in care- 
fully ordered effect. 
The veranda and loggia 
used in intimate con- 
junction with the house wed it to the garden. 

The reciuirements of a garden house are few and sim- 
ple, yet they are capable of wide diversity of treatment. 
From the timber buildings that come down from medi;eval 
times to the quaint essays in miniature classical architec- 
ture there is a large choice to draw upon. The architects 
of the time of James I possessed the greatest felicity in 
this kind of work, the playfulness of Jacobean detail being 
quiet in modeling, while the mouldings and carvings are 
broad and even coarse. The close connection between 
these little structures and the garden walls is seen in nu- 
merous old examples, where the roofs of the former add a 
seeming stability to the brick and stone of the latter. 



VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 65. 




mSSS, 





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f^ritf' 



irxs-.- 



L 



VIEW LOOKING INTO EXHIBIT HALL FROM FOYER 

ADDITIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

WILSON EYRE & McILVAINE, STEWARDSON & PAGE. DAY BROTHERS & KLAUDKR 
ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 66. 




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PLATE 67. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 




JECTION IHOWtNS- UIWIUO C(»JWriOWJ 
IN ■ fOUlOM OF ■ OlD • BlD'i ■ WHICH ■ li ■ TO- 
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LONGITUDINAL SECTION ON MAIN AXIS 
ADDITIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM, PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



WILSON ICYRE & MclLVAINE, STEWARDSON Si PAGE. IJAY BROTHERS &. KI.AHnKR 
ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS 



J 



VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 69. 





GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



BASEMKNT FLOOR I'LAN 



NORTHAMPTON INSTITUTION FOR SAVINGS, NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 
THOMAS M. JAMES, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 70. 




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PLATE 71. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 72. 




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PLATE 73. 




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PLATE 74 




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VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 75. 




RECEPTION HALL AND STAIRCASE 




7 r 






MANTEL IN SMOKING ROOM 



PSI UPSILON FRATERNITY HOUSE, AMHERST, MASS. 
PUTNAM & COX, ARCHITECTS 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



I 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 76. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 77. 




BASEMENT PLAN 



PHI DELTA THETA FRATERNITY AMHERST, MASS. 
PUTNAM & COX, ARCHITECTS 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 78. 



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VOL. 25, NO. 5. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 80. 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND AND THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



ALLSTON APARTMENTS, CHARLES STREET, BALTIMORE, MD. 
PARKER. THOMAS & RICE, ARCFIITECTS 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 

PLATE TWENTY-ONE. 




"""'*?'"?*|j.-*^ 



" 7- y OME WOOD ' ' is one of the best-known 
Jl± examples of early American or Georgian 
work in the South. Built in 1804 by Charles 
Carroll of Carrol Iton for his son at the ti^ne of 
his marriage, this fine old mansion stands to-day 
practically as it did over one hundred years ago. 



It is now a part ofthefohns Hopkins University 
group, and has given the keynote for the design 
of the new buildings. " Homeivood" has but a 
single story with very high ceilings, and this 
must be considered when one studies the scale oj 
this doorway. 



MAIN ENTRANCE TO " HOMEWOOD," BALTIMORE, MD. 



Built in 1804. 



MEASURED DRAWING ON FOLLOWING PAGE. 



123 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




124 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE TWENTY-TWO. 



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7'^n/S staincay is typical oj many in the simple, hut excellent in its proportions, 
old square three-story houses of Newbur^'- The house has rccentlv been demolished, but 

port. .In unusual featui-e is the two short the stairway has been preserved and is bein^ 

flights above the latiding. ft is severely built into a house in Salem. 

STAIRWAY IN JOHNSON HOUSE, NEWBURYPORT, MASS. 

Built about 1760. 
MEASURED DRAWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 

126 



Old English Plaster Work. 



By J. W. OVEREND. 



THE sixteenth century was a glorious period in English 
craftsmanship, and many are the examples all over 
that country which tell of a day when men must have 
worked more for the love of the doing than the love of 
the getting. It was a time of great awakening in which 
designers began to appreciate that beauty could be ex- 
pressed in the various kinds of commonly used building 
materials. 

While it was especially a time of fine woodworking, ex- 
pressed in the rich, silvery marked English oak, yet in a 
no smaller degree was the plaster work of the time less 
impressive and beautiful. During this period, in fact, all 
of the various crafts did at least something to perpetuate 
their memories, for they left behind them examples which 
hoary age has not affected adversely, but, on the contrary, 
made more beautiful. 

In those days work was carried out under the direct 
supervision of a master craftsman, and such were the 
rigid rules and regulations in force that fines were in- 
flicted on those who used bad materials or in any way 
cheapened the work ; hence to-day, the quality of the 
work exists in the examples that remain as proof, which 
in some cases are glorious in the extreme. 

Shakespeare lived in these times, and his comprehen- 
sive mind, observant of men and customs, did not fail to 
recognize the plasterer, for in one of his plays he speaks 



of plaster loam and rough cast ; while in another he bursts 
out with the remark, " Would you desire lime and hair to 
speak better ? ' ' 

The plaster work of that age was not merely confined 
to the interior, for many examples are external work of a 
beautiful, decorated description; the eastern side of the 
country, Norfolk and Suffolk, containing some of the best 
examples. 

The interior work, especially the ceilings, cornices, 
friezes, etc., contains some extremely rich decorative work, 
which is to be particularly admired when one remembers 
that no " rag and stick " or fibrous work was done at that 
time, the whole being hand " wrot " plaster, worked into 
form from the scaffold boards. Even the skill in setting 
out the geometrical patterns is amazing. In quite a large 
number of these examples there seems to exist a definite 
relationship of design, especially in the patterns of the 
panel work, which would indicate that a few master crafts- 
men exerted a wide influence. 

Many of the friezes are adorned with shields, festoons, 
and in some cases most grotesque figures of the human 
form, and it is a question whether the latter was done 
with the intention of carrying down to later centuries the 
history of the Elizabethan Age, or some story of local his- 
tory and chivalry. Anyhow, the makers of the grotesque 
in plaster cannot be charged with the same motive that 




Decorative Plaster on House Built about 1600, at Clare, Suffolk, England 

127 



128 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



the Norman church builders had in carving their gro- 
tesque gargoyles and corbels — that of revenge and spite 
which they expressed in stone and other materials. 

The plaster age occurred at a time when many a his- 
toric English hall was built, and among some erected at 
that time may be mentioned Haddon ; Chatsworth, in 
Derbyshire ; Nettlecombe, in Somerset; Bampfyde House; 
Exeter ; Devon ; Hardwick, and many others, all of which 
contain more or less glorious examples of the plasterer's 
craft that convey to those who behold them an impression 
of excellence in design, 
finish, and workmanship. 

In many of the halls 
mentioned one of the chief 
features is the plaster work 
of the chimney-pieces, but 
the most beautiful forms 
are seen in the scintillat- 
ing effectiveness and rich- 
ness of the ceilings. 

The lower illustration 
on page 129 shows a ceil- 
ing in a building on High 
street, in the historic city 
of Exeter, Devonshire, in 
the southwest of England. 
The ceiling was done 
about 1600 and is a glori- 
ous mass of decorative de- 
sign, the cornice and cove 
of the room being no less 
beautiful in their richness. 

The other example illus- 
trated is in the Custom 
House of Exeter. It gives 
an idea of the skilful crafts- 
manship of the plasterer of 
the period of 1600. The 
flowery ornamentation is 
delicate in the extreme, 
and the relation of the 
various outlines to each 
other is so perfect that the 
whole forms one unified and harmonious composition. 

The illustration on this page shows an interesting 
piece of plaster work in St. Nicholas Priory, which is now 
being restored by the Exeter City Council. This plaster 
reveal which has recently been discovered during the 
course of the work displays a most fantastic design which 
had long been hidden by many coats of paint. The Peter 
Pan figure in the design would have puzzled even Mark 
Twain in giving it a correct name ; while the second figtire, 
blowing a blast of the horn, wears a headdress which 
must have been copied in some manner from a West 
Indian origin. What the significance of the decoration 
really is, only searchers through antiquarian records can 
reveal. 

The illustration at the top of page 130 shows the ceiling 
in the priory mentioned above. The panels are composed 
of large, geometrical forms, and while not as richly deco- 
rated as the previous examples, this ceiling is still no less 




Painted Plaster Window Reveal in St. Nicholas Priory, Exeter 



intricate in its workmanship when one considers the large 
surface covered. 

Nettlecombe Hall, in Somerset, out in the country of 
the wild, red deer, is another very old historic place, built 
in the fifteenth century, and the seat of the Trevelyans. 
Besides containing a fine staircase there is an elaborate 
ceiling in the great hall, an illu.stration of which appears 
on page 130. An imusual feature in this ceiling, which is 
of a geometrical pattern, is the manner in which the mem- 
bers of the design are brought down to the terminal 

bosses. 

A remarkable feature of 
Nettlecombe Hall is that it 
is well away from the cen- 
ter of any large industry, 
therefore during the time 
the ceiling was put up, the 
master plasterer and his 
men must have been 
drafted from a center to 
do the work and given liv- 
ing accommodations at the 
hall until their particular 
part of the work was fin- 
ished. 

Boiling Hall, Bradford, 
Yorks, in the north of 
England, has a ceiling 
fully four hundred years 
old, with a remarkable 
ornamentation of dogs' 
heads, foxes, bears, etc., 
from the open mouths of 
which issue branches of 
fruit and other qiiaint and 
grotes(|ue figures. The 
Bradford City Council has 
recently purchased the 
building and will no doubt 
preserve the plaster work. 
The old order changeth, 
however, and transition 
has even taken place in 
decorative plaster work. The present-day moulded 
flowery designs are done at the fibrous works and put in 
place in various pieces at the building. Commercialism 
has affected very adversely the old and real craftsmanship ; 
the craving at the present day is for the counterfeit, 
sufficient to serve present needs and re(iuirements. It is 
not that many of the fibrous examples are any less de- 
lightful in their delicacy and beautiful finish than the 
older work, but will they stand the test of three or four 
centuries ? and can the modern plasterer and designer 
hand down his examples to the future to attract and cap- 
tivate the lovers of the beautiful in the days that are to 
come ? The answer to the first is, Time alone will tell ; 
while the second answer is. To those who would build and 
design, 

Build, so that ye dare to trust 

For honest fame the jury time empanels, 
And leave to truth each noble name 
Which glorifies your annals. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



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PLASTER CEILING IN CUSTOM HOUSE, EXETER, ENGLAND 
ERECTED ABOUT 1600 




PLASTER CEILING IN DRAPER'S SHOP, HIGH STREET. EXETER, ENGLAND 

ERECTED ABOUT 1600 



130 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




PLASTER CEILING IN ST. NICHOLAS PRIORY, EXETER, ENGLAND 




PLASTER CEILING IN NETTLECOMBE HALL, SOMERSET, ENGLAND 

ERECTED ABOUT 1600 



Competition for Design of New York State 
Architects' Certificates. 




\ 



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IN ^CTTNESS 
X UrlEREOF THE 
\ MGENTS GRAN1' 

I; r/wiBER Mccxm 

fwOERSEAL OF 
f TlriEVNWERSITY 



THE New York vState Board for the Registration of 
Architects has recently conducted a competition 
among architects, draftsmen, and other designers, 
resident or working in New York State, to obtain a de- 
sign for an Architect's Certificate. The regents of the 
University of the State of New York are to issue such 
certificates by authority of the above mentioned board to 
all persons who are entitled to practise architecture in the 
State of New York, and the interest in the problem mani- 
fested by the archi- 
tects of New York, 
therefore, was con- 
siderable. 

The drawings re- 
produced herewith 
are those awarded 
prizes and honor- 
a b le mentions. 
Cash prizes of $200, 
$150, $100, and $50 
were given to the 
designs placed first, 
second, third, and 
fourth, respectively. 
The designs were 
of a general high 
order of merit and 
are indicative of the 
artistic value which 
may be attached to 
even so simple a 
thing as a certifi- 
cate when care- 
ful, constructive 
thought is given to 
its design and ar- 
rangement. 

In originating 
their designs, the 
competitors were 
allowed great free- 
dom in the choice 
of style, the only 
condition bearing 
upon the design 
being the wording 
of the text and its 
arrangement which 
were to follow the 
form given in the 
program. There 
was, accordingly, 
wide diversity 
shown in the treat- 
ment that the dif- 
ferent designers 
accorded the certifi- 



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THE VNtVERSITYOF THE ST/JE OF NEW YORK 

IF n KNO-ftTJ IJt/M 

MARCVS YETRyVIVS POLLIO • 

HAS GrVEN SATISFACTORY EVIDENCE THAT HE HAS THE 

QVAUFICATIONS IRJEQyilR.ED BT LAIS^AND IS HEREBY AVTHORiZED 

TO EMPLOY ]N THE STATE OF NEY/YDRICTKE TITLE OF 

^ARCHITECT*' 

i-^TE BO/\RD FOR THE RSGISTATEON OF ARCHITECTS 




First Pr-ze Design 

Austin Whittlesey. Designer, New York City 




^■^i* 



Second Prize Design 
Robert Pallesen, Designer, New York City 

131 



cate. Nearly all were based upon the use of architec- 
tural forms or ornament for their decoration, though 
some confined the treatment to simple arrangements 
of lettering. 

The reproduction of the design selected for the certifi- 
cate will be from an engraved steel plate printed on parch- 
ment, and most of the designers succeeded in imparting 
the characteristic quality of steel engraving to their de- 
signs. The size of the certificate is to be 8 by 10 

inches, and the re- 
productions shown 
here are therefore 
slightly larger than 
one-third of the 
actual size. 

The drawings 
were judged in New 
York by a jury com- 
posed of the follow- 
ing architects: Wil- 
liam R. Mead, New 
York; George Ca- 
rey, Buffalo; Frank 
H. Quinby, Brook- 
lyn ; Henry Bacon, 
New York ; Charles 

A. Piatt, New York; 
J. Foster Warner, 
Rochester ; and S. 

B. P. Trowbridge, 
New York. 

The Registration 
Act, which became 
a law a year ago, 
requires all persons 
residing in or hav- 
ing a place of busi- 
ness in the state for 
the practice of archi- 
tecture, and who 
were not so engaged 
before the adoption 
of the act, to secure 
a certificate of ciual- 
ification before they 
may use the title 
" Architect." Ex- 
aminations of candi- 
dates are held under 
the supervision of 
the regents of the 
State University by 
a board of exam- 
iners composed of 
architects of expe- 
rience and high pro- 
fessional standing. 



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ARCHJTECT 




132 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



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PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Additions to the University Museum, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Plates 65-68. The additions to the Univer- 
sity Museum provide an auditorium and a large exhibition 
hall. The exterior is faced with selected red stretcher 
brick and roofed with glazed tile to correspond with the 
portions of the building previously built. 

The auditorium on the lower floor is lined with a porous 
tile to aid the acoustic properties. The ceiling is also 
of tile construction with ornamental faience panels. The 
heating of this room is accomplished by the admission of 
air under the seats, and the vitiated air is exhausted by 
fans through openings in the ceiling. 

The main exhibit hall has windows in the upper walls 
and a skylight. The walls are faced with brick of a warm 
gray color and the dome is of tile. The room is artifi- 
cially lighted solely by lights placed above the diffusing 
sash under the skylight. 

Northampton Institution for Savings, Northamp- 
ton, Mass. Plates 69-71. The Northampton Institu- 
tion for Savings is a one-story structure of fireproof 
construction devoted entirely to banking purposes. The 
main banking room occupies the entire height of the front 
portion of the building and the offices and trustees' room 
occupy the rear, which has a mezzanine story. 

The exterior of the building is of waterstruck brick, 
laid in Flemish bond with trimmings of Indiana limestone. 
The base course is granite. The main entrance doors, 
the lamp standards on either side, and the window frames 
throughout are bronze. 

The main banking room is wainscoted in Tavernelle 
rose marble to the height of approximately eight feet, 
while the floor is of rectangular marble tiles of meadow 
gray Tennessee. The die of the bank screen, including 
the counter top, is of the same marble as the base and the 
screen itself is solid bronze. The walls of the room are 
divided into panels by fluted Doric pilasters, the panels 
being relieved by ornamental plaster panel mouldings. 
The cornice and ornamental beam treatment are of plaster, 
the walls and ceiling being painted to harmonize with the 
marble and the bronze fittings. Natural light is had from 
large ceiling lights above and from windows on the front 
and side elevations. The lighting fixtures are of lantern 
type in bronze to match the counter screen. 

The vault is directly opposite the entrance, and the side 
toward the banking room is enriched by a doorway treat- 
ment surmounted by an ornamental clock. This treat- 
ment balances that of the entrance vestibule. 

The building is absolutely fireproof with reinforced 
concrete floor and roof slabs on steel framing. The heat- 
ing and ventilating equipment is very complete, including 
an air filtration and washing device. 

Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, Fall River, 
Mass. Plates 72, 73. The Fall River Five Cents Sav- 
ings Bank has foundation walls of ledge stone, which was 
blasted from the site. The basement contains storage 
vaults and heating apparatus. The site was large enough 
to permit the erection of two store and office buildings, 
one on each street. In order to insure the individuality 
of the bank, these buildings were made of different colored 
brick. 

The base of the fa(,-ade is of white granite. The upper 



course of the base, the pilasters up to and including the 
neck moulding, and the lettered portion of the frieze are 
of white marble. The remainder of the white portion of 
the exterior is of terra cotta, with a sponged and sprayed 
texture surface. 

The body of the wall is of rough textured brick with 
deep raked joints. These joints were formed and the 
brick protected during construction by a novel scheme. 
Wooden strips forming an angle were used, one member 
of which was placed against the course just laid and the 
top horizontal member placed on the top of the same 
course, entering the joint to just the depth to which the 
mortar was to be laid. When this course was finished the 
strips were raised for the next course. This prevented 
the mortar from getting on the face of the brick, necessi- 
tating very little cleaning at the completion of the job and 
eliminating raking entirely. 

The bronze entrance doors are in two folds, which in 
their open position during business hours form bronze 
jambs with the inner or day doors. The main windows 
have electric welded fixture sash, with mullions built up 
to overcome the thin effect of ordinary factory sash. 

The public portion of the banking room has a marble 
mosaic floor with marble border. There is a marble 
dado to the height of the screen, which is marble and 
bronze. The plain panels of the wall were covered with 
felt to overcome reverberations incident to the solid ma- 
sonry construction and the form of the room. The work- 
ing space is covered with linoleum. 

Hotel Winecoff, Atlanta, Ga. Plates 78, 79. 
This hotel is located at the corner of Ellis and Peachtree 
streets, one of the highest points in Atlanta. It contains 
two hundred rooms, each with private bath. 

It is of fireproof steel construction, the three lower sto- 
ries being faced with terra cotta finished to resemble 
Georgia granite, the main body of the walls with brick, 
and the upper stories with faience terra cotta. 

The mechanical e(|uipment is modern in every respect. 
There are two traction worm gear type elevators and a 
freight sidewalk lift. The basement contains ice and re- 
frigerating plants, vacuum cleaning machinery, and venti- 
lating apparatus. There is no power plant, all current 
being taktn from outside. 

Allston Apartments, Baltimore, Md. Plate 80. 
These apartments, on North Charles street, Baltimore, 
Md., are situated directly opposite the new group of 
buildings of Johns Hopkins University. For this reason 
the keynote of the architectural treatment has been foimd 
in the well known Carroll Mansion " Homewood," which 
has been incorporated in the new University group and 
which has determined the style and architectural treat- 
ment of all the new University buildings. 

The exterior is of Colonial brick, with trimmings of 
white woodwork and marble. In plan, the building takes 
the shape of the letter "I" with courts at either side. 
Four housekeeping apartments are provided on each floor, 
with the main stairway and lobby at the center. Each 
apartment contains living room, dining room, pantry, 
kitchen, two bedrooms, and bath, with servants' rooms 
and baths in the basement, where the janitor's living 
quarters and storage rooms are also located. 



133 




s 






ED1TOR.IAL COMMENT 
AN D*N OTES ^ * 
FOR.'fTHE'^ MONTH 



IN the conduct of his professional duties the architect is 
called upon to exercise an important part in the selec- 
tion of materials which enter into the construction of the 
building-s he designs. In this pnvi of his work he has 
been enabled in recent years to depend upon the manu- 
facturers of high g-rade building materials for full and 
competent service in explaining the details of their prod- 
ucts and the best method of using them. The con- 
scientious manufacturer to-day expends everyeffort tomake 
his product as good as possible so that the architect, in 
specifying it and depending upon it to properly express 
his designs, may have no opportunity for dissatisfaction. 
The architectural profession has not been lax in recogniz- 
ing the value of such co-operation or in encouraging every 
effort made to improve the business methods of building 
operations. 

Reputable manufacturers have made serious efforts to 
earn the co-operation of architects and to receive their 
recognition of well made materials. In this connection 
there has been for a long time considerable discussion 
of the practice of including the phrase "or equal" in 
architects' specifications and more or less agitation among 
manufacturers to have its use abandoned. It has been 
consistently retained, however, for various reasons, one 
being a prevalent impression, whether founded on fact or 
not, that the manufacturer 
whose product was exclusively 
specified would ask a higher 
price than if he were in direct 
competition. This is a con- 
dition which it is easy to 
imagine might result from the 
abandonment of the clause, 
but which is not and has not 
been contemplated, we are 
sure, by any high grade manu- 
facturer. His ground has 
been, because of the study he 
has given his product and the 
merit he has proved it to pos- 
sess, that an architect, after 
satisfying himself of its qual- 
ity and its suitability, should 
specify it without any refer- 
ence to the phrase "or equal," 
of which unscrupulous con- 
tractors or middlemen may 
take advantage to furnish 
something which is obviously 
not of equal cjuality, but whose 
inferiority many times is diffi- 
cult to prove. He has claimed 
this as a mark of recognition 
and approval for having the 
courage to make a quality 



Le Brun Traveling Scholarship 
— Preliminary Notice. 

THE third bi-annual competition for the 
Le Brun Travelings Scholarship, founded 
by Pierre L. Le Brun, will be held in the 
summer of 1916. It is open to any architect, 
a citizen and resident of the United States, 
between twenty-three and thirty years of age. 
and who is not, nor ha.s been, the beneficiary of 
any other traveling scholarship, and who has 
had at least three years' experience as drafts- 
man or practising architect. The amount is 
$1,000, the period of the scholarship not less 
than si.\ months. 

Kach competitor must be nominated by a mem- 
ber of the New York Chapter, A. 1. A., who shall 
certify in writing that the above conditions are 
fulfilled by the nominee, and that in his opinion 
the nominee is deserving of the scholarship. 

All persons who are eligible and desire to com- 
pete are re(|uested to send their api)lication to 
the undersigned before July 15, 1916. Applica- 
tions must be accompanied by a statement of 
residence, citizenship, age, experience, and gen- 
eral qualifications, and by the necessary nomi- 
nation and certification from a member of the 
.\fw York Chapter, A. I. A. Those not having 
the acquaintance of a member of the Chapter 
may avail themselves of the services of any well 
known art-hitect who can vouch for them to a 
member of the New York Chapter, with whom 
he is acquainted. 

Architects throughout the country are re- 
quested to bring this notice to the attention of 
their eligible draftsmen. 

bf:rtram g. goouhue, 

2 West 47th Street, New York City. 

Chairman. C'ommiltee on I^ Rrun TtavflinR Schnlarshif. 



product that in the face of severe competition can be 
sold at a reasonable price ; but to have his claim fully 
considered, the manufacturer, on his part, must give 
evidence that the confidence of the architect will not be 
abused. 

While it is generally expected that architects will have 
a working knowledge of the usual building products and 
their relative merits, it is nevertheless beyond their power 
and resources to maintain testing laboratories, etc., where 
([uality may be accurately determined. 

The architect must therefore rely, to a large extent, 
upon the claims of the manufacturers where he has good 
reason to accept them as truthful statements until such 
time as he has had opportunities to actually know from 
the experience of using a product just what its merit is. 
Every opportunity the manufacturers afford the architect 
for an impartial consideration of their materials should 
therefore be received with interest, for it lessens the archi- 
tect's effort in arriving at a just estimate. An opportunity 
of this nature, which certain leading manufacturers have 
recently afforded to prove that they desire and will respect 
the architect's confidence, is an improvement in merchan- 
dising methods which it is claimed will remove the serious 
objections to a more definite stand on the part of the 
architect in specifying. This is the standard or fixed price 

policy of selling, whereby the 
price at which a given build- 
ing material can be bought in 
the open market is determined 
and maintained under all con- 
ditions. These prices may be 
obtained by any architect desir- 
ing them, and they will remain 
in force until market conditions 
or manufacturing costs neces- 
sitate a change, when a new 
price will be made and an- 
nounced to all interested 
parties. 

The adoption of this system 
by more manufacturers should 
place the merchandising of 
building materials on a high 
plane and provide the architect 
with a fair means of judging 
the relative merits of different 
products. With the knowl- 
edge of the quality of given 
products and their market 
prices the architect will be 
able to judge each fairly and, 
when necessary, determine to 
a reasonably correct degree 
just what product is the equal 
of another. 



134 



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VOLUME XXV 





NUMBER 6 



CONTENTS for JUNE 1916 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



Architects 



" FARNSWORTH " ESTATE OF C. G. K. BILLINGS, ESQ., 

LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y _ _Guy Lowell 

HOUSE, CLIFFORD V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE, 

LONG ISLAND, N. Y Charles A. PUtt 

HOUSE, JERE A. DOWNS, ESQ., WINCHESTER, MASS.. Robert Cok 

HOUSE, THOMAS W. RUSSELL, ESQ., HARTFORD, CONN. 

Parker Morse Hooper, Frank C. Farley, Associated 



Plate 



81 84 



93-96 



LETTERPRESS 



Autho 

PORTRAIT OF GIULIANO DA SAN GALLO 

THE PLANNING OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

BUILDINGS Lewis Gustafson 

I. General Consideration of the Plan. 
Illustrations from Plans 

RECENT HOUSES AT FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
House of Miss Taylor. ) 

House of E. G. Trowbridge, Esq. \ Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 
House of J. A. Meeker, Esq. ; 

House of Dr. Thomas C. Chalmers, Eugene Schoen, Architect. 

MODERN PRACTICE IN THE DESIGN OF BANK V AULTS ^ ^Frederick S. Holmes 

II. Requirements of the Small Bank. 
Illustrations from Plans 

FARM BUILDINGS ON THE ESTATE OF C. G. K. BILLINGS, ESQ._ 

Guy Lowell, Architect. 

TWO HOUSES DESIGNED BY ALBRO & LINDEBERG, ARCHITECTS 
House of Hugh Mullen, Esq., Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island, N. Y. 
House of Boardman Robinson, Esq., Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island, N. Y. 

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES OF THE GARDEN. II John T. Fallon 

Illustrations from Photographs 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XXIII. Measured Drawing of Mantel in Fairfax House, 
Alexandria, Va J. L. Keister, O. J. Munson, J. A. Weber 1 5'3, 1 36 

XXIV. Measured Drawing of Interior Doorway, " Homewood," 
Baltimore, Md Riggin Buckler 157,158 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 159 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 160 

INDEX TO ADVERTISING ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Page 

_ Frontispiece 

135 



139 



143 



146 



149 



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Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 
Advertising Department, 42 West 39th Street, New York 
scriptibn, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 

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Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Company 

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THE BRICKBVILDER 







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Elks Home, Columbus, Ohio 

F. L. PACKARD - G. R. BASSETT 

Associated Architects 

250,000 Colonial Red Velours 

were used in this building 



' I^HE term "texture" as applied to a face brick is a much abused one, as it seems 
-'■ to be the general impression that any rough, scratched or torn surface is a 
texture brick. Roughness in itself is not a thing of beauty and in a brick is 
valuable only to the extent that it absorbs the glare of strong light. 

CLAYCRAFT VELOUR BRICK 

is a " texture " brick, inasmuch as its surface is free from high lights and casts 
shadows in profusion, resulting in a surface as soft as a velvet fabric. 

Our new illustrated booklet showing color effects and twenty-seven full-page reproduc- 
tions of recent buildings faced 'with Claycraft Brick will be sent to you upon request. 



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Vwlaycratr ^^pnck V-o. 

"^lumbuj! ^"aho Ohio 



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GIULIAXO DA SAN GALLO 

BORN II\ FLORENCE, 1445. DIED 1516. ARCHITECT OF 
PALACE OF SAN PIETRO, MNCOLI . GATE OF SAN MARCO, 
PISA: CHURCH OF THE MADONNA DELLE CARCERL PRATO, 
AND THE SACRISTY OF SANTO SPIRITO, FLORENCE 



THE BRICKBVKDER. 



VOLUME XXV 



JUNE, 1916 



NUMBER 6 



The Planning of Trade and Industrial School Buildings. 

By LEWIS GUSTAFSON. 
Superintendent of The David Ranken, Jr., School of Mechanical Trades, St. Louis, Mo. 

I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE PLAN. 



THE facilities provided for manual training- in the high 
schools of this country have, thanks to the thought- 
ful and skilful labors of such architects as Mr. Ittner 
of vSt. Louis and Mr. Snyder of New York, been brought 
to a hig:h degree of perfection. The general plan for 
manual training has been worked out. It is admirably 
adapted to its purpose. Further improvement would 
seem possible only in matters of minor detail. 

Another type of education, however, has been growing 
up in this country alongside manual training during the 
past ten years for which the conventional manual training 
provision has been found wholly inadeciuate — a type of 
education demanding a building all its own. This new 
type goes by the name of industrial or vocational educa- 
tion. It is my purpose in this article to explain this new 
education and to set forth some of its architectural require- 
ments. I must of necessity write non-technically as a 
layman with no architectural presumptions, but with 
several years of experience as "owner" or tenant. 
Perhaps the best way to open the explanation is to 
show wherein manual training and industrial education 
differ. 

Manual training has grown up in our schools as an 
adjunct to general education. It had its origin in the 
recognition of the fact that boys have bodies as well as 
minds; that the only way to educate some boys is to give 
them something to do with their hands ; that the best way 
to educate any boy is to get him to use hand and brain 
and eye together for at least part of the time. It had for 
its slogan, " Send the whole boy to school ! " 

As an adjunct to general education, it has been given a 
place quite supplementary to book learning. In the ele- 
mentary schools it has been limited in most places to two 
or three hours a week in the seventh and eighth grades, 
and in the high schools to three or four hours a week 
during the four years. In the elementary school it has 
run largely to benchwork in wood with some woodturning. 
The product has been mostly pen trays, coat hangers, 
bird houses, etc. — all small things. In the high schools 
the curriculum has covered woodwork (including wood- 
turning and patternmaking), forging, moulding, and 
machine-shop practice. The product has run to dumb- 
bells, Indian clubs, Morris chairs, small gasoline engines, 
and other things of like nature. 

As an adjunct to general education it has concerned 



itself with general principles ; it has endeavored to train 
hand and eye and mind together ; to impart information 
regarding fundamental principles of science and construc- 
tion ; to train the aesthetic sense through the making of 
beautiful things in wood and metal. It has not been 
directly concerned in fitting boys to earn their living, 
though frequently boys have put to industrial use the 
drafting and shop skill and knowledge of tools and of 
construction learned in manual training classes. 

As an adjunct to general education, manual training has 
been awarded space in the school buildings proportionate 
to its weight in the general scheme. In elementary 
schools this space has frequently been confined to one or 
at the most two rooms, little, if any, larger than the 
ordinary class room. The space in high schools has been 
more generous, but still small, in proportion to the whole. 
The vSoldan High School in St. Louis, for example, built 
to accommodate 1,600 pupils, contains a total of ninety- 
two rooms. Of these only five are shops. These com- 
prise a woodworking room, 30 feet 6 inches by 65 feet ; a 
woodturning room, 30 feet 6 inches by 80 feet ; a machine 
shop, 30 by 69 feet; a forge room, 3o by 60 feet; a moulding- 
room, 25 by 38 feet, with necessary stock, preparation 
and motor rooms, instructors' offices, etc., taking up 
possibly 16,500 square feet of floor area — considerably less 
than one-tenth of the floor area of the entire building. 

These figures are given with no thought of disparage- 
ment. Manual training is an admirable thing and will 
always be needed. The Soldan High School is one of the 
best high schools in the country not only as to building, 
but as to instruction and management. The manual 
training cotirse is only one of ten excellent parallel courses 
offered in the school, and the space allowed is ample for 
the purpose intended, although the school has an enrol- 
ment considerably in excess of the 1,600 for whom it was 
originally planned. These figures from this school are 
given solely to present more sharply the contrast between 
manual training and the new education, and to emphasize 
more strongly the need for a different style of building for 
the latter. 

The establishment of industrial education finds its justi- 
fication in the increasing difficulty this country experiences 
in obtaining skilled artisans and competent foiemen and 
superintendents. How serious this difficulty is in the 
building trades, and how rapidly it is becoming more 



136 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



serious, every architect knows to his exasperation if not 
to his sorrow. The situation is equally serious in the 
machine trades and in all other occupations requiring a 
combination of manual skill and technical knowledge. 
The decline of the old apprentice system, the growing 
complication in manufacturing and building processes, 
with the accompanying minute subdivision of labor, the 
almost total cessation of skilled artisan immigration, in 
some cases the restriction of apprentices by labor organi- 
zations and in others the unwillingness of employers to 
bother with beginners, have all combined to bring about 
this scarcity and to urge the establishment of some means 
of training workers outside of the occupations themselves 
— in other words, the establishment of schools different 
from those giving manual training for general or cultural 
ends, whose purpose shall be not general education, but edu- 
cation closely linked to the industries ; whose graduates may 
go directly into the industries equipped not only to earn 
their living there, but to contribute a share of the skill 
and industrial intelligence which the industries need for 
their further development. 

These schools have begun to appear and are destined 
to appear in rapidly increasing numbers. They take 
several forms, for boys and for girls, ranging from the 
high school with a slightly increased manual training 
content, still somewhat subordinated to the general cur- 
riculum, through the industrial or vocational high school, 
to the very definite, closely specialized, closely limited 
trade school. It is with the latter and with those that 
approach the latter in their seriousness as preparatory 
schools for the industries rather than as preparatory 
schools for the universities or for that vaguer thing which 
school teachers are inclined to call " after life," that this 
discussion has to deal. The schools chosen as examples 
to be discussed in these papers by no means exhaust the 
list of even those most prominent in the field of such 
instruction ; they are selected as prominent institutions 
whose buildings are new enough and similar enough in 
their main characteristics to reflect a recent and definite 
tendency in design and construction. Engineering 
schools and technical institute_s of collegiate rank have 
purposely been omitted as training for professional rather 
than artisan life. Two of the schools to be considered, 
the Worcester Boys' Trade School and the Milwaukee 
Public School of Trades for Boys, are maintained by 
public taxes as part of the public school system of their 
respective cities. The others are operated as philan- 
thropies on liberal private endowments. 

Whatever their source of income, the general scheme of 
instruction is the same in all. They all teach shopwork, 
drafting, and mathematics, and most of them teach 
applied science. These items in the curriculum are based 
on the fundamental needs of the mechanic. Shopwork is 
given first and foremost, that he may know how to handle 
his tools with skill ; drafting, that he may know how to 
read the drawings and blueprints that embody his work- 
ing directions, and on occasion, as foreman or jobber, 
make simple working drawings himself ; mathematics, that 
he may know how to figure out dimensions, loads, quan- 
tities, prices, etc. ; and applied science, that he may under- 
stand the mechanical principles involved in his trade and 
be acquainted in a simple way with the physical and chem- 
ical characteristics of his materials and know how to com- 



bat those forces, like rust and rot, that cause his materials 
to deteriorate. 

Shops. Of these items the shopwork is by far the most 
important, since no amount of technical knowledge can 
compensate for any lack of ability on the part of the arti- 
san to perform the manual side of his work with skill and 
dispatch, and because, incidentally, in the very acquire- 
ment of this manual skill the artisan with brains cannot 
fail to absorb a good deal of technical knowledge. This 
makes the shop and the shop accommodations the basic 
consideration upon which the whole building should be 
planned. 

To be real and to instruct properly, the work in the shop 
must resemble as closely as possible the work in the trade 
itself. This means that the shop must be a trade shop, 
and not merely a shop in a school. It must, above all, be 
large enough for the work in hand and must be equipped 
with proper tools for the manufacture of the product, and 
be provided with proper facilities for bringing in and stor- 
ing material and for routing the product in the process of 
making. If it is a machine shop, it must be equipped with 
real machines such as a modern factory would use. These 
must be full size, capable of turning out full-size work, 
large and small, similar to that turned out in any general 
jobbing shop. If it is a shop for carpentry or bricklaying, 
it must be ample in length and breadth and height to 
allow for the erection of entire buildings and parts of 
buildings built to full size. If it is a foundry, it must be 
a real foundry, capable of turning out sizable castings of 
commercial value. 

Moreover, the shop must be large enough to allow for 
the storage of these full-size articles between shop 
periods. Where the articles are light and small, they can 
be placed in a bench drawer or in a storeroom. Where 
they are bulky and heavy or cannot be disturbed — as in 
certain kinds of machine or foundry work, or in carpentry 
or bricklaying or tinning or housewiring or plumbing — 
the things being made must be left as they are from period 
to period, and any other pupils using the shop must work 
around them. 

Even where the shop is large enough for these require- 
ments it will accommodate only a few students as judged 
by manual training standards. In the ordinary manual 
training school the pupil spends most of his time at gen- 
eral studies and only about four hours a week at the most 
in the manual training department. Given a thirty-hour 
school week, a manual training shop built to house twenty 
at one time will have a maximum capacity in one week of 
at least seven different classes of twenty, or 140. In the 
trade school, on the contrary, each student must be in the 
shop at least half of each day. If each student is in 
the shop half of each day, only two classes can be accom- 
modated in each shop in the week. If the classes are 
limited to twenty (which is the maximum number one 
teacher can direct efficiently), forty students is the maxi- 
mum in a given week for the same space utilizable in 
manual training for 140. If each student is in the shop 
more than half of each day, then the capacity of that shop 
dwindles accordingly. 

It is for these reasons that the carpentry shop in the 
Ranken School, St. Louis, is 47 by 96 feet, with a ceiling 
32 feet high over part of it ; in Wentworth Institute, Boston, 
the foundry is two stories high, with a working space 48 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



137 



by 72 feet, and in the Milwaukee School the machine shop 
is 46 by 116 feet, and that even these sizes seem some- 
times inadequate. 

Drafting and Mathematics Rooms. The accommodations 
for drafting and for mathematics, on the other hand, need 
vary little or not at all from those provided for this pur- 
pose in any good manual training; high school. Adequate 
lighting (preferably from the north) should, of course, 
be insisted upon ; likewise adequate provision for blue- 
printing by electricity and for teaching pupils to operate 
the blueprint machine. Separate drafting rooms should 
be provided for architectural and for machine drafting. 
In planning these, it must be borne in mind that the 
school drafting classes will constantly be making drawings 
and blueprints for use in the shops, since the shops are 
constantly making new and practical things. Liberal 
closet room should be provided for storage of materials 
and drawings, and, if possible, a good sized industrial 
museum or exhibit room, where pupils may study in con- 
nection with their drafting, working models, parts of 
machines, sections of buildings, and samples of all sorts 
of materials. The Konigliche Vereinigten Maschinen- 
bauschulen at Cologne has three drafting rooms, 25 feet 
wide and respectively 45, 40, and 45 feet long, placed end 
to end along one side of the building, and flanking these 
throughout their length such a museum 36 feet wide and 
135 feet long. Doors open from these drafting rooms 
immediately into the museum as into a corridor (which 
the museum replaces), so that an instructor can bring his 
class directly to the object to be drawn or to the piece of 
mechanism which he is explaining. The arrangement is 
worth imitating. 

Applied Science Laboratories . When one comes to the 
consideration of facilities for applied science, the depar- 
ture from conventional high school arrangements is again 
radical, and again the demand is for space. The ordi- 
nary high school course in science is rather abstract. 
The apparatus is usually small, though often elaborate 
and finely finished. The object is the understanding of 
principles, with only occasionally — and in some schools 
never — the application of these principles to industrial 
uses. In the trade school, however, the primary object is 
to teach the application of these principles to industrial 
purposes and to explain the scientific principles underly- 
ing the shop and trade processes. It touches the indus- 
tries all the time. Without this practical application the 
study has no purpose. 

This involves the introduction of shop materials and 
industrial apparatus rather than small laboratory equip- 
ment, and the trade school laboratory must be large 
enough to accommodate them. For example, students in 
the building and machine trades need not only to under- 
stand the principles, but to become familiar with the actual 
operation, of block and tackle, the builders' derrick, the 
contractors' force pump, the gas and gasoline engine, 
etc., and for this combined theory and practice they need 
if not the larger size, at least a workable commercial size 
in these things. To become familiar with the strength 
of materials they must have commercial testing machines 
of large capacity. To learn the chemical characteristics 
they must have laboratory equipment and space suitable 
for analysis of paints, oils, fuels, metals, and so on. 

In short, just as the shops in a trade school resemble 



the shops in a factory, so the science rooms should resem- 
ble the testing laboratories in a manufacturing plant, with 
such adaptations as have been evolved for convenience in 
teaching, like the placing of a lecture room, equipped 
with lantern, between the room used for chemistry and 
that used for mechanics, etc. The engineering colleges 
can furnish valuable suggestions in this regard. Because 
of the heavy nature of much of the apparatus and of the 
material and machines to be studied and tested, it may 
be advisable, both for stability and accessibility, to place 
the science department on the ground floor, though heavy 
construction and freight elevators may make this location 
tmnecessary. 

Ceiling heights in shops and laboratories must be de- 
termined by the nature of the work and by the require- 
ments of light and air. 

Other Facilities. Of the other facilities for a trade or 
industrial school, little need be said. The experienced 
architect confronted with the problem of combining school 
and factory will be able to work out his own solution. 
The school authorities in each case should be in a position 
to indicate in general what direction the courses are 
designed to take : how many pupils it is the desire to 
accommodate ; how much of the time is to be devoted to 
shopwork and how much to science, drafting, and mathe- 
matics, and to other siibjects, if any, and these consid- 
erations will determine the proportions of space. The 
amount of money available for building and the amount 
available for running the school will determine what must 
be omitted or deferred. Every school must have ade- 
quate class rooms, locker rooms, toilet rooms, and admin- 
istrative offices, in addition to drafting rooms and shops. 
It is highly desirable that every school also have a library, 
a gymnasium, a lunch room, and at least one lecture 
hall capable of accommodating the entire student body at 
one time. This hall should be fitted for a stereopticon and 
moving-picture machine. Unless larger gatherings are 
to be held frequently, the erection of a large auditorium 
for state occasions is likely to prove a needless expendi- 
ture of money and space. Such a room is too apt to be 
idle a great part of the time. For commencements and 
other large occasions the gymnasium, already in almost 
daily use, is ordinarily quite sufficient. 

Whether the school shall have its own power plant or 
purchase its power from outside, is a matter for local de- 
cision. Most trade and industrial schools find it advisable 
to include such a plant both as a practical operating steam 
and electrical laboratory and as a means of teaching the 
steam engineers' trade. 

Elevators in such a school are usually not needed ex- 
cept for freight. Freight elevators should, of course, be 
placed advantageously for general access and use. 

Architectural Treatment. The finish and looks of such a 
building may be left to individual taste and means. So 
far as the instruction is concerned, it can make no essen- 
tial difference whether in outward appearance such a 
school resembles a school or a factory, whether it is built 
of expensive or inexpensive materials. If a monumental 
effect is desired, it is quite legitimate to have it. Some of 
the newer, more attractive factory buildings are quite fine 
enough for any school. 

Whether the interior finish in the offices and class rooms 
and main corridors shall be of Italian marble or Caen 



138 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



stone or hard plaster or good red brick, is again immate- 
rial from the standpoint of instruction. Common sense 
will dictate that places subject to much soiling shall be of 
material easily cleaned with a damp cloth, and that walls 
and corners in shops and in corridors adjacent, which are 
always liable to bruises and scars from the carrying of 
lumber and long iron pipe, and the running of wheel- 
barrows and trucks, shall be of material sufficiently hard 
to stand such abuse. Here again 
the example of what is done in the 
factory furnishes the cue. 

Flexihility. What is of supreme 
importance for the architect to 
realize and to remember is that 
this trade and industrial education 
is a comparatively new thing ; that 
it is in its experimental stages ; 
that it is developing very rapidly; 
that no one can forecast accurately 
how it will eventuate or even what 
the needs of any one institution 
or any one department in a given 
institution will be ten years from 
now, and that mistakes in concrete 
and brick and stone, or even the 
correct present adaptation of stone 
and brick and concrete, may prove 





follow good high school practice. In locating the office, 
care should be exercised to make it easily accessible not 
only from all parts of the school, but also from the street, 
so that it may be easily found by strangers. There is 
much to be said for the practice of having only one gen- 
eral entrance, through which all students as well as all 
visitors must pass on entering or leaving the building. 
Such an entrance lends itself to ease of supervision, 
which in the case of trade and in- 
dustrial schools (whose pupils are 
usually of high school age) is a 
much more serious matter than 
in colleges. If other exits are re- 
quired bylaw, — and they are, of 
course, desirable anyway, — they 
can be made to open into the school 
court. 

Connecting Corridors. It is also a 
general practice where more than 
one building exists to have the 
units connected by covered corri- 
dors. This is of great value, not 
only in helping to keep track of the 
students' whereabouts, but in 
avoiding exposure to inclement 
weather on the part of students 
and teachers in passing from 




Second Floor Plan First Floor Plan Third Floor Plan 

Scheme X. Simple Trade School Plan, Embodying Convenient and Efficient Arrangement of Space 



very costly to the proper workings of a school at the end 
of that time. 

The watchword, then, must be "flexibility," and the 
example of the loft " to be subdivided to suit tenant" 
must be kept ever forward. The permanent interior 
bearing wall should be shunned. Large interior spaces 
with plenty of light and air, broken up by partitions of 
three and four inch hollow tile, easily removable without 
disturbing" the main structure, and free, as nearly as pos- 
sible, from ventilating flues, pipes, conduits, and other 
permanent things, furnish the key to flexibility. This 
flexibility is needed in the design of the shops and the 
science rooms especially. It is not so necessary in the 
design of the purely school part of the building. 

llie Central Unit. In all of the school buildings to be 
considered in detail in a second paper, there will be noted 
a similarity in one respect — that each school has a cen- 
tral combined administrative and class-room unit. In 
some cases this is in a separate central building:, in others 
it is in a centrally located part of the general building. 
This portion usually houses the offices, class rooms, 
drafting rooms, library, assembly hall, etc., and the main 
stairs. These are sufficiently defined to require little or 
no change in the future. Here the architect may safely 



one part of the institution to another. Should the 
building be three stories high, the placing of these 
connecting- corridors on the middle floor will be found a 
great convenience and a great saving in stair climb- 
ing. 

T/ic Block Plan. The block plan will, of course, present 
no serious difficulties to the architect. It diff"ers in no 
essential from the block plan of any factory or hospital 
or other institution where size, light, air, and covered 
connecting corridors are desiderate. 

In the scheme marked X the writer has endeavored to 
present in its simplest form a working out of the general 
principles here enunciated. It will be noted that the ex- 
pansion of the one-story, skylighted shop wing is limited 
only by the size of the ground available ; that the shops 
arc easily accessible from the main building ; that locker 
and wash rooms are conveniently located with reference 
both to the shops and to the main building ; that the office 
is centrally located and easily found ; that the class rooms 
are ample, and that proper drafting and museum and 
assembly sjiace is provided. The boiler room and the 
science department have been omitted. These could be 
substituted for the gymnasium or given space in a well 
lighted basement. 



Recent Houses at Forest Hills Gardens, Long Island 

FROM THE WORK OF GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT, AND EUGENE SCHOEN, ARCHITECT 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF MISS TAYLOR, FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT 



139 



140 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




iilMii 'i^wwn'iH ■I'i'wilwiii IP iimii'miii^wU ill iT ^iii 



DETAIL OF FRONT 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF E. G. TROWBRIDGE, ESQ., FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
GROSVENOR ATTERBURY, ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



141 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



VIEW FROM SIDE 



HOUSE OF J. A. MEEKER, ESQ., FOREST HILLS GARDENS. LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
GROSVENOR ATTERBURY. ARCHITECT 



142 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VIEW OF SIDE FROM STREET 

HOUSE OF DR. THOMAS C. CHALMERS, FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

EUGENE SCHOEN, ARCHITECT 



Modern Practice in the Design of Bank Vaults. 

II. THE REQUIREMENTS OF SMALL BANKS. 

By FREDERICK S. HOLMES. 



NO single problem in the entire field of vault design 
is more difficult of satisfactory solution than that 
of the country bank vault. The attempted answers, 
as evidenced by work installed, run from no vault at all, 
or merely a safe and too frequently a poor one at that, to 
vault construction so expensive as to appear unwarranted. 

How much money a bank in the country or in a small 
city is justified in spending- for the protection of such of 
its funds and securities, and the collateral of its custom- 
ers, as it must keep on the premises, and how this expense 
should be distributed, is the question. This can only be 
settled after a careful consideration of many factors, in- 
cluding the character of the bank building, its immediate 
environment, the size of the town or city, character of the 
community, possibility of burglary or mob attack, and 
other similar conditions, a comprehensive digest of which 
will decide whether the outfit should include a vault, a safe, 
electric protection, watchman or burglar insurance, or all, 
and what should be the proportionate cost of each. 

Many institutions depend almost wholly upon burglar 
insurance, many others upon insurance plus electric pro- 
tection, the addition of which materially reduces the insur- 
ance premium. Others add a fairly good safe, although 
of course all have some sort of enclosed storage space 
usually dignified by that name, which is often a misnomer. 
The good safe still further cuts the insurance rate. A 
majority of country banks, however, have vaults varying 
in strength from an ordinary brick enclosure without a 
lining, and fitted with the cheapest kind of so-called fire- 
proof doors, up to really good construction. 

A practice unfortunately becoming too common is the 
use of showy bolt work, crane hinges, and pressure mech- 
anism set upon ordinary cement filled, fire-proof doors to 
produce the impression that such doors are really burglar 
proof. The public has no way of judging the strength of 
any safe or vault except by its outward appearance, and 
it is questionable advertising to dress a fire-proof vault to 
appear as one of burglar-proof construction. 

Unfortunately for the peace of mind of the banker, who 
must limit his expenditure for safe and vault construction, 
the element of resistance against which he must build is 
identical with that which menaces the urban banker ; for 
fire burns as hotly in the country as it does in the city, and 
the expert burglar will not confine his attentions to the 
largest banks. The same appliances and the same skill 
in their use may be brought to bear equally in any part of 
the country, and while the amount of moneys carried by 
the smaller and more remote institutions is not so attrac- 
tive as that carried in the great vaults of the cities, yet 
the opportunities for attack and successful get-away are 
far greater, and this condition should not be lost sight of. 

The accompanying outline plan and section are sug- 
gested as representing a good type of fairly low cost, 
effective construction. The metal lining should be ap- 
proximately 2 inches in thickness, built up of layers of 
various materials combining qualities resistant to shock. 



tearing effects of explosives and tools, cutting and drill- 
ing instruments, and to the oxy-acetylene cutter-burner. 
This lining should be surrounded, without air space, by 
a rod or rail reinforced concrete wall poured monolithi- 
cally. This wall, in turn, should be covered on all six 
sides with the panels of an' electric protection equipment, 
either central office or isolated alarm system, this in turn 
protected by an exterior finish, either of steel panels, 
marble, removable plaster sections, or wood, as may be 
determined by the architect. 

The entrance should be protected by a single straight 
flange door approximately 18 inches in thickness, having 
carefully ground joints and built up of composite con- 
struction, including a face casting carrying reinforced 
concrete and anti-cutter-burner section, and inner sections 
corresponding in principle to the general make-up of the 
lining, but very much heavier. These thicknesses may be 
reduced if the cost is prohibitive, although such a reduc- 
tion is not desirable. 

The vault should be set in such position as to permit 
free observation of all sides, top and bottom, and also to 
provide access to the electric protection panel work for 
inspection or repairs. An open foundation is the best, 
although, because of the difficulty of successfully attacking 
a vault from the bottom, the use of an enclosed founda- 
tion as a fire-proof vault is not particularly objectionable. 

Fire-proof vaults are frequently built alongside of and 
abutting security vaults, which is unwise practice because 
of the ease with which the fire-proof vault may be entered 
and the cover afforded for burglarious operations. Low- 
ering platforms or tilting floor sections are not necessary 
if the splay of the bottom jamb is reduced to a minimum, 
in which case an incline foot-plate may be installed even 
where trucks are to be rolled into the vaults, as the rise 
need not be more than 2 inches in 2 feet. The floor in 
front of the vault at the front edge of the foot-plate 
should be recessed to permit the plate to sink in flush. A 
substantial day gate is always desirable, which should be 
provided with a latch lock to be opened with a key from 
either side. The use of an inside knob for unlocking 
robs the gate of practically all of its security. 

The accompanying drawings show an installation of 
safe deposit boxes in addition to the bank's lockers and 
this practice cannot be too highly recommended. The 
revenue from even a small lot of boxes goes far toward 
paying the interest upon the cost of the vault. In addi- 
tion to the convenience afforded the bank's customers and 
the advertising secured by bringing the vault work to the 
attention of the public, it is also a valuable factor in es- 
tablishing closer relations between the bank and its cus- 
tomers. 

The safe deposit boxes should be ample in size and the 
unit width should be not less than 5V2 inches. This pro- 
vides a double unit box of sufficient width to store secur- 
ities laid crosswise, and the recently adopted outside dej^th 
of 26 inches — 2 inches greater than the older standard 



143 



144 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



— is appreciated by box renters as it provides room 
for two lengths of securities in the tin box with a space in 
front for jewelry, etc. 

It is a mistake to economize in connection with the safe 
deposit boxes by using cheap key locks. The lock has 
always been the weakest point in the safe deposit busi- 
ness, and the highest grade of interchangeable key locks 
should be selected mainly for their intrinsic value and 
partly for the advertising which they furnish. 

It is customary to divide by grille work the sections of 
the vault which are used by the public and by the bank, 
and this is always to be advised. The construction of the 
bank lockers as shown is an improvement over the older 
designs in that the door opening 
is the full size of the interior of 
the locker, there being no return 
angle frames. This is not only 
a matter of convenience where 
loose storage is concerned, but 
permits the use of the entire 
closet where filing devices are 
used. 

Small vaults are seldom pro- 
vided with electric call buttons, 
but their use is recommended for 
obvious reasons. Floor tile of 
any character can be used, but 
cork has proven particularly 
satisfactory except for very large, 
public vaults where a more dig- 
nified material is to be preferred. 

Electric protection has been 
mentioned and is shown on the 
drawing as a part of the equip- 
ment. In explanation it may be 
stated positively that no vault can 
be built to-day, at a cost not pro- 
hibitive to the country bank, 
which will withstand an up-to- 
date burglarious attack of a day's 
duration. Consequently, some 
dependence must be placed upon' 
other factors, and electric protec- 
tion is one. 

There are several different 
systems in operation, not all of 
equal value, and expert and im- 
biased opinion should be had before making a selection. 
These statements must not be taken as a corroboration 
of the position so frequently advocated by salesmen of 
electric protection outfits, that a protective installation in 
connection with fire-proof walls is all that is really neces- 
sary. All arguments in support of such a stand are fal- 
lacious, although often accepted by banks, as is evidenced 
by the existing great number of protected fire-proof vaults 
used for bank and safe deposit purposes. In the last 
analysis, electric protection means simply a watchman, 
and full reliance must not be placed upon it. All banks 
should have some form of mechanical and structural pro- 
tection. Electric protection is by no means infallible. 



A- AtSLE 

B-5ECURlTr AMD COIN LOCKERS 

C-6Rau GATE 

D-SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES 

E- COMBINATION LOCKS AND BOLT T 

MECHANISM IN MOUSING 
F-DAV GATE 
G-FOOT PLATE 
H-BOLT THROWING HANDLE 
I -PRESSURE HOUSING 
J -COMBINATION LOCK DIALS 
K- REINFORCED CONCRETE 
L - ANTI CUTTER-BURNER SECTION 
M-BOLT WORK 
N- TIME LOCK HOUSED IN 
0- GLASS DOOR 
P-CAST BOLT FRAME 



the vault, and make a get-away before the watchmen or 
public summoned by the alarm could interfere, to say 
nothing of the often proved possibility of standing off 
such interference with firearms and so extending the time 
for operating. 

Electric protection performs one service, however, that 
makes it a necessary adjunct even to the very strongest 
vaults. It effectually protects against the unauthorized 
entering of the vault, out of business hours, by the officers 
or employees of the bank who may know the combina- 
tions of the locks and be in a position to trick the time 
locks or to see that they are not wound or are underwound 
at closing time, and, indeed, that is the only reason why 
it is in use on many of the 
heaviest vaults in the country 
— vaults that are more than burg- 
lar proof, that were built to re- 
sist organized mobs with all the 
machinery that they could com- 
mand. 

Lighting the vault would seem 
a simple matter and one that 
would ordinarily call for no 
special thought, but, as with 
most similar subjects, there are 
right and wrong ways. The lo- 
cation of the lighting fixtures 
should be studied with reference 
to the interior equipment, es- 
pecially if filing devices are to 
be used. They should usually 
be of low design, to lie close to 
the ceiling and permit the locker 
doors to be as high as possible 
and clear the fixtures in their 
swing ; also to allow safe de- 
posit boxes to run as near to 
the ceiling as practicable. 
Vault space is valuable, even 
that near the top which should 
be made conveniently avail- 
able. It goes without saying 
that the light should be plenti- 
ful, soft, and evenly distribu- 
ted. Where more than one 
circuit is used, fixtures should 
be so wired that the blowing 
of a fuse would not put out all of the lights in any fixture. 
If the vault is large or more than one story in height, and 
this statement refers to large fire-proof as well as to 
security vaults, continuous-burning night-lights are neces- 
sary to permit any one accidentally locked in to find the 
telephone and to assist those outside in effecting his re- 
lease. It is sometimes desirable to install a low tension 
system of lighting, which would automatically be thrown 
on if the high tension system should be put out of com- 
mission, so that the vault would at no time be dark. 
The common method of carrying the current into the 
vault by means of a flexible cord with plug connection 
is not to be recommended ; it is inconvenient, the door is 




Q- LAMINATED CONSTRUCTION 
R- LOW STEEL CASTING 
S- PRESSURE MECHANISM 

T - ELECTRIC PROTECTION COVER DOORS & STILES 
U- EXTERIOR FINISH 
V- ELECTRIC PROTECTION PANELS 
W-RAIL OR ROD REINFORCED CONCRETE 
X-TOOLAND CUTTER-BURNER RESISTING 
LINING 



Plan of Typical Bank Vault of Effective Construction and 
Moderate Cost 



although it is generally so represented. It has weak often closed upon the cord and a fuse is blown, a delay is 

points like other human productions. Even if it were generally experienced in getting new cords, and it is a 

perfect, there is naturally nothing about it which provides positive source of danger in connection with a large safe 

a physical stop to a burglar or mob and it would be quite deposit vault where unauthorized interference would put 

practicable in many cases to ignore this protection, enter the vault in darkness. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



145 



Properly installed and permanently located, lead covered 
wires may be built through the vault construction from 
the bottom upward without affecting its security. A 
switch may be located at a convenient point on the front 
of the vestibule ; if the vault is large, this should be a 
momentary contact button with a pilot light, the button 
actuating an automatic switch. 

Too frequently an architect is so limited by the bank's 
appropriation for the building that work even approxi- 
mating the character above indicated is out of the ques- 
tion and he is constrained to build a fire-proof vault and 
allow the bank to buy a so-called burglar-proof safe and 
place it inside the vault. This is quite common practice, 
but it cannot be too 
strongly condemned. 
No safe that would be 
purchased under such 
conditions is suffi- 
ciently strong to with- 
stand burglarious at- 
tack for any consider- 
able length of time, 
and to enclose it in a 
fire-proof vault is sim- 
ply to furnish protec- 
tion to the burglar 
while he operates, not 
only giving him a 
concealed space, but 
also providing an effec- 
tual noise-proof cham- 
ber, which will elimi- 
nate, or at least deaden, 
the sound of explo- 
sions. 

It is preferable to use a burglar-resisting safe, enclosed 
in a heavy, fire-proof covering, and located in such a posi- 
tion as to be seen conveniently from the street. This safe 
should be set up from the floor so that the watchmen, 
police, and public could see under it, and mirrors should 
be provided and so arranged that the sides, back, and top 
can also be readily observed. This in conjunction with 
proper lighting effects and an electric protection cabinet 
is inexpensive and effective. 

Some banks in carrying out this scheme have gone so 
far as to place their safe in the front window close to the 
sidewalk, and as even the ordinary safe requires an ap- 
preciable amount of time for a successful attack, the 
chances for detection are so great as to act as a deterrent, 
if not an actual guarantee, against any attempt. 

Architects should caution their clients, however, against 
purchasing the ordinary commercial safe if it is to be used 
for protecting any large amount of money or securities, 
and should recommend one specially built upon plans 
drawn by a competent and imprejudiced designer in the 
interest of the bank. 

A word regarding fire-proof vaults. These are too 



frequently built of walls so thin that they will not with- 
stand shock of falling bodies, although they may be fully 
fire-proof aside from this factor. Walls of hard burned 
brick set in rich cement mortar are satisfactory provided, 
of course, that the roof supporting beams are fully pro- 
tected. Concrete, either with or without reinforcement, 
except that the top should always be strengthened, are 
more common and are to be depended upon. 

A wide choice is to be had from manufacturers' designs 
in the selection of doors. Where the fire risk is slight, 
outside single and inside folding doors of thin construc- 
tion may serve ; but if there is a possibility of any consid- 
erable fire, they should not be depended upon. A cement 

filled door, 
6 or 8 inches 
in thickness, 
should be used 
vSuch doors 
have the ad- 
vantage of re- 
quiring no in- 
side doors and 
so conserve 
both space and 
convenience. 
Furthermore, 
if the vault is 
located in the 
basement and 
there is a water 
risk, door 
frames may be 
grouted solidly 
to the vault 
walls and the 
door joints packed with compressible water-proof pack- 
ing, against which the door can be forced with a pres- 
sure handle ; this will provide a water- proof vault, a 
quality which is lacking in the great majority of fire- 
proof vaults. 

The largest and strongest vaults in the United States 
and Canada have been built from engineers' designs, 
while comparatively few of the smaller vaults have re- 
ceived such specialized attention, though every argument 
favoring the employment of an engineer upon heavy 
work is equally potent where lighter construction is con- 
sidered. Indeed, where the expense is to be kept to a 
minimum such service is even more necessary, as every 
dollar should be made to yield its utmost in the way of se- 
curity and this can only be accomplished when a full and 
complete knowledge of the subject forms the working basis. 
In view of the splendid showing of good design and 
strict economy that has been made under such conditions 
within the last few years, the architect who insists upon 
specialized advice and acquaints himself with the merit of 
real vault construction, and as far as practicable with its 
details, makes no mistake. 




BANKING ROOM ■ 



Longitudinal Section tiirough Typical Bank Vault 



Farm Buildings on the Estate of C. K. G. Billings, Esq, 



AT LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

GUY LOWELL, ARCHITECT. 




ixm^-'saiis^^tist-- 



VIEW OF CARRIAGE HOUSE AND GARAGE FROM STABLE YARD 



146 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



147 




GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE FRONT 



J^HE farm buildings on the estate of C. K. G. Billings, 
Esq., are grouped along a main driveway, conve- 
niently accessible to one a)iothcr and placed in respect to the 
natural conformation of the land and not in accordance 
ivith any forinal consideration of architectural planning. 
The buildings arc mostly of single stories and are length- 
ened out to fit in ivith the gently rolling country in 
which they are placed. The exterior walls arc constructed 
of red brick laid ivith wide, white mortar joints. The 



trim is of white painted ivood and the roofs of vari- 
colored slate. 

The building illustrated above contains seven houses for 
servants and their families. It is simple in design and 
plan, but nevertheless displays much character because of 
the 'successful grouping of the zvindozus and the clever 
manner in -which lattice and Jloiver bo.ves have been used 
to make points of interest in the composition. The build- 
ing shoivn at the right is the power house. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



GROUP OF SERVANTS' COTTAGES 
" FARNSWORTH," ESTATE OF C. K. G. BILLINGS, ESQ., LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

GUY LOWELL, ARCHITECT 



148 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT 



r • F— 



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SUPERINTENDENTS • HOUSE 

EJTATEOr 

Cf^OBILUNCStSQ- 

OUT U0WIU.-AR.CK1TECT 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

SUPERINTENDENT'S HOUSE 

' FARNSWORTH," ESTATE OF C. K. G. BILLINGS, ESQ., LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

GUY LOWELL, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 8K 




DKTAIL OK MAIN ENTRANCE 



"FARNRWORTM,' ESTATE OF C. K. G. BILIJNCS, ESQ., LOCUST VAI.LKY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

GUV LOWELL. AKCIIITECT 



VOL. 25. NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 




GARDEN AND DRAWING ROOM TERRACE 



FARNSWORTH," ESTATE OF C. K. G. BILLINGS, ESQ.. LOCUST VALLEY. LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

GUY LOWELL, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVI LDER 



PLATE 83. 




FARNSWORTH 

ESTATE OF 

CKG BILLINGS ESQ /j 

QUY LOWELL y J^ 



PLOT AND MAIN FLOOR PLANS 



"FARNSWORTH," ESTATE OF C. K. G. BILLINGS. ESQ.. LOCUST VALLEY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

GUY LOWELL, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 84. 




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PLATE 85. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 86. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF CLIFFORD V. BROKAVV, ESQ., GLEN COVE, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
CHAK1.es a. Hl.ATT, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 87. 




*::-»-■-:•: •"-*:* 
SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 

HOUSE OF CLIFFORD V. BROKAW, ESQ.. GLEN COVE. LONG ISLAND. N. Y 
CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 88. 




VIKW OF TERRACE FRONT 



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NORTH ELEVATION 



HOUSE OF CLIFFORD V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 89. 




DINING ROOM 



HOUSE OF CLIFFORD V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE. LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 90. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 91. 




VIEW OF FRONT FROM STREET 



HOUSE OF JERE A. DOWNS, ESQ., WINCHESTER, MASS. 
ROBERT COIT, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 92. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



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VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 94. 




VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 95. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 6. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 96. 




HALL AND STAIRWAY 



HOUSE OF THOMAS W. RUSSELL, ESQ., HARTFORD, CONN. 
PARKKR MUKSK HOOHEK. ARCHITECT, FRANK C. KARLEV, ASSOCIATED 



Two Houses Designed by Albro & Lindeberg, Architects. 

AT FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 



C*— I itCO 



5tC0ND•^LCr)P. -PLAN- 




HOUSE OF HUGH MULLEN, ESQ., FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 



149 



150 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




I 



VIEW FROM STREET 




VIEW OF REAR 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



HOUSE OF BOARDMAN ROBINSON, ESQ.. FOREST HILLS GARDENS, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

ALBRO & LINDEBERG, ARCHITECTS 



Architectural Features of the Garden.— II. 



By JOHN T. FALLON. 



THE most primitive types of g-ardening-, we may 
readily believe, included the raising of timber frames 
for the support of climbing- plants. The fondness of 
the ancients for the simple architecture of the colonnade is 
an additional reason to suppose them familiar with this 
method of displaying- bloom. Ag-ain, the alleys of mediae- 
val days were often enclosed with a framework for flowers, 
their builders knowing- that the bloom could not be better 
shown than on the formal lines of post and crossbar. 

One mig-ht say that the pergola is garden architecture 
par excellence ; it is not architecture in the garden nor 
garden products placed upon architecture. It is the 
simplest form of construction completely possessed by 
plant and flower. Yet its qualities are architectural 
strength, rhythm, and stability, proceeding from orderly 
setting out, simplicity, and the repetition of its parts. 
The pergola can perform a most useful part in aiding the 
union between house and garden ; it carries with it a 
structural significance and whenever it can be planned as 
an appendage of the building, it is valuable. 

It should rarely stand alone, but should be connected 
with the lines of the design, flanked by a wall or gatewa}' 
or garden house. It forms a light substitute for loggia or 
cloistered walk ; it gives an air of shelter or privacy to 
positions that would otherwise be too open. 

The variety of situations in which a pergola may well 
be placed is equaled only by the number of types and 
methods of its construction. Leaning against a high wall, 
enclosing a formal garden, built on a terraced hillside, 
in these and many more positions it will be found appro- 
priate and useful. The nearer the house, the more solid 
arid architectural should be the 
construction ; this does not 
mean that the heavier types are 
confined to this position. The 
horizontal supports for the foli- 
age should be of wood; columns 



or piers of stone, stucco, or brick, and even wood posts 
may be employed. Quite light material may serve for 
useful pergolas when the surroundings do not demand 
more solid construction. 

It is curious that sundials should be so much more 
frequently employed in England than on the Continent. 
They are sometimes seen in Holland, but rarely in France, 
Spain, or Italy. They seem to take the place of the foun- 
tain of warmer climes in supplying the central motive of 
a garden scheme. Although, of course, they were origi- 
nally regarded from the utilitarian standpoint, it was not 
long before it became the custom to devote considerable 
skill and attention to the design, for which reason they 
often survive in their position when all other traces of the 
garden have disappeared. 

The sundial in essence is a very practical affair. In its 
use it has, however, been long superseded by the clock or 
watch. There is much to be urged in a continued use of 
the sundial. Its construction and material are well suited 
to its place out of doors, and it makes use of the natural 
movement of light and shade which are a part of the 
garden. Let us see that the sundial if used does its work, 
that it is set in sunlight, and that the dial is properly cal- 
culated for the position. 

The pedestal dial is the best form and the baluster the 
best pattern, placed in the center of a lawn. A plain 
stone platform level with the turf is enough to rest it upon 
and it should not be made pretentious. The sundials on 
the wall or on the vertical face of a pillar were more com- 
mon than the pedestal dial in former days. The pillar is 
a beautiful feature amid the flowers, raised to a good 

height. The wall dial has a 
very decorative value, and on 
the sides of the house or garden 
shelter it gives a lasting touch 
of interest. The dial with 
figures of box planted on the 





Garden Pedestal, Vicenza 



Garden Niche, Genoa 
151 



Garden Figure, Vicenza 



152 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Pergola in Garden at New London, Conn. 
James Gamble Rogers, Architect 

lawn is an interesting but difficult variation of treatment. 

The picture of the garden is certainly not complete 
without the presence of pool or fountain. The elements 
of earth, water, and sky seem to form a complete unity, 
which is sadly broken when the first named is missing. 
Water in the garden is worth having whenever possible 
for the sake of the cool freshness 
that pervades the atmosphere wher- 
ever the mirror-like surface of the 
pool or the restless movement of 
the fountain is seen. 

Fortunate is the man who pos- 
sesses a garden with a running 
stream. There are a variety of 
ways to utilize this. In case there 
is an appreciable fall, a cascade can 
be schemed both at its entrance and 
departure from the garden. When 
the volume of water is small, a little 
stone edged canal may be formed 
along the center or the side of a 
lawn or flower garden, allowing it 
to enlarge in places to square or 
circular pools. The narrow, straight 
line of water between its stone mar- 
gins is a charming feature in a 
formal garden, besides being a 
simple method for conducting water 
to and away from the central pool. 

Assuming the stream to be of 
large dimensions, it is well to treat 
it architecturally for at least part 
of its length. In meadows or wood 



the natural winding bank is delightful, but in the garden 
the straight line is more appropriate and has greater pos- 
sibilities. The various types of wall and balustrading 
may be employed, giving pleasant reflections in the water. 
Bridges require along with other architectural features 
some regular treatment, the rustic type failing absolutely 
to satisf}'. 

The more favorite form of pool is either the brimful 
type edged with simple stone margin level with the 
ground or the balustraded form. The former is equally 
suitable to the center of a lawn or formal paved court or 
an enclosed flower garden. A level stretch of stone pav- 
ing or turf is the ideal setting for water, variety being 
introduced by the size and shape of the surface. A great 
number of designs can be made, all of simple, geomet- 
rical outline, — long, square, circular, elliptical, — with 
the addition of a few re-entering angles, scrolls, twists, or 
curv^es that serve to give interest and variation. 

Garden fountains are best arranged when issuing from 
the center of a pool, although there are many positions 
where the isolated basin supported by an architectural or 
sculptured base is equally good. Endless ingenuity has 
been expended in the invention of fountains and cascades 
for the gardens of the Renaissance, and there is infinite 
pleasure to be obtained from combinations of sculpture 
and water. The simple jet, however, can be used with 
remarkable effect in many positions in the garden ; it 
brings life and gaiety wherever it appears. 

The garden seat is the original possessor of the name 
of garden furniture. While many adornments have come 
to be included in this title, the scat is the one piece of 
furniture that is indispensable in the garden. While it 
performs the same function as its indoor relative, it must 
be in tune with the scheme of the garden. Many garden 
seats are made too light for permanent out-of-door use 
and for proper harmony with the garden, and at the same 




Garden of Mortimer Schiff, Esq., Oyster Bay, Long Island, N. Y. 

James L. Grcenleaf, Landscape Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



153 



time are too heavj' to be carried into the shelter of the 
house. The fixed garden seat should be designed along 
permanent lines, and its position must be chosen with due 
regard for the design of the garden, and must have nothing 
haphazard in the way it is placed. 

Position is the most important thing to choose first. 
The seat must be put in the right and desirable place for 
use, and this place must also be made appropriate to the 
design. The necessity for seats should not be over- 
looked when we outline the general idea of the garden ; 
success in this detail will depend upon the appearance of 
purpose thus obtained. All open terraces are excellent 
situations for seats. They can be arranged in recesses in 
the walls at regular intervals or in projecting bastions. 
These projections are especially valuable when the terrace 
commands a view. The seat must not have its back to 
the view ; they might be at right angles to the wall in 
pairs facing each other. Another position is at the end 
of a terrace or long walk. 

Although an open situation is desirable for the seat, 
there are many places in the garden which invite some 
means for resting and enjoying the beauty of the garden 
at leisure. On lawns, in enclosed gardens, beneath the 
shade of a fine tree or in some secluded spot in the wild 
garden, the desire for a seat will be felt. No one regards 
an unsheltered seat as serviceable in all weathers, but as 
long as it is well built it will serve its purpose in the 
proper seasons. It is important that a good platform be 
provided, of paving, preferably. Seats require some at- 
tention in keeping them clean and in good condition, and 
unless they are of oak, should be painted every second 
year. 

It is often possible to devise some shelter for a seat 
which will not necessarily be a garden house and yet have 
character. An arched recess in a wall, a niche of ever- 
greens or treillage, will answer the purpose. The mate- 





Garden of Col. Elliott F. Shepard, Scarborough, N. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects 



Y. 



Pergola in Garden at Grosse Point, Mich. 

Trowbridge & Ackerman, Architects 

rial to be used for seats is somewhat of a problem. The 
stone seat is naturally less adaptable for use, as the ma- 
terial is not so dry or clean as wood, but it undoubtedly 
harmonizes better with the garden. The chief point to 
be observed is in linking the stone seat to its surround- 
ings. Where there is a curved wall of brick or stone or 
low piers with balustrading, the 
simple stone slab set some sixteen 
inches high will look natural and 
unaffected. Link it with the struc- 
tural lines of the garden ; if it must 
stand by itself, prolong the seat at 
each end to form a dwarf stone wall 
and finish with stone tubs for small 
trees. 

Wooden seats are not less depen- 
dent upon their surroundings; but 
being more obviously pieces of 
furniture and being numerous on 
account of their usefulness, their 
design is susceptible of a wide free- 
dom. Hard woods such as oak are 
the best materials, left in natural 
color or painted ; but selected pine, 
if frequently painted, is also 
serviceable. 

A fuller appreciation of architec- 
tural forms in the garden should 
bring a more general use of treil- 
lage than is to be seen at the pres- 
ent day. The French ircillagcurs 
who brought this art to perfection 
were but elaborating a custom that 



154 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



has existed since the earliest days of gfarden making. 
It serves the important purpose of an etfective method 
for setting out the garden and indicating its future 
development. The light and inexpensive character of 
trellis work lends itself most readily to this purpose. Its 
adaptability to almost any shape enables us to raise a 
pattern in a few days of the boundaries and featiires which 
will take years of growth and attention to mature. 

From this use treillage has developed into greater im- 
portance and has come to fill a complete department of 
garden design. Practically every form of architectural 
structure can be imitated in trellis work, and curiously the 
imitation often adapts itself to the garden scheme more 
perfectly than the original. A garden enclosed by a 
trellis screen with arches, pilasters, and arbors of the same 
material may be made a very pleasant place but it will 
depend upon the forms employed. Trellis may easily 
become commonplace or tawdry, and unless it is to be 
entirely covered by foliage, its structural lines should give 
the appearance as well as have the reality of strength. 

There are many places in the garden where treillage 
can effectively be employed, and it generally can safely be 
introduced wherever our predecessors would have been 
tempted to the so-called rustic type of architecture. Tem- 
ples, arbors, summer houses, screens, enclosures for 
tennis courts or paved gardens, the backs of seats — all 
these are easily formed of this material. Trellis work 
gives a definite character to the garden in which it is used, 
and it is invaluable on new sites and in city gardens 
where well grown trees and hedges are absent. Yet its 



beauty is greatly enhanced by a background of trees 
which can be seen through its semi-transparent wall. 

Garden vases and the like have an unfair prejudice at- 
tached to them as being merely the properties of the out- 
of-door scenic artist. Many examples of these ornaments 
are badly made and badly placed. But properly disposed, 
they are legitimate inhabitants of the garden. They rep- 
resent one of the ways of introducing the human ele- 
ment. 

The vase and urn, unless of unusual size, are commonly 
an accessory to some more important feature. They tend 
to be mean and superfluous if placed along the margin of 
a lawn or walk; but in conjunction with a balustrade, a 
flight of steps, or a low retaining wall they may be of 
great value. They are also of great charm when in close 
proximity to masses of foliage. Thus they are beautiful 
finials to gate posts, isolated pedestals, boundary walls, 
etc. 

All boxes, tubs, and urns should be of ample size and 
set on the groiind or on a structural base. The box or 
tub is a movable flower bed and has all the possibilities 
which its mobility provides. Placed at the angles of geo- 
metrical designs, emphasizing the salient points, it has 
the merit of raising the flowers and foliage to a higher 
level and thus introduces an important feature into the 
design. 

May we make a plea for more thoughtful and intelligent 
garden architecture. Despite our love of flowers and 
gardens, the development of the architectural garden in 
America is just beginning. 




Garden at Rosemont, Pa. 
Duhring, Okie & Zieglcr, Architects. Oglesby Paul, Landscape Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 

PLATE TWENTY-THREE. 




rHIS ivood mantel displays in an effective 
way the fiyie feeling for proportion which the 
early desig?iers possessed and which they invested 
in their work. Aside from its proportions the 
mantel is interesting because of the elaborate 
mouldings used. The keynote of the composition 
is the geometrically carved bed moulding which 
enlivens the coi'nice through the contrast of light 
and shade. All of the mouldings are made up 
of several members so designed that the face of 
the complete moulding shows a group of fine 
lines. The individual parts are small but in 
perfect scale with one another, and the main 



divisions agree in scale with the mass of the 
mantel. 

The composition ornament on the frieze atid 
pilasters shows very good modeling and this is 
especially true in the graceful festoons at either 
side of the center panel. 

The fireplace opening is noiv covered over -with 
plaster, hiding the original facing which -was 
undoubtedly of light colored marble similar to 
that of the hearth. The other detail of the room 
is similar in scale and mouldings to the mantel, 
and the doors are divided into small panels with 
raised mouldings. 



MANTEL IN FAIRFAX HOUSE, CAMERON STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 



Built in 1815. 



MEASURED DRAWING ON FOLLOWING PAGE. 



155 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



OLMAMti?^ 




if f^ \^^ 1 ^- 




'DEIAlD»Of-yAOVLDlNq.3 

-fVLLSlZt- 



tLtVAT101-0r-A\AIITfL- 






PLATE 22) 
JUNE 1916 



' MANTEL' rAILFAX' liOY^L-" 

'ALLXANDKIA'VA' 
'T)ATF.'iai3' 'P)V1IJ-P)Y -WM-YeATON 



MtA/VREP'^^DRAWN'M' 
'J'L'KtiyTEll"OJ' 

•MVNyON'&'J'A'WE?)ER' 



156 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




PLATE 24 

JUN£ 1916 



JNTEDIOD • DOODWAY- HOMEWOOD 



I)U]LT ]'804 



^^ALTIMODEMD' 



DDAWK-^Y- 
■J2l(;Gll\I-I)UCKL£i) 



157 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE TWENTY-FOUR. 




'# 'HIS doorway comieds one of the drawing 
A. rooms with the hall and indicates the highly 
ornamental finish which is used throughout the 
house. The interiors show great variety in 
treatment for in no two rooms is the same detail 
used. A curious feature of the interior doors is 



that they are pivoted and will not swing back 
against the wall. 

The house has but a single story with a high 
ceiling, consequently the scale of the interior is 
much larger than is customary in domestic work 
of this period. 



INTERIOR DOORWAY, "HOMEWOOD," BALTIMORE, MD. 

Built in 1804. 
MEASURED DRAWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 



158 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Farnsworth," Estate of C. K. G. Billings, Esq., 
Locust Valley, Long Island, N. Y. Plates 81-84. 
One outstanding characteristic of Mr. C. K. G. Billings' 
house at Locust Valley is its extremely livable quality in 
spite of its large size. Its architectural style has chiefly 
been derived from Georgian precedents with a successful 
blending of the features of the large Italian villa in its 
plan. The interest of the house is centered about the 
large patio in the center, paved in colored and veined 
marble, and lighted from above, and about which are 
grouped the principal rooms. This room extends through 
two stories and is encircled on the second floor by a cor- 
ridor from which the principal bedrooms are reached. 
Access is also had from this 
corridor to a large terrace 
above the loggia, command- 
ing a splendid view. 

The conformation of the 
land which slopes toward 
the north and also to the 
east was an important fac- 
tor in determining the plan. 
The house, because of this 
fact, has been arranged in 
six different levels, all 
lighted from windows above 
the grade, although from 
most viewpoints it appears 
to be only three stories high. 
The entrance is at the grade 
of the forecourt, opening 
into the hall from which a 
view of the patio and loggia, 
on a lower level, is had 
through a large opening 
supported by columns. This 
arrangement gives an im- 
posing ceiling height to the 
principal rooms and an effec- 
tive way of displaying the 
beauty of the interior. In 
the basement there are 
placed the servants' hall, 
serving rooms , laundry , etc . , 
and on the level below this the heating plant and cellars. 
The servants' bedrooms are on the second floor on the 
forecourt side, occupying space which is least desirable 
from the viewpoint of outlook. Only the main portion of 
the forecourt side is carried to the third story level. This 
portion of the building is occupied by guest rooms and 
gives access to the large area of roof which is flat and can 
be used for outdoor recreation. 

House of Clifford V. Brokaw, Esq., Glen Cove, 
Long Island, N. Y. Plates 85-90. The simple and 
broad expression of Georgian architecture which Mr. Piatt 
embodies in his coi;ntry house designs is again evident in 
this house, situated under a mass of tall trees which pro- 
vide a setting from whatever point the house is seen. 

The exterior walls are built of dark red brick, laid in 
Flemish bond with '/4-inch gray mortar joints, and 
about 10 per cent of dark leaders. All trim is of lime- 
stone. The roof is covered with graduated slate of 




Breakfast Room, House of Clifford V. Ciokaw 
Glen Cove, Long Island, N. Y. 

Charles A. Piatt, Architect 



varying shades, ranging in thickness from %-inch butts 
at the eaves to -yKi-inch butts at the ridges. 

The principal room of the interior is the large drawing 
room, which occupies the whole eastern end of the house. 
Large windows in the bay give access to the terrace on 
the south side. The architecture of the room is English 
Renaissance, executed entirely in white, with wide fluted 
pilasters and ornamented mouldings leading up to a richly 
decorated plaster ceiling. 

Corresponding with the drawing room, at the western 
end of the house, are the dining and breakfast rooms. 
The dining room is a dignified apartment paneled in dark 
wood to the ceiling and ornamented with fluted pilasters 

and carved cornice similar 
in detail to that of the draw- 
ing room. The floor is of 
large squares of black and 
white marble. 

House of Jere A. Downs, 
Esq., Winchester, Mass. 
Plates 91, 92. This house 
is situated on an eminence 
above the main highway, 
overlooking a small lake. 
The exterior walls show a 
combination of red brick, 
plaster, and half timber 
work in well proportioned 
areas, following the prece- 
dent of modern English 
domestic work. The roof 
is covered with slate of 
varying shades. 

The plan is arranged to 
give each of the principal 
rooms an outlook toward 
the water, and the service 
quarters are grouped in a 
wing running off at an 
angle, forming in the rear a 
court from which the main 
entrance to the house is 
had. A wide grass terrace, 
into which stepping stones 
formed of tiles and cement have been placed, runs along 
the entire front facing the water and ties the house inti- 
mately to its surroundings. 

House of Thomas W. Russell, Esq., Hartford, 
Conn. Plates 93-96. This house, situated on Bloom- 
field avenue, well removed from the street, has its main 
entrance facing full south. The sim parlor and porch, 
facing west and northwest, respectively, command a fine 
view of Talcott Mountain. 

The walls are built of common red brick, selected for 
color, and laid in Flemish bond, with a fair sprinkling of 
dark leaders. The sills and key blocks of the first and 
second floor windows are marble, while the cornice and 
entrance porch are white painted wood. The roof is 
shingled. The interiors show Georgian precedent in 
their treatment in accord with the exterior. The hall 
and dining room are paneled with mouldings laid directly 
on the plaster walls. 



:.sq. 



159 



m<'mf<<<<< W<M<<<i<M<< < <i<<i<<<<< <<<iiigiiim^Ui^ 



i 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

AN D*N OTES * * 

FOR.''THE< MONTH 




s 



EACH successive year sees a larger interest shown in 
the effort being made to bring about an organized 
and systematic development of American cities. Consid- 
erable impetus has been given to the movement, which is 
generally recognized under the broad head of city or town 
planning, and the attention of the general public has been 
attracted to it through town planning conferences, held in 
important cities of the country during recent years, and 
because of the publicity which the American Institute of 
Architects has given the subject through its committee on 
town planning. This interest is far from being universal, 
however, and it probably has been engendered more 
from motives of curiosity than from a full knowledge 
of the benefits that would be derived from an adoption of 
the principles recommended or from an appreciation 
of the existing poor conditions. 

There are conflicting ideas in the public mind concern- 
ing the meaning and purpose of town planning. There 
is but little comprehension of what the results sought for 
would be, the cost to obtain them, and the methods that 
would be employed to effect them. There is too general 
a fear that the adoption of plans organizing a city's devel- 
opment means a vast expenditure of money with which a 
municipality could not aff'ord to burden itself. It is not 
appreciated by the great mass of American people that 
city planning, on the contrary, is really a preventive 
force, with the purpose of eliminating, as far as human 
agencies can, the mistakes in development which sooner 
or later will demand readjustment. 

The average citizen becomes fully cognizant of the re- 
tarding force of narrow streets and poorly arranged main 
arteries of travel between centers to a city's growth only 
when it is evident that traffic congestion has become so 
great as to choke up every outlet, and to spell simply con- 
fusion and disorder if further expansion is attempted. 
Although he recognizes the evil when it exists, he has not 
the power of vision to see that all these conditions can be 
anticipated and that with expert knowledge and care the 
functions of various parts of a city may be forecast years 
in advance and the proper methods for their development 
determined. 

This prevailing impression is the result of little or no 
knowledge of the subject and is a condition which mili- 
tates against the appreciation of the vast good that will 
come from the co-operation of all citizens in the move- 
ment. A campaign of education must be carried on which 
will correctly convey to the public mind the great benefits 
of city planning and the means by which results are ob- 
tained. Such work is being done now, it is true, as the 
case of the Chicago City Plan Commission will testify, by 
their introduction into the public schools of that city of a 
text-book to acquaint the coming generation with the Chi- 
cago Plan, but the possibilities of constructive work in stim- 
ulating more active interest are still far from development. 



At the recent National Conference on Community Cen- 
ters means were discussed for enlisting the attention and 
co-operation of the public. It was pointed out that the 
encouragement of small neighborhood centers, apart from 
the larger city unit, would engender a local civic pride 
which would gradually lead, through the effect of making 
each district a complete civic unit, to a general expression 
in co-operation which would have for its ultimate aim the 
grouping of these several communities into one corporate 
whole. These centers are growing up about every large 
city to-day ; but little effort is made by the private inter- 
ests that control their development to insure open spaces 
and blocks that can be used for the building up of a social 
center or for the municipal and public structures certain 
to be needed in the future. Rarely are the streets ar- 
ranged on any other than the gridiron plan, and from the 
start every obstacle is placed in the way of realizing a 
community in which the various units will be logically 
disposed and the whole joined by suitable arteries of com- 
munication into one organism. These same communities 
will, in the course of time, be called upon to be an inte- 
gral part of the large city unit. Unless a broad, con- 
structive policy has dictated their development from the 
first, when the need for expansion comes, the truth will be 
learned that the city has been encircled with a group of 
wretchedly planned suburban communities which stultify 
further growth because of their absolute unfitness to form 
a part of any large scheme, and the inevitable readjust- 
ment, with tremendous expense entailed, will be the 
accompaniment . 

Education tending to develop the community spirit will 
be a strong influence in bettering conditions ; but in no 
more forceful or better way can the advantages of organ- 
ized development be proved than by the architect in ad- 
vocating the proper placing and interrelation of public 
buildings, the orderly development of private property, 
the provision for future expansion, and the necessity for 
parks and open spaces that will afford light, air, and 
opportunities for recreation to the people residing in the 
neighborhood. 

The architect is naturally endowed with creative imagi- 
nation which enables him to have a broader vision in big 
constructive problems than almost any one else, and the 
city planning movement is well deserving of the best use 
of his faculties and his vigorous co-operation. City plan- 
ning is indeed closely associated with architecture ; it de- 
mands the same combination of qualities that are needed 
to make a successful architect and provides a fertile field 
for the application of the greatest talent. Architects are 
fitted to be leaders in city planning and it devolves upon 
them, both from civic obligation and duty to their profes- 
sion, to participate in the movement and give to it the 
support which their talents, training, and experience make 
possible. 



160 




PORTRAIT OF MICHELE SAN MICHELE Frontispiece 

THE PLANNING OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

BUILDINGS Lewis Gustafson 

II. Description of Important Schools 
(Concluding Paper). 
Illustrations from Plans and Photographs 

SCHOOL SANITATION Harold L. Alt 

Illustrations from Diagrams 

THE OLYMPIA THEATER, NEW BEDFORD, MASS 
William L. Mowll, Architect. 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XXV. Mantel in " Hunington," Baltimore, Md. Riggin Buckler 173, 174 

XXVI. Doorway, 114 South Fairfax Street, 

Alexandria, Va J. L. Keister, O. J. Munson, J. A. Weber 1 75, 1 76 

ENCLOSED TENNIS COURT BUILDINGS. __ ^ Walter D. Blair 177 

Illustrations from Plans and Photographs 

COMPETITION FOR A ONE-FAMILY HOUSE 181 

Report of Jury of Award and Presentation of 
Prize and Mention Designs 

PLATE DESCRIPTION -- 187 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 188 

INDEX TO ADVERTISING ANNOUNCEMENTS 30 



IM^gl^^^i 



Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 

Advertising Department, 42 West 39th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 

Canada ^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Company 



tji03fj!uiif-^Tyr^^^^^^ "'^""' '""■"■""""■"■""■"■^■T'"""T «.».im...u.» - ,:.r. '■■^'■■■T'lrmoKSi 



CniiiiHiumiiuimimimiiiimtUUUmiillin 



•ijlllllWIMti 




20 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



CHANNEL READY FOR MORTAR 



OPEN 



VERTICAL 
AIRSPACE 



INTERIOR PLASTER 
APPLIED DIRECTLY 
TO THE WALL 



INTERLOCK AND 
MOISTURE CHECK 



2 INCH HORIZONTAL 
AIRSPACE, GIVING, 
INSULATION AGAIN3T 
HEAT, COLD AND 
M0I5TURE. 




CHANNEL FILLED 
WITH MORTAR 
PREPARATORY TO 
LAYING THE NEXT 
'FI5KLOCK-TAPE5TRY" 



FINISHED EXTERIOR 
OF WALL THE FACE 
OF EACH UNIT 15 OF 
REGULAR BRICK 5IZE 

WEB CONNECTING 
THE DOUBLE WALLS 

=TWIN WALLS OF 
50LID 3 INCH 
FIREPROOF MATERIAL 



"FISKLOCK"-" TAPESTRY" BRICK 

Hardoncourt— Fiske Patents 

Here is an 8-inch brick wall, to all outside appearances built 
of "Tapestry" Brick, with its regular unit size, beautiful colors, 
texture and mortar joints. 

It is fire proof, vermin proof, repair proof, moisture proof and is 
stronger than walls of either hollow tile or solid common brick. 

Yet it is a hollow wall with 2-inch horizontal air spaces, giv- 
ing maximum insulation against heat, cold and moisture. 

Most remarkable of all, it is cheaper than any other form of 
face brick construction, whether solid or brick veneer. It costs 
less than terra cotta hollow tile covered with stucco and 
about the same as first quality stucco-on-frame. It costs 
only 3^1'% to 5% more than frame-clapboard. 

"Fisklock" is the "perfect building material," at last. 

It is sold under the "Open Price Policy"— the same price to all. 

Send for catalogue and full information to either office 

FISKE £y COMPANY, Inc. 

Sole Manufacturers of "Tapestry" Brick 

25 Arch St., Boston, Mass. Arena Bldg , New^ York 




MICHELE SAN MICHELE 

BORN IN VERONA, 1484. DIED J,i.i«. ARCHITECT OF 
THE CHVRCH OF THE MADONNA Dl CAMPAGNA AND 
PONTE NlJOl A, VERONA: PALACES OF THE COUNTS OF 
CANOSSA, VERONA, AND OF GIROLAMO GRIMANI, VENICE 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXV 



JULY, 1916 



NUMBER 7 



The Planning of Trade and Industrial School Buildings. 

By LEWIS GUSTAFSON. 
Superintendent of The David Ranken, Jr., School of Mechanical Trades, St. Louis, Mo. 

n. DESCRIPTION OF IMPORTANT SCHOOLS (Concluding Paper). 



THE preceding paper indicated the characteristic fea- 
tures of the modern trade school and sug'gested ways 
of designing- such buildings that would make them 
most nearly meet the requirements of this branch of edi:- 
cation. In the present paper a group of schools that have 
been built in recent years are given detailed consideration, 
in the attempt to show the gradual formation of definite 
principles relating to the housing of these institutions and 
how they have been put into practice. 

The School of Applied Industries in Pittsburgh forms 
part of the Carnegie Institute of Technology founded by 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie, and the building here presented 
in diagram is 
the first of the 
twelve build- 
ings on the In- 
stitute Campus. 
Blessed with 
ample grounds 
and extensive 
funds, this 
school was able 
to spread out. 
Its large shops, 
some 30 feet 




Floor Plan, School of Applied Industries, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



high, lighted on three sides and staggered to secure the 
maximum of light and air, are the most spacious school 
shops in the country. Connecting with them and not in- 
dicated in the diagram are storerooms and class rooms, 
while in the central administrative unit are the offices, 
the bookstore, classrooms, lecture hall, etc. The close 
resemblance which several of the other plans presented 
herewith bear to this school in their general scheme is not 
accidental. The Carnegie wSchool was the first of the lot 
in point of time, being completed in 1905, and has served 
as a useful exemplar for those which followed, thanks to 
the courtesy of Director Arthur A. Hamerschlag, Dean 

Clifford B. Con- 
n e 1 1 e y , and 
Mr. Arthur L. 
Williston, now 
principal of 
Wentworth In- 
stitute, Boston. 
These gentle- 
men formed the 
expert advisory 
committee of 
three to formu- 
late the general 




School of Applied Industries, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Palmer & Hornbostel, Arcljitects 



162 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




scheme for the Institute and^have 
always been generous in their gifts 
of time and advice to schoolmen and 
architects seeking suggestions for 
similar schools. 

The David Rank en, Jr., School 
OF Mechanical Trades, in St. 
Louis, on the contrary, was re- 
stricted by Mr. Ranken, its founder, 
to a limited sum of money for its 
first building, it being Mr. 
Ranken's idea to begin experi- 
mentally in a small way and let 
the school expand gradually. 
The first building, facing Cook 
avenue, was designed in 1907, 
after a visit to Pittsburgh and 
following consultations with 
Messrs. Hamerschlag, Con- 
nelley, and Williston. The 
general resemblance of the shop 
wings to those at the Carnegie 
School is easily seen. 

This building, conveniently 
arranged and thoroughly well 
lighted and ventilated, proved 
quite satisfactory for the first 
two or three years, 
but as the trade 
courses grew and the 
size of the work and 
the number of stu- 
dents increased, sev- 
eral of the shops 
(purposely made not 
overlarge) proved in- 
adequate in size for 
the trades which they 
housed. To combine 
two shops for one pur- 
pose was of course 
not possible because 
no shop adjoined an- 
other, and to open up 
the shops back to the 
alley by absorbing 
locker room, toilet 

room, corridor, and storeroom was not feasible because all 
interior partitions were bearing walls of brick. It was 
found necessary, therefore, in 1912 to construct another 



1 



Block Plan 




"TT 

First Floor Plan 

The David Ranken, Jr 



Second F 

School of Mechanical Trades, St. 



machine instruc 
the floor below, 
room in the new building. 



building with larger shops for the 
bulkier trades, and to reserve the 
first building for trades whose work 
was not so large. For such purpose 
and as an experimental building for 
new trades this first structure will 
continue to serve admirably. The 
great value of the shops in this 
building lies in their being bare 
open spaces 35 by 70 feet in dimen- 
sions, with ceilings 14 feet high, 
to which are led water, gas, 
and electricity. The varied 
uses to which such rooms may 
be put will be made clear by 
a recital of the history of the 
west wing on the main floor. 
This shop served as an assem- 
bly room during 1909-10, the 
first year of the school, as a 
pattern shop from 1910 to 1913, 
as the first year machine shop 
from 1913 to 1915, as drafting 
room and shop for sheet metal 
pattern drafting during the 
winter 1915-16, and has now 
temporarily gone back to its 
original use as a place 
of assembly. For all 
these purposes, except 
as a machine shop, it 
has done well. It was 
abandoned as a pat- 
tern shop because it 
was found more con- 
venient in handling 
lumber and in using 
the shavings exhaust 
to place the pattern- 
making in the new 
building adjoining the 
carpentry. As a ma- 
chine shop it was only 
^^-i-s-^r-Jf half large enough after 
its first year, and since 
it was found impracti- 
cable to have half the 
tion on this floor and the other half on 
both shops were combined in a larger 








First Floor Plan of Central Unit 



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-ni' 




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'"" a 


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ca ', 


1 






1 

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ni . ..-JD.QDD^OD' 



t^^^U^ 




Floor Plan of Power Plant 

Wentworth Institute, Boston, Mass. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects 



Second Floor Plan of Central Unit 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



163 



This second building;, opened in 1913, 
was designed to avoid the rigidity of the 
first. Except on the stairways and on 
the ground floor, where the shops, 47 feet 
wide and 76, 96, and 110 feet long, seem 
ample for future needs, all interior walls 
are of three and four inch hollow tile, 
allowing for almost unlimited alteration. 
Already two partitions on the top floor 
have been removed, one to enlarge a 
drafting room and the other to enlarge 
the library. No rooms, except oifices 
and washrooms, contain attachments or 
fixtures or partitions that will prevent 
their being used for any other purpose. 
The gymnasium and the library are only bare rooms used 
temporarily for the purposes designated ; as the institution 
grows they will be given over to other uses. 

The buildings of Wentworth Institute in Boston, 
endowed by Arioch Wentworth and opened in 1911, are 
worthy of careful study not only because they represent 
the results of Principal Williston's 
experience as Director of the School 
of wScience and Technology at Pratt 
Institute and his investigations as 
one of the committee to establish the 
Carnegie Institute, but because they 



1 

1 — 

1 

1 




1 " 


1 

1 

1 
1 




1 If 


I - - 




1 • ' 

4 ^ 1 




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1 
1 
) 

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... 




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Fig. A. Block Plan of Wentworth Institute 




have had their influence on the second 
building of the Ranken School just de- 
scribed, and on the Milwaukee School 
and Pullman .School to follow. As ex- 
plained by Mr. Williston to the archi- 
tects, six things were desirable: 1, All 
departments should resemble in appear- 
ance and general arrangement of equip- 
ment as closely as possible corresponding 
departments in coiumercial manufac- 
turing plants ; 2, the Institute sliould 
set a high standard in efficient use of 
floor space and in its plan for simple and 
direct travel of material and workers 
from sub-department to sub-depart- 
ment; 3, in order to control the entire student body a 
single entrance should be provided, close to the general 
office and in a central building, where pupils from all de- 
partments must enter and leave the school; 4, the prin- 
ciple of student control in 3 should be carried out in the 
design and arrangeinent of all sub-departments ; 5, as 
some departments may grow faster 
than others it should be possible to 
provide more space for these with- 
out disarrangement of other depart- 
ments or deranging the general plan 
in architectural efl^ect ; and 6, con- 



Fig. B. Typical Floor Plan of Standard Unit 




Typical Floor Plan of East Wing 



First Floor Plan of West Wing 



Basement FloorlPlan of West Wing 




fc-<r«T:a>»^-::t.;^^ 



"■• '■-•umikitny.* wi ^ '^.■fiiijUiiiiii'^-^ ^^ 



Wentworth Institute, Boston, Mass. 
Peabody & Stearns, Arctiitects 



164 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




First Floor Plan 




Central Tart of Third Floor Plan 

The Milwaukee Public School of Trades for Boys 

W. W. Maxwell, Architect 




Plot Plan of Pullman Free School of Manual Training 

venient means of delivery of heavy material to shops and 
laboratories should be provided independent of main en- 



trances and hallways. To meet these requirements there 
was adopted as a standard unit of construction a three 
and one-half story building, 48 feet wide by 144 feet long, 
divided into nine bays of 16 feet each. This floor space 
is divisible as shown in Figs. A and B. The whole width 
may be used for shops or laboratories, or a corridor 8 feet 
wide may be run on one side of the center row of col- 
umns, giving rooms 24 feet wide on one side for class 
rooms or lecture rooms, and 16 feet wide on the other for 
offices, instrument rooms, or washrooms. This allowance 
of nine 16-foot bays permits the entrance to any standard 
unit building to come at either end or in the center, or 
permits adding wings in domino fashion for an L shaped 
or U shaped or T shaped building. The central building 
has a width of 64 feet. 

The Milwaukee Public School of Trades for 
Boys, supported by a special tax, shows in its extreme 
wings another application of this 48-foot width with nine 
equal 16-foot bays, and in its central portion the use of 
wide and narrow rooms each side of a central corridor. 
The general plan is restricted to the dimensions of a city 
block, that being all the ground available. The building 
is three stories high with a basement. The plans here 
given show the entire main floor and the central portion 
of the third floor. In the basement is the boiler room 
below the space indicated as engine room on the plan ; a 
second plumbing shop is in the left wing for soil pipe 
work and a storeroom is under the machine shop. The 
second floor contains in the left wing a carpentry shop, 
similar to the shop for plumbing but with erecting space 
at the rear end 47 by 33 feet, and two stories high. In the 
right wing over the machine shop is the pattern shop. In 
the center part of this floor are the library and the exhibit 
room similar to the drawing rooms indicated on the third 
floor plans. The top floor in the left wing has a vacant 
room for a new trade and in the right wing an electrical 
shop. The wings indicated as flanking the engine room 
go up three stories, and above the first floor have light on 
two sides and at the end. No provision is made on these 
plans for a gymnasium, an assembly hall, or a science de- 
partinent, but any of the large spaces indicated could be 




Typical GrounJ Floor Shop (Wood Wurkingj Typical Upper Floor Shop ' Metal Working 

Pullman Free School of Manual Training, Pullman, 111. 
C. Frank Jobson, Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



165 



made available for any of the three (barring: columns 
in the gfymnasium) should the school find itself de- 
sirous of having- them. 

The Pullman Free School of Manual Train- 
ing, endowed by George M. Pullman and opened in 
1915, is the only institution shown which is co-edu- 
cational. This school is fortunate in having an 
unusually large campus, giving room to grow and 
allowing for an attractive block plan. Although it 
is called a school of manual training, it is more on 
the order of an intensive technical high school de- 
signed to train for the industries. 

As seen on the plans the shops are 48 feet in width 
and 80 feet long, the shop wings being in five bays 
of 16 feet. All shops are in effect two stories high. 
In connection with the shops is a convenient 
arrangement of instructor's ofhce and class room on 
a mezzanine floor overlooking the working space. 
The boiler and engine room are intended for in- 
structional use and are conveniently located in the 
central wing. The domestic science rooms contain 
a model flat for instructional purposes. In block 
plan the school resembles both Wentworth and 
Carnegie Institutes. 

The Worcester Boys' Trade School, sup- 
ported by a public tax, has a more generous provi- 
sion of ground than the Milwaukee School. The 
general scheme provides for a combined adminis- 
tration and class room building along the front, 
this being five stories high in the central portion, 
with several shop wings extending to the rear. 
The part marked A was built in 1909; those marked 
B and C have been recently completed. 

The arrangement of the first and second floors 
may be seen from the plans reproduced herewith. 
On the third floor the shop wing drops off, leaving 
the front part 60 feet deep with an auditorium in 
the center, class rooms at the left end, and a print- 
ing department at the right. This auditorium, about 58 
by 88 feet, is provided with a stage and a moving picture 
booth. In the basement, on a line below the auditorium, 




Pullman Free School of Manual Training, Pullman, 111. 

is a gymnasiiim about 57 by 87 feet, and 20 feet high. The 
basement under the machine shop is divided lengthwise, 
with the power plant in the courtyard half and an electri- 




General Exterior View from Front 

Pullman Free School of Manual Training, Pullman, 111. 
C. Frank Jobson, Architect 



166 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



cal shop in the other half. These 
shops are extremely narrow, 
since the wing itself is only 42 
feet wide. This width is satis- 
factory for a single shop but not 
so satisfactory for subdivision 
either lengthwise as here or 
crosswise as on the floor above, 
where it is necessary to pass 
through one shop to reach an- 
other. The 48 or 60 foot width 
used elsewhere is preferable. 
The plans of L'Kcole Xa- 

TIONALE D'ArTS V.T MeTIERS 

DE Paris are given as an inter- 
esting working out of the prob- 
lem on a monumental scale. 
This school does not teach 
trades but gives a general me- 
chanical preparation. The sep- 
arate shop building is lighted 
from the sky and is a purely 
factory type of building. It 
contains no permanent interior 
walls ; in fact, the partitions 
are only screens reaching part 
way to the ceiling. 
The court could be 
covered over, con- 
necting this build- 
ing with the main 
school, in which 
case it would pre- 
sent the idea as illus- 
trated in the typical ^ 7 
plan X, shown in 
the first paper of 
this article. 

The Technical 
High School. 
This review of the 
subject would not 
be complete without 




Plot Plan 




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GROU/SD rLOOP, 



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5 


a]i:niT:r!i- 






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IJ^PEP, nT'^HN" 



Plan of L'Ecole Nationale D'Arts et Metiers, Paris, France 




Exterior, Worcester Boys' Trade School, Worcester, Mass. 



reference, in passing, to the 
Carter H. Harrison Technical 
High School in Chicago. (See 
The Brickbvilder, March, 
1916j for plans and photo- 
graphs.) This school is an 
example of a new tendency in 
our public schools which marks 
the middle ground between the 
general high school with a 
manual training department 
and the out and out technical 
or trade school. 

In Chicago a strong effort, 
'•ich in successful results, has 
been made not only to connect 
with the industries the manual 
training course for the regular 
high school pupils by making it 
more industrial in content and 
method, but also to render a dis- 
tinct service to those already 
employed in the industries by 
offering them technical train- 
ing. Schools like the Harrison 
will be largely multiplied in the 
next few years, for 
the reason that as 
public school boards 
feel the increasing 
demand for indus- 
trial education they 
will very properly 
look to the techni- 
cal high school as 
one of the simplest 
logical means of 
meeting that de- 
mand for those who 
do not desire or 
need the closer 
specialization of the 
trade school. 




First Floor Plan 



Worcester Boys' Trade School, Worcester, Mass. 
L. W. Briggs Co., Architects 



Second Floor Flan 



School Sanitation. 



By HAROLD L. ALT. 




THE sanitary work for a 
school building: is, in 
general, divided into 
two distinct classes, viz., 
common toilet facilities and 
special school requirements. 

Under the head of com- 
mon toilet facilities we have 
the general toilet room ar- 
rangements, hot and cold 
water supply, gas, private 
toilets, and miscellaneoits 
lavatories and sinks — equip- 
ment commonly installed in 
almost every structure — 
while under special require- 
ments we have umbrella 
drains, chemistry, physics, 
and other laboratory service , 
kitchen and lunch room ser- 
vice, cooking class work, 
etc. 

The general facilities 
must be modified to suit the exacting requirements of 
schools where common sense, ordinary care, and reason- 
able use of the fixtures ca)i)iot be expected. With the pos- 
sible exception of railroad toilet rooms and public comfort 
stations, no plumbing fixtures suffer the abuse to which 
school fixtures are subjected ; in the first two cases men- 
tioned the presence of an attendant often is a great de- 
terrent to excessive abuse, but the public school never 
uses any such safeguard. 

School fixtures are made largely automatic, many per- 
forming their flushing and closing off functions complete 
without any special manipulation ; others are arranged 
only to shut off automatically after 
being manually set in operation. 
Automatic fixtures are especially 
desirable for very small pupils and 
for schools serving a large foreign 
element. 

The location and arrangement of 
the toilet rooms of a school is a sub- 
ject of great importance. In gen- 
eral, the boys' and girls' toilet rooms 
should be located at opposite ends 
of the building or, if placed in the 
basement, adjacent, with a partition 
having a locked door dividing the 
corridor between the two rooms, 
and access should be obtained to 
each room from the floors above 
only by means of the stairway lo- 
cated on the side of the building 
where the rooms are respectively 
situated. In spite of the fact that 
the basement toilet occupies what 
would otherwise be waste space to a 



EyNTRA/vICE 



Screen 



-ToSt^ee/ 




great extent, its location is 
not good and can hardly be 
considered in a school over 
two stories high. The 
general tendency to-day is 
toward boys' and girls' 
toilets, one at each end of 
the building, and on each 
and every floor. 

Placing these toilets di- 
rectly over one another 
greatly diminishes the ex- 
pense of piping and makes 
the room location easier to 
find than where the toilets 
are arranged strictly in re- 
gard to the requirements of 
room space on the particu- 
lar floor where they may be 
located. 

In piping toilets, consid- 
erable money can be saved 
by the use of " circuit " or 
"loop" venting in preference to the "continuous" or 
"back venting " system. This means each closet outlet, 
urinal trap, and lavatory trap is kept within three to five 
feet of the main soil or waste line and the end of the main 
line is carried through to the roof as a main vent or relief 
pipe. Where this system is followed out in entirety, the 
lavatories have "non-syphoning" traps, but in many 
cases the lavatories are back vented and the circuit system 
used on the water closets and urinals only. 

The mnnl er of fixtures required for a school of given 
capacity is a subject always open for dispute, and the fol- 
lowing minimum, average, and maximum number of 
fi.\tures per hundred pupils' capacity 
will give a good idea of what is 
being done in the new schools : 



Typical Plan of Boys' Basement Toilet 





Water 
Closets 


Urinals 


La\-a- 
tories 


Fnun 
tains 


Grammar Schools 








Minimum 


6.03 


1.57 


1.82 


1.09 


Maximum 


7.29 


2.18 


6.43 


1 29 


High Schools 










Minimum 


2.95 


1.47 


2.92 


.52 


Maximum 


5.33 


2.19 


10.22 


4.66 


Average 


4.92 


1.79 


4.90 


1.6S 



Fig. 2. Typical Plan of Girls' Basement Toilet 

167 



In the above, where trough urinals 
are used, two feet of length was 
considered as equal to a stall urinal 
when separate fixtures were used. 
It will be noted that some fixtures 
are slightly increased in number for 
the grammar schools which include 
kindergartens and very young 
pupils. 

A typical basement toilet for boys 
is shown in Fig. 1 and for girls in 
Fig. 2, these being recently installed 



168 



THE BR1CKBVILDER 



in a new gframmar school. 
The fixtures are local, vented 
into the pipe space between 
the two rows, and this pipe 
space is connected to a vent 
flue 'with a steam heater 
therein to create a draft. 
This method is fairly satis- 
factory, but cannot be com- 
pared to the use of a fan for 
positivc/y exhausting the air. 
Note how the doorways and 
entrances are screened to 
prevent a v'iew of the room 
being seen by the passersby 
in the corridor outside. 

P'or a larger school still, 
using basement toilets, a 
layout such as is shown in 
Fig. 3 is good. The boys' 
room is similar, but has 
urinals substituted for water 
closets on one side of the 
vent space. The vent corri- 
dor is connected horizon- 
tally, either by an under- 
ground duct or one run 
across the ceiling, to a con- 
venient location where a 




Fig. 3. Plan of Large Basement Toilet for Girls 



exhausted to the outer air. 

All that has been said re- 
garding fixtures in base- 
ment toilets applies equally 
well when the toilet rooms 
are placed on the upper 
floors, with the notable ex- 
ception that when so located 
it is seldom possible to get 
a ' ' utility corridor ' ' back 
of the fixtures. vSpace is 
much more valuable on the 
upper floors than in the 
basement, and two feet ad- 
ditional for a pipe corridor 
back of the fixtures for each 
of two toilets means a loss 
of four feet somewhere in 
the class rooms located be- 
tween the two. Moreover, 
the toilet room must have 
not only outside air, but also 
an entrance from the corri- 
dor. This produces a /ong, 
iiarroa' room, and a pipe 
space of correspondingly 
greater length, thus further 
increasing the loss of space. 

Generally the toilets on 



vertical flue can be run up to the roof. 

.There is little doubt that local vented fixtures arc being 
generally adopted for school work. These fixtures con- 
sist of the automatic compression closet, or in high schools 
often a flush valve closet, with a raised vent connected to 
a vent space back of the fixture, as shown in Fig. 4. This 
vent space is connected to a flue operated by aspiration 
surface or a fan. For .urinals, either an integral local 
vent is used, as also indicated in Fig. 4, at the upper LV, 
or by a branch from the waste pipe, as indicated at the 
lower LV ; either, but not both, schemes may be used. 

Sometimes to reduce the cost of 
purchasing local vented closets-which 
are considerably more expensive than 
the ordinary syphon jet type, a regis- 
ter is placed in the partition directly 
back of the fixture, similar to the 
scheme shown in Fig. 5, these regis- 
ters being about 6 by 6 inches, or 8 
by 10 inches in size, and opening 
into a vent space the same as used 
for the local vent closets. 

While the writer does not approve 
the use of trough urinals, where in- 
stalled, for the sake of economy, the 
need for local ventilation is even 
greater than with the stall type shown 
in Fig. 4. This is easily accom- 
plished by setting the inclined slab 
out from the back of the trough, 
as shown in Fig. 6, the air circu- 
lating across the trough and under 
the slab into the vent space in the 
rear, from which compartment it is 



the upper floors develop into an arrangement something 
like the one given in Fig. 7, the length of this room being 
equal to the width of the class rooms and the width of the 
room equal to the depth of the water closet stalls plus a 
passageway in front of the stalls, which usually means a 
total of seven to eight feet. 

It will be noted that there is a small private ccmi^art- 
ment shown in Fig. 7, containing a closet and lavatory, 
this being for use in case of sudden sickness. In the boys' 
room this space and that occupied by two water closet 
stalls are utilized for urinals.' 

The most exacting of the special re- 
quirements are those for chemistry 
^ laboratories where considerable flexi- 
bility should be contemplated. No 
chemistry instructor ever seems to 
want to teach in a room laid out by 
another instructor. In fact one claimed 
only recently that it was absolutely 
"impossible" to teach in the room 
being built from an arrangement made 
with great care and only after consul- 
tation with the previous chemistry in- 
structor. So everything done was 
torn out and everything undone was 
^y put in — at the usual higher price paid 
for extras. 

Most important in laboratory 
work is the providing of sufficient 
floor fill to accommodate the di- 
versified piping and electric con- 
duits. A case where such fill was 
not provided, resulting in much 
trouble is shown in Fig. 8 where 




Fig. 4. Details of Venting Arrangements 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



169 



Flush y 



the pupils' table T and the instructor's table IT are venti- 
lated by a duct VD connected to a space under the step 
S. The floor fill in this case was so small that gas G and 
water lines CW could not cross the lead lined waste 
branches W, and no pipes could cross the vent duct VD. 
Considerable ingenuity was necessary 
and numerous undesirable offsets were 
made in order to give the service at 
the points desired. At the right hand 
side of the sketch is an elevation show- 
ing the lead lined waste stack LL, 
the cast iron vent extension CI and 
the connection into the sewer line 
in the basement B. The wastes from 
the various sinks in the tables were 
all collected into a common lead waste 
running to a lead drum trap placed at 
the end of the table nearest the in- 
structor's table. This lead drum trap 
discharged into the lead lined branch 
waste pipe LL, the continuation being 
shown on the elevation. Oftentimes these 
acid wastes are carried to a diluting tank in 
the basement where lime is used to neu- 
tralize the acid action. 

If possible all rooms having special piping 
should have a floor fill at least 6 inches 
deeper than the ordinary 3 to 3'/l> inches so 
as to properly conceal pipes and to allow the 
necessary grading of same. This is pref- 
erably obtained by dropping the rough floor 
construction rather than by raising the fin- 
ished floor and thus producing an unex- 
pected step. 

In the wardrobes copper safes 6 to 8 
inches wide and as long as the line of hooks 
above are sometimes provided to take the 
drip from the multitude of umbrellas brought 
in on a wet or snowy day. Unless this drip 
pan is provided with a waste pipe it be- 
comes a receptacle for stagnant, dirty water 
into which coats or hats may be dropped. 
Besides this the falling of a steel pointed 
umbrella on to the copper is liable to pimc- 
ture the thin gauge and make leaks on to 
the floor through the bottom of the trough. 

A much better arrangement than this is a concrete gut- 
ter run completely around the wardrobe and connected to 
a waste pipe somewhat as shown in Fig. 9. This gutter 
is formed as part of the 
floor and will last as 
long as the building. 
It is essential that 
waste stacks so used be 
emptied into slop sinks 
and not connected di- 
rectly to the sewer in 
order to avoid the dan- 
gers of sewer gas. 

It is often very diffi- 
cult to make proper 
plumbing connections 
to sinks located in 




Fig. 5. Register Type of Vent 




Fig. 6. Method of Venting 
Trough Urinal 



demonstration tables set out into the room. Where the 
local plumbing code allows circuit venting the carrying 
of the horizontal waste under the floor, past the sink, and 
over to the nearest wall up which it extended through the 
roof for a relief, together with the use of a nonsyphoning 
trap solve the problem but where con- 
tinuous venting is required the solu- 
tion is not so easy. In some cases 
permission can be obtained from the 
local authorities to drop the vent below 
the floor after rising above the fix- 
ture ; in other cases circuit venting 
will be allowed as a substitute for con- 
tinuous venting. Few authorities are 
encountered who are so absolutely 
ruthless in regard to appearances as 
to insist on carrying a iV^-inch vent 
pipe up in the middle of the room from 
the instructor's table to the ceiling. 

In arranging cooking class sinks the 
same difficulty arises especially if the 
sinks are located in a counter running around 
the center of the room. The faucets, vent 
pipes and water lines not only complicate 
the counter construction but also obscure the 
pupils' vision of the instructor. In the best 
designed schools sinks are being plentifully 
located around the side walls at points 
where it is possible to install them, and the 
counters are kept unencumbered except for 
gas stoves at freciuent intervals. This wall 
arrangement, of course, results in plumbing 
exactly similar to any ordinary kitchen sink. 
It is a peculiarity of school sanitation 
that while drinking fountains are usually 
provided in abundance there is very seldom 
any provision made to supply the water in 
a cooled or desirable drinking condition. 
The favorite practice is to run a Va-inch 
or % inch branch from the nearest cold 
water line and connect this to the fountain 
with neither filtration nor cooling provided. 
While this makes the plumbing easy and 
simple to install the results are not at all 
what might be desired. 

The simplest form of water cooling con- 
sists of the common water cooler tank in which ice is 
melted in the tank to produce the desired lower tempera- 



ture. This is not suitable 



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Qorridor 
Arrangement of Toilet on Upper Floor 



for school use because the 
purity of the water be- 
comes dependent on 
the purity of the ice. 

As an improvement 
over this there is the 
tank which forms 
merely a receptacle for 
cracked ice and its 
melted water, together 
with a pipe coil 
through which the 
drinking water passes 
on its way to the 
faucet. In such a tank 



170 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Cju//er et fend- 
ing o// oz-ound 



Fig. 9. 



dirty or impure ice may be used with impunity as there is 
no connection between the water in the coil and the water 
from the ice in the tank. The modified temperature is, 
of course, an advantage as water has been found to be 
most desirable for drinking purposes when about 50 de- 
grees F. This scheme, however, is not 
desirable for schools as there is still the 
necessity of carting ice through the build- 
ing while the coil is so small that it does 
not contain any reserve supply of cold 
water for a rush demand such as is likely 
to occur at a recess or lunch period. 

If, however, all the drinking fountains 
are placed in the same relative position on 
each floor a small water pipe carried di- 
rectly down to the basement from each 
group of fountains can be connected to a 
large coil of sufficient storage capacity for 
overload periods to properly meet the re- 
quirements. 

To operate all drinking water from a 
central point some form of refrigeration 
and water circulation is required. Prob- 
ably three-quarters of the refrigeration 
systems installed are of the ammonia type. 
The drinking water in a system of this 
kind must be circulated by a circulation 
pump so as to flow as continuously as pos- 
sible to the various oxitlets. The outlets 
must be placed as near the circulating 
main as possible to avoid dead water in 
the pipe between the faiicet or bubbler and 
the circulating main, and to avoid wastage in drawing 
this dead water otT. 

The fountains may be of the pedestal type which can be 
located ui)on the floor at any 
convenient point or of the 
type attached to the wall. 
In cases where single foun- 
tains are not sufficient to 
avoid undue expense the 
receptor type is generally 
used. This consists of a 
supply pipe running to 
bubblers which are opened 
by pressing down the hand 
wheel around the bubbler. 
The water from the outlets 
is caught in the receptor 
which resembles a common 
sink in every respect except 
the faucets. 

It is difficult to understand 
why the waste from a school 
drinking fountain should be 
carried to a separate sink 
before entering the plumb- 
ing system as demanded in 
several localities, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., for instance. 
A drinking fountain trap 
connected direct to the 
plumbing system and prop- 




Detail of Umbrella Drip 
Gutter 




C 



Fig. 8. Plan of Laboratory Showing Plumbing Arrangement 



erly vented introduces no more danger than drawing a 
glass of drinking water from the ordinary lavatory which 
is similarly connected. 

Where shower baths are used positive means should be 
taken to avoid scalding. The best method is to do away 
with the hot water supjjly to the shower 
heads entirely and substitute a warm water 
line from a thermostatically controlled 
regulator to which hot and cold water lines 
are connected ; the cold water connection 
to the showers is left as usual. Thus the 
pupil can obtain any temperature from the 
cold water up to the warm water tempera- 
ture, but not over this. The warm water 
regulator is usually set at about 100 de- 
grees F. and to avoid any possible com- 
plication due to tampering or failure to 
operate a thermostat can be installed in 
the warm water line so as to shut off this 
line absolutely if the temperature ever 
rises to the scalding point. 

In biology rooms it has now grown to te 
the custom to have a small glass aquarium 
installed which is usually 24 to 30 inches 
wide, 36 to 54 inches long, and about 24 
inches deep. Where such an aquarium is 
used it has been found a great convenience 
in changing the water to have water sup- 
ply and waste connections provided. The 
water supply is most convenient when ar- 
ranged with a special extended goose 
neck carried up and over one end of the 
aciuarium with a stop cock such as is ufcd en a cf^mmcn 
pantry sink. The waste connection may be cilhtr a 
standing waste (or a plug on a chain ) the outlet being in 

the bottom of the tank ; the 
standing waste is more ser- 
viceable as it provides an 
overflow connection and is 
easier to replace in the out- 
let if only part of the water 
is run otT. If biology sinks 
are located nearby an easy 
method of disposing of the 
waste water in a sanitary 
manner consists of running 
the aquarium waste to the 
sink waste connecting 
thereto on the fixture side 
of the trap. 

The foregoing covers the 
principal features of jjlumb- 
ing arrangements for 
schools and the methods 
cited are those which have 
been the result of much 
thought given to attaining 
practical and efficient instal- 
lations. Although the im- 
provement of recent years 
has been marked, it only in- 
dicates what can be done to 
perfect this work. 



D 



VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICK BVILDER 



PLATE 97. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 




BASEMENT PLOOR PLAN 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



NEEDHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY, NEEDHAM, MASS. 

JAMES H. RITCHIE, ARCHITECT 



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VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 99. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 100. 




INTERIOR, LOOKING INTO DELIVERY ROOM 



NEEDHAM PUBLIC LIBI?ARY, NEEDHAM, MASS, 
JAMES H. RITCHIE. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 101. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 102. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 103. 







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VOL. 25. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 104. 




ITALIAN DINING ROOM 



WILLIAM PENN HOTEL. PITTSBURGH, PA. 
JANSSEN & ABBOTT, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 105. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 106. 




INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD CHANCEL 



ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, LAUREL, MISS. 
FRANK ARNOLD COLBY, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 107. 




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VOL. 25. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 108. 





GENERAL VIEW OF FACADE 







BALCONY FLOOR PLAN 




AUDITOCIUV*! 



niiMiiBiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



1 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



DETAIL OF FACADE 



MOVING PICTURE THEATER, UTICA, N. Y. 
GREEN & WICKS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 109. 




GENERAL VIEW OF EXTERIOR 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN 
OLYMPIA THEATER, NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 
WILLIAM L. MOWLL, ARCHITECT 



BALCONY FLOOR PLAN 



VOL. 25. NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 

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PLATE 110. 







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VOL. 25, NO. 7. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 111. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 112 




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The Olympia Theater, New Bedford, Mass. 



WILLIAM L. MOWLL, ARCHITECT. 



THE Olympia Theater 
is located on a lot, 100 
by 163 feet, in the city 
of New Bedford, at the 
corner of Purchase and Elm 
streets. Purchase street on 
the front is nearly level ; 
Elm street at the side rises 
from the front over 6 feet 
in the leng-th of the build- 
ing. The exterior of the 
building is built of white 
marbleup to the belt course. 
Above this level the win- 
dows on the front are 
trimmed with marble and 
the lettering panel is mar- 
ble. The remainder of the trim is of white matt glazed 
terra cotta and the body of the wall of water struck brick. 
There are two small stores at the front of the building. 
The main entrance lobby is 40 feet wide, and beyond it is 
the stair lobby, with the main stairways at either side, to 
the mezzanine floor. On the orchestra floor there are 
thirty-two rows of seats with boxes at the front and a total 
seating capacity of about 1,400. 

The balcony is reached by the main stairs to the mezza- 
nine lobby. From this lobby open the retiring and toilet 
rooms, which are lighted by the large windows on the 
front of the building. The balcony is entered through 
two vomitories, which arrive at a cross aisle. This cross 
aisle feeds five aisles for the front portion of the balcony 
and four for the back, and is so arranged as to level that 
people using the cross aisle are below the sight lines of 
people sitting back of the cross aisle. It will be noted 
that these vomitories are placed with relation to the aisles 
in such a manner as to secure the most rapid distribu- 
tion of those entering with the least amount of distance to 
be traversed. The balcony was designed with level rows 
of seats, which avoids the 
common difficulty of the 
tipping of the seats in 
the front rows at the cor- 
ners of the balcony. The 
sight lines have been ar- 
ranged so that every seat 
in the house commands an 
undisturbed view of the 
stage. 

The general design of 
the auditorium was ar- 
ranged for acoustic qual- 
ity with the result that not 
only is it possible to hear 
well in the back row, 110 
feet from the front of the 
stage, but also that in 
spite of the very deep over- 
hang of the balcony (41 




View of Mezzanine Foyer 




View of Vestibule 
171 



feet) there are no spots in 
the auditorium where it is 
in the slightest degree diffi- 
cult to hear. 

The exits have a some- 
what unusual arrangement, 
due to the lot lines and 
grades. It should be ob- 
served that the passageway 
usually required by law, at 
the lot-line side of the au- 
ditorium, has been omitted. 
At this side there is an 
exit directly to the street 
in front and a passageway 
entirely around the back of 
the stage. This arrange- 
ment replaces the outside passageway without the sacrifice 
of seating area. From the balcony, which seats about 
1,100, making the total capacity of the house 2,500, there 
are six possible means of egress — two stairways at the 
back, the vomitories, and two exits from the front corners 
of the balcony. 

The stage is completely equipped for any kind of a mod- 
ern theatrical production, although this theater is intended 
for the usual pictures and vaudeville. There is a complete 
outfit of rigging, including dead lines and counterweights. 
The proscenium opening is 44 feet in width and 32 feet 
in height. Scenery is taken into the building by means 
of an incline from Elm street, which at this point is con- 
siderably above the stage level. The electrical equipment 
includes a very complete closed front switchboard, five 
borders, and a supplementary footlight in the center to 
ensure the satisfactory lighting of the center of the very 
wide proscenium opening. This center lighting is further 
supplemented by flood lights arranged under the front 
balcony boxes. 

The basement under the stage has a boiler plant and 

property rooms. Under 
the auditorium are the 
dressing rooms, with every 
provision made for the com- 
fort of the performers, in- 
cluding shower baths in the 
toilet rooms. The front 
portion of the basement 
contains manager's room, 
ushers' rooms, and so on, 
and retiring and toilet and 
checkrooms. The heating 
and ventilating plant is 
most complete. The air is 
taken into the building over 
the roof of an exit passage- 
way, passes through the 
heating coil and an air 
washer, and is introduced 
into the auditorium through 



172 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




View Looking Down on Balcony Girders 



1,400 chair-leg: ventilators distrib- 
uted through the orchestra and bal- 
cony floors. 

The picture booth is hung from 
the roof trusses against the front 
wall of the building. It is iinusu- 
ally large and contains two motor- 
driven picture machines of the 
latest type and the spot-light appa- 
ratus, together with the necessary 
electrical equipment, work bench, 
etc. 

The building is of first-class con- 
struction throughout. The orches- 
tra floor is of reinforced concrete 
carried on brick walls and concrete 
piers. The main walls of the 
building carry the roof trusses 
without steel columns. The bal- 
cony construction is somewhat un- 
usual, as its very low pitch and 
considerable overhang did not pro- 
vide depth enough for a girder 100 
feet long to carry the cantilevers. 




View Showing Cantilever Balcony Trusses 



As shown in the diagram of the 
framing plan and the illustrations 
of this construction, two diagonal 
girders start from the two center 
columns at the back of the orchestra 
and run to the side walls, where 
they are carried on steel columns. 
Between these girders a cross girder 
is framed, and the cantilevers are 
carried on the diagonals and on 
this cross girder, thus making it 
possible to entire^' avoid columns 
in the seating space. On this con- 
struction are the usual concrete 
treads and risers. Another detail 
of interest is the proscenium con- 
struction shown above in diagram. 
By the use of a brick relieving 
arch, the thrust of which is taken 
up by the steel built into the piers, 
the use of a deep girder was elimi- 
nated. The cost of the building 
completely equipped was about 22 
cents per cubic foot. 



Balcony Framing Plan 




Detail of Balcony Cantilever Trusses 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 

PLATE TWENTY-FIVE. 





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^ F/r ly hundred yards to the east of ' ' Home- 
Jil zuood," the house built by Charles Carroll 
in 1804, lies " Hunington," another famous 
southern house. Built about 1800 by fames 
Wilson, it zvas the center of social activity in the 
early part of the century; but in late years it has 
fallen into decay, and -d'ill be tor?i down shortly 
to make room for rows of modern speculative 
houses. The delicacy and refinement of the de- 
tail that ivas used in this house is exceptionally 



well displayed on the mantel reproduced here- 
with . 

Although all the surfaces arc ornamented, 
there is no suggestion of the wo) k being over- 
done. From the fact that some of the orna- 
ment on the mantel is found on work of an 
earlier date, one is led to believe that the house is 
older than is generally supposed. With the ex- 
ception of this ynantel, there is now little of in- 
terest in the house. 



MANTEL IN "HUNINGTON," BALTIMORE, MD. 



Built in 1800. 



MEASURED DRAWING ON FOLLOWING PAGE. 



173 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




OHEr ■ ^ ONE • HALF ■ MCh 5 C ALE 



PLATE Z5 
JULY I9I6 



DETAIL • 

•TTHDEE -INCH-^CALJE 



• MANTEL- IN- HUNINGTON - 

5UiLT- 1800- • £)ALT1M0P EMD 



■m£a;uoed 6^ 

DDAWN-DY- 
•DlGGlNDUCKLt'D. 



174 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



■C«0\I/N -MOVLP- 

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PLATE Z6 
JVLY 1916 



'DooKWMMia'j'rj^iRMX'jRtn- 

"ALEXANPRIA-.VA" 



'J'L-UIiTEil"'0'J' 



175 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE TWENTY-SIX. 




7V//.S' clahoralc doorway delights the eye with 
its perfect proportions and delicate mould- 
ings. Note the daring manner in zchich the 
cornice bed-tnoulds have been brought out to the 



face of the column to show a "wide soffit with a 
diamond shaped panel. The effect of the remain- 
ing ornament in the transom seems enhanced by 
the loss of the scrolls from either side. 



DOORWAY. 114 SOUTH FAIRFAX STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 

Built about 1746. 
MEASURED DR.AWING ON PRECEDING PAGE. 



176 



Enclosed Tennis Court Buildings. 



By WALTER D. BLAIR. 



IN recent years the tennis 
champions of the Pacific 
Coast have defeated the 
best players of the East. 
This result has been partly 
attributed to the fact that 
on the Pacific Coast tennis 
is played duringr the twelve 
months of the year. To 
overcome the difficulties of 
winter climate, the writer 
has recently, upon three 
occasions, been commis- 
sioned by tennis enthusiasts 
to build covered tennis 
courts in which tennis could 
be played irrespective of 
rain, snow, or frost. 

As the problem is elemen- 
tary in its simplicity, the 
buildingf of the Pastime 
Tennis Company, located in 
New York City, has been 
selected to illustrate the 
solution. The construction 
of such a building is not 
confined to this particular 




type, however, as evidenced 
by two other buildings re- 
cently erected. In one at 
Jekyl Island, New York, the 
roof trusses are of wood, the 
exterior walls of brick with 
stucco exterior surface, and 
the roof hipped so as to 
make the structure as low 
as possible. A second build- 
ing, located at Mt. Kisco, 
New York, is situated in a 
wooded section and is en- 
tirely of frame construc- 
tion, with shingle exterior 
stained green, and doors, 
cornice, and window trims 
painted white. The build- 
ing illustrated herewith oc- 
cupies a city lot and is built 
to the street line. Its roof 
trusses are of steel, the ex- 
terior of brick and lime- 
stone, and the interior walls 
furred with terra cotta tile 
and covered with cement 
stucco, troweled smooth. 



Main Floor Plan 




Enclosed Tennis Courts Building, Queens Boulevard, Long Island, N. Y. 

Walter D. Blair, Architect 

177 



178 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




View of Interior, Showing One Court 



strain, which is always present 
when one plays outdoors on ac- 
count of the excessive light. At 
Jekyl Island, where the atmos- 
phere is without any smoke and 
the sun directly overhead, the sky- 
lights have an area in section of 
1 ,092 square feet ; at Mt. Kisco 
the area is 1,734 square feet; and 
in the building illustrated, where 
the atmosphere is darkened by 
city conditions, the area is 2,856 
square feet. 

The interior walls of the latter 
building up to a height of 21 feet 
are painted a gray green, and 
above that level the walls, ceiling, 
trusses, and all other surfaces are 
painted a light gray. The court 
itself is built of an English clay, 
which has the merit of never 
packing so hard that a cut ball 
loses its break. Ordinary American 
clay can, of course, be used, and 
will give the hard, fast surface 



In playing tennis indoors 
the players should not be 
conscious of the enclosing 
walls and roof. To accom- 
plish this result 10 feet in 
the clear beyond the side 
lines, although 11 feet is 
better, and 20 feet back of 
the base line are sufficient. 
This gives a room 56 by 
118 feet. In the first of the 
buildings mentioned the 
spring of the roof trusses 
was placed 26 feet above 
the court and the bottom 
chord of the truss inclined 
upward 7 feet, so that over 
the center of the court there 
was a clear height of 33 feet. 
This was found amply suffi- 
cient for lobbing, and these 
dimensions were not in- 
creased in the later build- 
ings. 

In each of the buildings 
ventilation is given by win- 
dows on the side above the 
line of vision and by mova- 
ble sections of the skylights. 
The lighting should be 
from overhead and abun- 
dant, so arranged that the 
effect is similar to playing 
outdoors on a gray day. 
One of the unexpected re- 
sults of these buildings has 
been the absence of eye 




Cross Section through Structure over Courts 




uunK 



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rackarj Street Elevation 

Enclosed Tennis Courts Building, Queens Boulevard, Long Island, N. Y. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



179 



/ 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE 
ENCLOSED TENNIS COURTS BUILDING, QUEENS BOULEVARD, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

WALTER D. BLAIR. ARCHITECT 



180 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



that is familiar to all. 
It will not require as 
much watering or care 
as the English clay nor 
cost as much. 

The court is marked 
by lead tapes which are 
fastened to the clay by 
long nails. The posts 
are removable and set 
in cast-iron sockets 
which are incased in 
concrete . 

Heating is supi)lied 
by radiators recessed in 
the side walls and by 
coils under the sky- 
lights. The supply 
mains run around the 
outside walls in a heat- 
ing trench which is 
covered with removable 
concrete slabs set flush 
with the court. 

For artificial lighting 
an indirect system is 
undoubtedly the best, 
if the owner is willing 
to pay the extra cost of 




1 1(1 .nay from Hall to Lounging Room 



installation and mainte- 
nance. The underside 
of the roof can readily 
be designed to give the 
proper reflection sur- 
face. If direct lighting 
is used and the lights 
are placed at the roof 
level along the outside 
walls, the player will 
not be annoyingly con- 
scious of the source of 
illumination. 

As the number of 
rooms accompanying 
the tennis court- 
locker, shower, loung- 
ing, and service rooms 
— is dependent upon 
the particular demands 
of the owner, each 
building in this respect 
becomes a particular 
problem and no general 
suggestions concerning 
their arrangement or 
size can be made that 
will be applicable in all 
cases. 




\'iew in Lountlinji Room 

Enclosed Tennis Courts Building, Queens Boulevard, Long Island, N. Y. 



Competition for a One-Family House. 

REPORT OF JURY OF AWARD AND PRESEN- 
TATION OF PRIZE AND MENTION DESIGNS. 



AFTER careful consideration of the designs submit- 
ted, the judges of this competition have made the 
following: awards : 

The first prize, of $500, is awarded to W. L. Risley and 
James Perry Wilson, Newark, N. J. 

The second prize, of $250, is awarded to William G. 
Rantoul, Boston, Mass. 

The third prize, of $150, is awarded to Austin Whittle- 
sey, New York, N. Y. 

The. fourth prize, of $100, is awarded to J. Ivan Dise, 
New York, N. Y. 

Honorable Mention is given to George F. Blount and 
William J. Mooney, Boston, Mass., Alfred Cookman Cass, 
New York, N. Y., Antonio di Nardo, New York, N. Y., 
Erik Kaeyer, Yonkers, N. Y., E. J. Thole, Evansville, 
Ind., Lewis E. Welsh and J. Floyd Yewell, New York, 
N. Y. 

In arriving at their decisions the judges gave first 
consideration (as required by the conditions) to the 
excellence of the design and its fitness to the material 
employed; and second, to the excellence of the plan. 
Accordingly, designs which relied for their effective- 
ness on a rational use of the prescribed material were 
in 'general preferred to those which derived their dis- 
tinction or charm from other sources. On account of 
the limitation of cost (a paramount consideration), plans 
which were compact and with few angles were in gen- 
eral preferred over those which showed a tendency to 

sprawl. " 

The judges questioned both the possibility and the ad- 
visability of building either of the side walls on the lot 
line, as in most cities there exist restrictions which limit 
this privilege ; but as the conditions contained no prohibi- 
tion, it was assumed that the competitor had a right thus 
to place his building if he chose. 

The elements of charm, of unity, of harmony, were 
given a high value by the judges, because these are 
things which our small house architecture most conspic- 
uously lacks. On the other hand, a straining for mere 
picturesqueness for its own sake was not encouraged. 

The elements of livableness in the plans — that is, the 
presence of thoac factors which make for beauty and 
dignity, 'sweetness and light" — were given a high 
value, because, again, this matter is not sufficiently con- 
sidered in houses of this class. It was the opinion of the 
judges that this livableness could be achieved best by 
turning the face of the house to the garden rather than 
to the street, because so aspected it was assumed that 
no family could continually tolerate the sight of the 
usual American back yard ; they would perforce make 
a garden of it — an outdoor living room. The judges 
were fully aware that in taking this view of the matter 
they were ignoring a well known fact of American psy- 
chology : that ' ' the man on the street ' ' — and the 
female of his species even more — loves the street. With 



them the joys of privacy give place to the desire to see 
everything that is going on. 

The First Prize Design. Because the design of 
Messrs. Risley & Wilson appeared to the judges to be 
the most complete embodiment of an ideal realized within 
the limits of the given conditions, it was awarded first 
prize. The house, they imagine, would be charming to 
look at and delightful to live in. It is a plan which con- 
duces to "dignity" of living. A loggia for summer 
days, an ingle for winter nights, convenience, space, 
privacy — these factors all appear in the achieved result. 
The design is simple, direct, appropriate to the material, 
and withal distinguished and original. The authors have 
an evenly balanced talent ; their house is well planned, 
well designed, and well presented. 

Although the judges were unanimous in awarding 
Messrs, Risley & Wilson's design the first prize, they 
were keenly, even painfully, aware of all the easily antic- 
ipated criticisms launched by the unofficial juries in how 
many thousand drafting rooms where The Brickbvilder 
punctually appears. And these juries the judges would 
address somewhat as follows, answering only a few of 
their objections : 

It is true that the successful prosecutors have given 
only a hint of the appearance of their house from the 
street, where it would be best and oftenest seen; yet a 
careful study of the plan would indicate that they have 
considered its street aspect, and with their unquestioned 
talent for design it is fair to assume that they could im- 
part to the front an equal, though a different, beauty. 

It is true that two stairways in a house of this size eat 
up valuable space, and yet the added privacy gained in 
this way is precious to persons given to the cultivation of 
the art of life. 

It is true that only two bedrooms on the second floor 
presuppose the smallest of small families, and yet under 
the conditions such an assumption as this is permitted. 
What one finds it harder to forgive is that in the bigger 
bedroom there is no good place for a bed ! Were the 
plan the paramount consideration in this competition, 
these matters would have loomed larger in the minds of 
the judges. What the prize winners have evidently aimed 
to do is to provide a habitation, not for the average, but 
for the exceptional individual, and in this, in the opinion 
of the judges, they were quite within their rights so long 
as they played the game according to rules. 

The Second Prize Design. Mr. Rantoul's design, 
treated in so different a spirit, has the high merit of per- 
fect directness and consistency. The face which the little 
house presents to the street is frank and charming, and 
in a high degree expressive — expressive of the material, 
of the interior arrangement, and of a native grace and 
refinement. 

Mr. Rantoul postulates for himself an entirely different 
sort of a client from that of Messrs. Risley & Wilson — 



181 



182 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



183 




184 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



one who wants absolutely the most that can be got for the 
money, not in novelty and aesthetic interest, but in accom- 
modation. Occupying: less space on the ground than any 
of the other plans, it exceeds them all in the number of 
rooms. This is achieved by a vertical extension. It is a 
device of the highest economy, though fraught with perils 
for the designer. The facility with which these perils 
have been avoided in this instance proves his high compe- 
tence. All the judges agreed to his title for second place. 
The stairway is a bit too cramped, and the living room 
too small for comfort. It would have been better to have 
omitted the fireplace in the dining room, and by a broad 
opening between it and the 
living room obtained a single 
large room susceptible of 
temporary subdivision for its 
double function. 

The rendering of this de- 
sign is extraordinarily com- 
petent and charming. 

The Third Prize 
Design. Mr. Whittlesey's 
design has the merit of sim- 
plicity and domesticity, be- 
sides exhibiting an admirable 
sense of the proper handling 
of material. There is no ap- 
plied ornament, and no need 
for any, the materials them- 
selves being treated in so 
honest and so interesting a 
way. The position of the 
dormer in the valley is un- 
fortunate and, as it happens, 
unnecessary ; while in the 
northern latitudes the plac- 
ing of the bathroom above 
the porch would probably 
impoverish the owner at the 
expense of the plumber. 
Too much space has been sac- 
rificed in the bedrooms for 
the sake of the low studded 
effect. Another foot added to the height of the walls 
would not have harmed the design in the least. The 
arrangement of rooms is good, the rendering excellent, 
though such sylvan surroundings are scarcely warranted 
by the conditions which, by calling for a house on a 
thirty-foot lot, clearly imjjly a street of similar lots. 

The Fourth Prize Design. Mr. Disc's design is 
what may be described as a " usual " type, but somehow 
saves itself from being commonplace, nevertheless. One 
finds a certain satisfaction in its four-square fa(;ade, its 
low, untroubled brow, its open, candid eyes. The whole 
thing is another illustration of the adage, " An honest 
tale speeds best being plainly told." 

The plan has the merit of economy and directness and 
the rendering is beautifully brilliant. 

The Honorahle Mention Design.s. The trim, prim, 
Georgian bijou by Mr. Cass would grace Pomander Walk 
itself. There is a lasting charm in this sort of thing 
which cannot be gainsaid. Under the conditions, how- 
ever, it could not be given as high a place as those de- 




Mention Design 

Submitted by Alfred Cookman Cass. New York, N. V 



signs which depend less on detail and more on material and 
mass. In language, the untranslatable idiom is the most 
precious, and in architecture the same thing holds true. 
The merit of the prize designs — notably the first and 
third — consists in the fact that they are so evidently con- 
ceived in the prescribed material and no other, while Mr. 
Cass' house could be translated into shingle, stone, or 
stucco, without the change of a phrase. 

The plan is economical and practical, though rather 
commonplace ; the rendering is colorful, conveying a 
sense of reality seldom achieved in pen-and-ink work, 
because so difficult to achieve. 

Mr. Kaeyer's design is 
better than appears at first 
glance; his rendering is 
singularly hard and without 
charm, and does the house 
rather less than justice. It 
is a thoroughly good solution 
of the problem, and the plan 
is in many respects the best 
among the ten here pre- 
sented. 

The design of Mr. Blount 
and Mr. Moody shows an in- 
telligent use of material and 
a happy disposition of voids 
and solids. But in a village 
or city to plump from the 
street into the middle of the 
only living room is an intol- 
erable sin against comfort 
and privacy. For summer 
places in the country, where 
drafts are welcome and visi- 
tors infrequent, this criticism 
loses something of its force, 
but it is not such a house we 
are considering in this com- 
petition. 

Mr. di Nardo's design is 
beautifully direct, simple, 
and harmonious. The plan 
is less admirable. The hall is larger in proportion than 
the size of the house warrants, the dining room is too 
narrow, and the placing of the house in the length of the 
lot has little to recommend it when one considers the 
probable location of the adjoining houses. 

The design of Messrs. Welsh & Yewell is of such a 
seductive charm and picturesqueness that the judges had 
to sharpen their critical faculty to a fine edge to resist its 
blandishments ; if the view had happened to be from the 
side not shown in perspective, it is clear that these would 
have been less. Justly or not, the judges came to feel 
that this house was designed too wholly with a view to its 
effect from the particular angle chosen, and that it de- 
pended too much upon its surroundings and accessories. 
Moreover, it is improbable to them that it could be built 
within the limit of cost. In imaginative quality, in feel- 
ing for line, mass, and proportion, the competition has 
nothing better to show ; but as a practical solution of a 
practical problem this house could not be given as high a 
rank as the premiated designs. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



185 




ClTAll. or MTaVCt 



I nasi najiRAs i 



'■■PE5I0K FOR. A ORE m\U H0U3LT0BEmilT0F KMO miW 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY GEORGE F. BLOUNT AND WILLIAM J. MOONEY 
BOSTON, MASS. 





MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY ERIK KAEYER, YONKERS, N. Y. 






- ,^r<L*^ 







' ,',■3 g?Jg 



"^iliiilik&i^ 




DF-SI GN FOR. A ONE EA MII.Y HOUSE TO BE BUI LT OF NATCO TDC TILE 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY LEWIS E. WELSH AND J. FLOYD YEWELL 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



MENTION DESIGN 

SUBMITTED BY ANTONIO DI NARDO, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



186 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Mr. Thole's de- 
sign is, on the 
whole, so admirable 
that one wishes he 
had given a little 
more study to the 
pediment over the 
entrance door, which 
is somehow pain- 
fully ma/apropos . 
The side, too, seems 
different in charac- 
ter from the front. 
Yet, despite these 
blemishes, Mr. 
Thole's design 
shows a grasp of the 
essentials of his 
problem, and his 
place in the honor 
list is well de- 
served. The ren- 
dering is skilful ; 




m 



'^\ 



'^ 








Mention Design 

Submitted by E. J. Thole. Evansville, Ind. 



In conclusion, the 
judges desire to ex- 
press to the compet- 
itors their regret 
that in the mass of 
material submitted 
the many flashes of 
felicity, the many 
excellences of 
achievement, should 
have to pass un- 
noted in this report. 
To the publishers 
they desire to ex- 
tend their thanks 
and felicitations on 
the management of 
the competition : 
and to the company, 
which made the 
competition possi- 
ble, they wish to 
express their appre- 



if a bit uncertain where to leave off, the author at least ciation of a policy which not only encourages effort and 
has shown in his drawing that he knew the value in pen- develops talent among architectural draftsmen, but which 
and-ink work of blank spaces and strong shadows. conduces to better living conditions throughout the land. 

Claude Bragdon, Rochester, Alfred Busselle, New York, Charles Herrick Hammond, Chicago, 

William Gray Purcell, Minneapolis, Ernest John Russell, St. Louis, 

/iiry of A'ward. 




VIEW OF ballroom FLOOR LOBBY VIEW OF BALLROOM FLOOR RECEPTION ROOM 

WILLIAM PENN HOTEL, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

JANSSEN & ABBOTT, ARCHITECTS 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Needham Public Library, Needham, Mass. Plates 
97-101. This library building- replaces two smaller li- 
braries maintained in separate parts of the town and is 
situated in a central location to serve the interests of the 
citizens formerly provided for by the two. 

The foundation walls are of concrete below grade with 
cast stone exterior surface above grade, including the 
entrance steps. The exposed surfaces are fine crandalled, 
closely resembling cut granite. The water table, panels 
under the windows, which are modeled to represent the 
seals of important modern publishers, the arch stones, 
etc., are of Vermont marble. The cornice is white painted 
wood as is also the entrance doorway ; the roof is slate. 

The woodwork throughout the interior is white pine, 
painted with five coats and rubbed down to an egg-shell 
gloss, and the floors are of oak. The furniture with the 
exception of the library stacks and lighting fixtures was 
designed by the architect. 

William Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pa. Plates 102- 
105. The William Penn Hotel is bounded by William 
Penn place on the north. Sixth avenue on the east, and 
Oliver avenue on the west, with frontages of 216, 130, and 
130 feet, respectively. The plan is in the shape of a letter 
E with the two courts opening on William Penn place. 
The location is a central one, but the streets are so nar- 
row that it is not possible to obtain a photograph of the 
entire building. The reproduction of the rendered per- 
spective furnishes a good impression of the completed 
building, however. The body of the building is faced 
with brick with terra cotta trim, the upper floors and cor- 
nice having an elaborate and dignified treatment in terra 
cotta. The lower floors are of Indiana limestone with 
terra cotta for the decoration of the window reveals. 

The principal feature of the ground floor of the hotel is 
the large lobby, which is entered directly through a vesti- 
bule from William Penn place. To the right as one enters 
the lobby is the Georgian dining room and to the left the 
main or Italian dining room, each of these rooms being 
separated from the main lobby by glass screens so that 
there is a fine sense of openness on this floor. The eleva- 
tor hall is directly opposite the main entrance to the lobby 
and gives access to two banks of elevators, three on each 
side. The clerks' office, cashier's desk, parcel check- 
room, and similar offices are located in the immediate 
vicinity of the elevators. 

Surrounding the lobby is a mezzanine floor, the front 
portion of which forms a long promenade overlooking the 
main lobby and the Italian dining room. The rear of the 
floor is devoted mainly to the pastry rooms and kitchen, 
which brings this department in close connection with the 
principal dining rooms. 

The next floor above, the plan of which is not shown, is 
occupied by a large parlor near the elevators and a large 
state suite in the east wing. The remainder of the floor is 
devoted to service departments and dining rooms for the 
employees, together with a number of guest rooms in the 
west wing. 

There are two typical bedroom floor arrangements, 
both of which are reproduced on Plate 103, one with the 
service pantries from which the room service is given for 



three floors, including the one above and below, the other 
without the service pantry. There are five floors of the 
former type and in the wings on these floors a further 
variation is made from the typical floor to provide larger 
apartments than the average hotel suite. 

The seventeenth floor contains the ballroom, together 
with a large reception room opposite the elevators and 
several private dining rooms with service hall in connec- 
tion. The main elevators extend to the eighteenth floor 
and open on to a lobby which leads to the gallery of the 
ballroom. The kitchen service for the banquet rooms 
also occupies part of this floor. 

A further dining room located in the basement is known 
as the Elizabethan room and is served by a special kitchen 
conveniently disposed in relation to it. Sub-basements 
provide space for such apartments as wineroom, store- 
rooms, butcher shop, bake shop, vegetable room, storage 
refrigeration, vacuum cleaning, filtration, and ventilation 
plants. 

The decoration of the hotel shows careful handling in 
all its details and demonstrates a further advance in giv- 
ing American hotels a homelike character. The lobby is 
a room of great richness and dignity. The walls are 
paneled with French walnut and the ceiling, a reproduc- 
tion of one at Fontainebleau, is richly decorated in red, 
gold, and brown. The Italian dining room, arranged 
three steps above the lobby floor, is similar in its decora- 
tive treatment to the lobby. Above the walnut panels in 
this room there is a deep frieze decorated with mural 
paintings, portraying the seasons. The illumination is 
effected by crystal chandeliers, wall brackets, and table 
lamps. The Georgian dining room is carried out with 
great simplicity in a light gray color. The ballroom, 
125 feet long and 52 feet wide, seats five hundred on the 
floor and three hundred in the gallery. At one end of 
the room there is a disappearing stage. The room is dec- 
orated in white and the walls under the gallery are dec- 
orated with mirrors. The illumination is effected by 
crystal chandeliers and wall brackets. The Elizabethan 
room and the men's lounge in the basement are carried 
out in the style of the old English baronial halls. The 
walls -are paneled in light oak and the ceilings are of 
decorated plaster with ornamentation appropriate to the 
architectural style. The floors of both rooms are of large 
black and white tiles. 

The main kitchen, located in the rear of the mezzanine 
floor, is afforded an abundance of natural light and ven- 
tilation in addition to ample artificial ventilation, so that 
it is a comfortable-working apartment. In its relation 
to the dining rooms it follows the arrangement success- 
fully worked out in the Blackstone Hotel in Chicago. The 
walls and counters are faced with white enamel brick. 
The floor is tile and all ranges, steam tables, refrigera- 
tors, etc., are placed on sanitary bases. The ceiling is 
furred down to enclose all overhead pipes, and care has 
been given to have no pipes exposed in the other parts of 
the room. The woodwork in all parts of the service por- 
tion is of walnut. Refrigerators are built with flush 
doors made air tight by means of a gasket which can be 
taken out and renewed. 



187 



W&i<iii<<<<<iiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiii<ii^<<<^<<^^!':i?!^^ 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

AN D«fN OTES f * 

FO R.'^ THE -^ MONTH 







THE sense of unpleasant relations and misunderstand- 
ings which have for a longf time existed between the 
members of the United States Congress and the American 
Institute of Architects seems now to present a possibility 
of beingf removed. It is to be hoped that the signs that 
are now evident point to a mutual understanding between 
these bodies wherein Congress will recognize the value of 
the services the Institute can render in the building up 
of a proper architectural development of our national 
structures and show a willingness and wholesome desire 
to adopt a receptive mood for such services. 

We are led to believe that such co-operation is not im- 
probable because of the measure of success which has 
attended some recent work of the Institute. In a practi- 
cal manner and with convincing proof it has called atten- 
tion to the wasteful and extravagant policy pursued by the 
Government for many years in authorizing the erection of 
federal buildings in sections of the country where it was 
politically expedient to obtain them, regardless of the fact 
that other and more important federal building was entirely 
neglected. It has also been brought to the attention of 
Congress that the impoverished condition of the facilities 
of housing the Government departments in Washington is 
entirely needless. Officials have evidently been awakened 
to the tremendous waste that occurs annually for rental of 
privately owned buildings for Government uses, and there 
is now a sign of realization that the waste can be efficiently 
and economically remedied by the adoption of a policy 
that will ensure buildings to meet the purposes of the 
Government adecjuately and display that dignity so essen- 
tial to the conduct of its business. 

The immediate result of the effort is an amendment 
added by the Senate to the Sundry Civic Bill providing 
for a Public Building Commission to be composed of the 
Chairmen of Committees on Appropriations and Public 
Buildings of both branches of Congress, with two addi- 
tional members from each committee to be appointed by 
the chairman, the Superintendent of the Capitol Build- 
ing and Grounds, the Superintendent of Buildings and 
Grounds, and the Supervising Architect. The commis- 
sion's work is the investigation of the public building situ- 
ation in Washington ; it is to complete its investigation 
and report to Congress by January, 1918, and is allowed 
$10,000 to cover the expenses involved. 

This surely seems a step in the right direction and it is 
to be hoped that with a report setting forth the actual con- 
ditions Congress will see fit to take early and deliberate 
action to relieve one of the glaring inefficiencies in our 
national capital. With the conditions recognized, we may 
then hope for the adoption of a government policy that will 
acknowledge the value to the Government of the experi- 
enced and talented architects of the country to the end 
that federal buildings may be constructed to form a lasting 



monument to American architecture as well as provide 
well planned and equipped buildings for the efficient 
administration of government business. 

The work of the commission just appointed should be 
followed by every architect and although its findings 
probably cannot be influenced one way or another by indi- 
vidual members of the profession, the outcome will have 
a strong interest for architects in general, and its report 
will undoubtedly have a large part in forming any future 
government policy in relation to federal building and the 
attitude of Congress toward the profession. 

General recognition of the ethics governing the practice 
of law and medicine is now accorded the members of those 
professions, but it was only through their tireless efforts 
to formulate standards and then demand respect of them 
from others that has made this condition possible. The 
same holds true in the profession of architecture and it is 
hoped that the work which is now being done will lead to 
a fuller recognition of the ethics of the architectural pro- 
fession by Congress and that harmonious and co-operative 
relations may be established between them. 

BOOK NOTES. 

Gothic Orn.\ment.s Selected fko.m Various Ancient 
Buildings in Engl.^nd and France. By Augustus 
Pugin. New and revised edition. 111. 92 plates, 8 V^x 11 
inches. London,.!. Tiranti & Co. $3.12. The work un- 
dertaken by Augustus Pugin in detailing and assembling 
the great variety of Medieval Gothic Ornaments in his 
collection is one of great value from an archaeologic 
standpoint, and to all those interested in the study of 
Gothic architecture. To such this reprint will prove of 
great service, although in the light of modern thought in 
connection with the Gothic style the designer will prob- 
ably prefer to make use of them as a source of inspiration 
rather than as exact models. 

Nights — in Rome, Venice, London, and Paris. 
By Elizabeth Robins Pennell. 111. Philadel])hia, J. B. 
Lippincott Co. $3.00. To the architect who has traveled 
in Europe, or to him who entertains the hope of some day 
doing so, — and what architect does not? — a book which 
relates the fascinations of European travel has an interest. 
When to this promise of pleasure is added the charm of 
Joseph Pennell's etchings and the attraction of Mrs. Pen- 
nell's writings, a sense of delight is awakened. The 
present book has, however, more particularly to do with 
people than with travel ; it brings to the teader intimate 
scenes that happened in these cities among persons who 
have contributed to the world's treasure of art and litera- 
ture, not during their working hours of the day, but in 
their hours of relaxation at night, when their thoughts 
were freely exchanged and their true personalities 
divulged. 



188 




(ii i i ii i i » iiiii ir i > jt a i ni it a i i|jia i 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




190 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



with the completion of a set of drawings, but which con- 
tinued throug-h the working period of construction and 
is not even ended when the owners are carefully housed 
within them, but continues, studying: with them the 
minutest details which make for distinctive habitations. 

To this end the study of his clients' characteristics, 
needs, and conditions are Mr. Pope's first consideration, 
and his attitude has been one of helpfulness in creating an 
atmosphere of simple domestic- 
ity without sacrificing: largeness 
of scale or the charm of dignity. 
This has the natural result of 
creating houses which are last- 
ing in their quality of charm, 
and not of the faddist styles 
which might attract us to-day, 
but which are despised or for- 
gotten to-morrow. They are 
houses which wear well, houses 
which time and age improve, 
and in which atmosphere con- 
tinues to grow with no fear of 
becoming monotonous. 





THE 



HOUSE FOR MR. GEORGE 
HEWITT MYERS. 



The house for Mr. George 
Hewitt Myers in Washington, 
with its Palladian motive, shows 
more Italian influence than any 
of the other three. Externally, 
the charm is due not only to 
grace of proportion of void and 
solid, but also to delicacy of 
profiles, projection, and carving. 
The double story Palladian mo- 
tive on the garden fa(,-ade is 
most successful in that it fur- 
nishes a very pleasant loggia 
on the first floor and gives on 
the main bedroom floor a spa- 
cious sleeping porch, a very 
happy solution of a problem 
which has whitened so many 
temples and furrowed so many 
brows. 

It well befits a private house 
in the city not to invite the 
passerby with its openness. 
The entrance is just on S street, 
but the street is shut out directly 
upon entering the hall by solid 
doors. The vista is immediately 
open, however, out through the 
loggia and into the south gar- 
den, where are the pergolas, the 
gravel paths, the fountain, the 
terraces, and the lawn. 

As in all of these houses, the 
hall has a solidity and perma- 
nence given by marble floors. 
The plan is very direct. The 
stairs lead directly off to the 




Plans of House and Garden 
House of George Hewitt Myers, Esq., Washington, D. C. 



west and are of fine Colonial detail, studied to be free 
from any disturbing curve of line. The halls are of wood 
paneling painted old ivory white. 

The drawing room and library, the latter hardly more 
than a book lined alcove off the former, are done in simple 
veined Italian walnut. The dining room is in oak with 
a delightfully carved chimney piece in limestone. The 
study is in natural cedar, in the panels of which are hung 

part of a large and interesting 
collection of Chinese prints. 

A great deal of atmosphere is 
given to the house by the col- 
lection of Oriental rugs with 
which Mr. Myers has sur- 
rounded himself. 

The outside service for Mr. 
Myers' house is accommodated 
in a building on the rear of the 
property facing Decatur street 
near Massachusetts avenue, 
which is on a much lower level 
than the south garden. This 
allows the terrace to extend 
over the roof, and those acces- 
sory parts of heating plant, 
garage, and storehouse are not 
in view from the house and its 
pleasant little garden. 

HOUSE FOR MR. JAMES SWAN 
FRICK. 

Freed from the restrictions of 
the city lot, the house for Mr. 
James Swan Frick at Guilford, 
Baltimore, stands in a grovelike 
plot at the head of one of the 
pleasant avenues of Roland 
Park. The south fa(,'ade bends 
intimately into the grove with 
a quiet dignity and strength 
which one finds in the old 
southern Colonial mansions. 
The north fa^-ade with its re- 
cessed entrance and tall, slender 
columns is strongly reminiscent 
of that old Polk mansion which 
has been so much admired for 
its queer, quaint iiaivete, but 
whose proportions are seldom 
met with in modern work. 

The doorways are both big in 
scale and refined in detail, but 
are subordinated as details of a 
scheme which depends so en- 
tirely upon the careful study of 
proportion of mass and outline, 
of void and solid, of light and 
shadow, as to make ornamen- 
tation superfluous. The sub- 
tlety of pilaster and brick pro- 
jection, the sharpness and 
squareness of the cornice, its 
projection and depth, and the 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



191 




t^^. trt-iU^ 



■■^V'iti'Prlf'^*'"-'"— 



KLEVATION AND VIICU OF STKi;i-.T IKOM 

HOUSE OF GEORGE HEWITT MYERS, ESQ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



192 



THE BRICKBVILDER 









1 




yre 4*;- -fas 



IB; - - - T 



ELEV'ATIO?< O;-' V/hST WALL 





Detail of Fireplace Side of Dining Room 

House of George Hewitt Myers, Esq., Washington, D. C. 



height of the upper parapets are accurately proportioned 
to the height of the building and to its length. 

The materials used are brick and painted wood trim. 
Second quality bricks were insisted upon to insure a 
certain unevenness of texture which must be obtained to 
overcome the painfully careful workmanship of the consci- 
entious mechanic. The wood is of cypress, a wood which 
will withstand the friendly assaults of the weather even 
when mellowed by being deprived of some of the protec- 
tion of the first coats of even and glaring white lead paint. 

The twin roads of Charlcote Place allow access on either 
side of the north front. The gravel forecourt lies square 
in front of the house, walled at the back with the garage, 
plain and of most pleasing proportions, with just a playful 




note of lattice marking the small pool 
opposite the entrance door of the house. 

The entrance and stair halls are very 
architectural and precise in treatment. The 
detail is very much in the queer character 
of the Greek Revival, such as marked an 
interesting period of our Colonial work. 
The color is a warm gray, toned and glazed 
to an old stone finish. What ornamental 
detail there is in the cornice above the dam- 
ask covered walls of the drawing room and 
in the library, done in walnut with touches 
of old gilt, even tastes of the period of the 
Empire — an influence also felt in a certain 
period of our Colonial design. 

The mantels of the three large rooms, as 
well as those in the reception room and Mr. 
Frick's office, have the sentimental value of 
having been taken from Mr. Frick's former 
Colonial mansion in Baltimore, which he gave 
up to take this homestead which breathes the 
atmosphere of a century ago, but which is 
so beautifully adapted to his needs of to-day 
and to-morrow. 



COUNTRY HOUSE OF MRS. 
BURDEN. 



ARTHUR SCOTT 



Michael Angelo's philosophy about his 
sculpture was that every piece of marble 
with which he worked had something good created in it, 
and that his task consisted in merely chipping and chisel- 
ing away the unnecessary bulk of material and exposing 
the beautiful or powerful something which the block 
contained. 

To anj- one who had seen the wooded thicket on the 
high part of the seventy-acre plot of Mrs. Arthur Scott 
Burden in the midst of the Jericho colony on Long 
Island, the existing creation of house, gardens, loggias, 
service buildings, roads, courts, lawns, and paths would 
suggest the old idea of the master sculptor. 

There in the edge of the woods, spreading out comfort- 
ably over the ground surrounded by its flowers and shrubs 
and vines and old trees, and approached b\- its simple 




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Detail of Fireplace Side of Drawing Room 

Hou.se of George Hewitt Myers, Esq., Washington, D. C. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 




ELEVATION OF SOUTH FRONT 

HOUSE OF JAMES SWAN PRICK, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



194 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




THE BRICKBVILDER. 



195 



winding roadway through the woods at the back, seems 
always to have been this old English manor house. It 
has all the marks of privacy and intimacy which one 
dreams of as making a home in the country, away from 
all that he wants to be away from, and surrounded with 
all he wishes to be surrounded with. 

These marks of privacy and intimacy are not fanciful, 
but are real and distinguishable. The satisfying gra- 
ciousness of the front door, with its touch of wrought iron 
softened by the masses of Dorothy Perkins roses ; the 
complete frankness of the large windows which show the 
floor level but inches above the grass ; the slenderness of 
the decorated pilasters which rise from the grass and out 
of the planting to embrace the windows of the chamber floor 
— these are marks of intimacy. The winding of the road 
through the old apple orchard and the woods of oak, 
locust, elm, and dogwood ; the high garden walls of brick 
over which the tops of porches appear ; the long walls of 
stone with the suggestions of formal planting appearing 
above — these are marks of privacy. 

In line and mass Mrs. Burden's house is very different 
from that of Mr. Frick at Baltimore, but the details are of 
very similar nature, and the underlying principle of ut- 
most simplicity has governed both creations. Both have 
the graceful, floral capped pilaster order, which, being 
purely decorative in motive, depends entirely upon its 
proportion for its raiso?i d'etre. Both have the square, 
sharp-looking cornice with flat, mutule-like modillions, and 
both have the studied parapet in the brick above. 

Simplicity is not only a feature of exterior design, but 



it is also an essential feature of the plan. The north side 
of the plan is given over to the marble floored entrance 
and stair halls, a small reception room, and a schoolroom. 
The other rooms to the south and west, particularly the 
long living room, are assured of complete privacy and 
almost seclusion. The service portion is drawn out com- 
modiously, extending to the men servants' pavilion on the 
extreme east, the niched ends of which balance the log- 
gias of the garden at the west, some two hundred feet 
away. 

The entrance and stair halls are painted hard plaster 
with detail as of stone, in the fashion of the halls of the 
fine old London houses of the Adam days ; the walls a 
rich, thick, cool gray, with slate-colored pilasters and 
columns marking the openings. 

The feature of the plan is the elliptical stair hall, domed 
at the second story ceiling, with the beautifully executed 
stair railing of charming thin proportions, touched with 
tarnished gilt. The merging of the entrance hall into the 
stair hall by recalling the ellipse on the hall side is partic- 
ularly happy. 

The dining room is given an air of spaciousness by the 
judicious choice of furniture, ample in size but not large. 
The room is green, a dark rich olive green, glazed un- 
evenly with soft grays and browns so that it is pervaded 
with an atmosphere of restfulness. The square little in- 
viting library is all of natural teak. The juxtaposition of 
books and doors, symmetrically disposed on each wall, 
under similar elliptical arch motives is interesting. 

The large room of the plan, the living room on the 




View of Garage and Forecourt 
House of James Swan Frick, Esq., Guilford, Baltimore, Md. 



196 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




VIEW IN HALL LOOKING TOWARD ENTRANCE 




DETAIL PLAN OF FIRST FLOOR HALL AND STAIRWAY 

HOUSE OF JAMES SWAN FRICK, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



197 



southwest corner, is a 
most successful adapta- 
tion of a plain old Geor- 
gian room, whose boldly 
simple moulding-s and 
panels form an adequate 
background for the rare 
furniture of the William 
and Mary period and 
needlework pieces in 
which Mrs. Burden is so 
much interested. The 
warm mellowness of the 
yellow walls, aged by 
wear and many coats 
of paint and rubbing, 
lends an atmosphere of 
color and tone which is 
hardly appreciated from 
the illustrations. 

The dining room, li- 
brary, and living room 
open on the south 
through all their win- 
dows to the open lawn, 
the living room also 
opens to the west on to 
the thin ironwork porch 
which virtually lives as a part of the little flower garden 
which is flanked by the two white columned loggias. 

On lower levels and reached by old fashioned worn 
flag steps and paths are the rose garden and the pool gar- 
den, the planning, planting, and care of which are of such 




Forecourt and Entrance Front 
House of Mrs. Arthur Scott Burden, Jericho, Long Island, N. Y. 



particular personal in- 
terest to Mrs. Burden. 

The ensemble is alto- 
gether lovely, simple, 
and lasting, and grows 
in charm and sentiment 
as it continues to age 
and be lived in. 

THE ESTATE OF MR. 
OGDEN L. MILLS. 

On the estate of Mr. 
Ogden L. Mills at Wood- 
bury, which lies over 
toward the north shore 
of Long Island, Mr. 
Pope has taken every 
advantage of contour 
and natural growth in 
the placing of an almost 
monumental country 
seat. He has spread his 
architecture over a pla- 
teau with views in all 
directions, and by most 
ingenious planning he 
has embraced courts, 
porticoes, and loggias by 
wings and walls so that every portion of the house is 
flooded with light and the good free air of the country- 
side. He has done this without any appearance of ram- 
bling, looseness in mass, or of disconnectedness in plan. 
The natural beauties of the site have been supple- 




Living Room in House of Mrs. Arthur Scott Burden, Jericho, Long Island, N. Y. 



198 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




THE BRICKBVILDER. 



199 




200 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




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HOUSE OF OGDEN L. MILLS, ESQ., WOODBURY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



201 



merited by the making of gardens, 
and particularly by the open lawned 
alley of cedars extending north from 
the house and forecourt, opening the 
vista to the lake in the lowlands and 
to the hills of woods beyond. This 
alley has been made by the transplant- 
ing of cedars which were native on 
the estate. The two large circles in 
the entrance drive northeast and 
northwest of the building are also 
fashioned from these cedars. 

In the building up of its mass this 
house is probably unique among 
country houses. The central portion 
rises through two stories, with its 
cornice and parapet of somewhat 
Italian feeling, and is flanked and 
carefully held in by the well propor- 
tioned blocklike wings whose flat fretted cornices carry 
the line of the first story order around the entire building. 

The order is inspired by that used on the Orangerie at 
Bowood , Wilts . It is used 
sparingly about the en- 
trance court, but is fairly 
lavished on the lawn 
court to the south in the 
form of columns and pi- 
lasters, singly and in 
pairs. Niches, with urns 
very Adam-like in con- 
ception and execution, 
with carefully placed 
plaques of low relief in 
the same character, are 
the elements used to sup- 
plement the order and 
the window disposition in 
making up the composi- 
tion of the building. 

The scheme of entrance 
and vertical circulation is 
not unlike that in Mrs. 
Burden's residence. 
Through the entrance 
door made pleasing by 
the vigorous carving of 
the surrounding stone- 
work, the hall is entered 
on the center axis. On 
the left, and marked by 
columns as at Mrs. Bur- 
den's, is the stair hall 
extending through two 
stories. To the right is 
the entrance to the recep- 
tion room and the lobby 
to the guest room wing, 
which contains three 
large chambers, each 
provided with a bath. 

The large room of the 
plan, 28 by 56 feet, ex- 




Detail of Vase 

House of Ogden L. Mills, Esq. 




} 




" Cedar Alley " Looking Toward House 

House of Ogden L. Mills, Esq., Woodbury, Long Island, N. Y. 



tends across the entire south side of 
the main part of the house and opens 
out directly upon the court lawn. At 
the south corners of this room are the 
little square, interesting lobbies which 
are small enough to help give the 
idea of real scale to the rooms they 
connect. The one to the southwest 
leads to the library wing, and that to 
the southeast leads to the dining 
room wing. 

These two rooms, which occupy 
each an entire wing, open on the 
inside to the court lawn, and the 
library opens on the west to the for- 
mal flower garden which axes on the 
reception room and its loggia. These 
two wing rooms open on to their 
arched loggias, which form interest- 
ing terminal features to both wings. 

The service requirements are accommodated in the 
northeast wing which balances the guest room wing on 

the opposite side of the 
•^ entrance court axis. 

To the west of the 
house, on the main long 
axis directly off the re- 
ception room, is the for- 
mal flower garden with 
its pool, its grass steps, 
and box fringed grass 
paths. Mr. Pope has 
given this garden just 
enough of the touch of 
architecture in the steps, 
and the brick and stone 
balustrades, to make it 
one with the monumental 
character of the house, 
and to help hold in 
proper restraint the ex- 
uberance of the floral 
growths. 

The monumental 
strength and solidity of 
the entire structure is 
m.ade intimate by the 
openness of the large 
casements and is sof- 
tened by the masses of 
vines which the sturdi- 
ness of the brick and 
stone walls seems to in- 
vite to grow upon them. 
It is a house which is 
large enough and impor- 
tant enough for its mag- 
nificent setting, andwhich 
is small enough and inti- 
mate enough and lovely 
enough for its owner to 
use and enjoy as a sum- 
mer country seat. 



m 




204 



THE BRICKBVILDER 





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West Elevation, House of Ogden L. Mills, Esq., Woodbury, Long Island, N. Y. 






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These four houses, designed for purposes which are 
manifestly very different and for conditions which repre- 
sent a wide range of domestic requirements, are singu- 
larly uniform in character and decidedly individual in 
conception and execution. They stand as a credit to 
their owners. They do not depend upon lavish expendi- 



ture of money, nor on the elaborate use of precious 
materials to command consideration. They represent a 
maximum of comfort, convenience, and beauty of mass, 
of line, and of detail with efficiency of execution and a 
reasonable minimum of cost. As such they surely add to 
the sum-total of good residence architecture of America. 





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View of Reception Room Porch on West Side Detail of Windows on West Elevation 

House of Ogden L. Mills, Esq., Woodbury, Long Island, N. Y. 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 113. 




DKTAIL OK MAIN KNIRANCE 



HOUSE OF OGDEN L. MILLS, ESQ., WOODBURY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 114. 











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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 115. 





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VOL. 25. NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 116. 




DETAIL OF SOUTH FKO.NT 



HOUSE OF OGDEN L. MILLS, ESQ., WOODBURY. LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 117. 




VIEW OF WEST PORCH AND LIBRARY WING 



VIEW ALONG TERRACE SHOWING LOGGIAS 



HOUSE OF OGDEN L. MILLS, ESQ., WOODBURY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 118. 




\1K\V Ol' I.IUKAKV WlNi; ANIJ UKST LOGGIA 




VILVV OF EAST WING ON ENTRANCE FRONT 



HOUSE OF OGDEN L. MILLS, ESQ., WOODBURY, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



I 



VOL. 25, NO. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 119. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 120. 




DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE 



HOUSE OF MRS. ARTHUR SCOTT BURDEN, JERICHO, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVI LDER 



PLATE 121. 




VIEW OF GARDEN FRONT FROM THE WEST 



HOUSE OF MRS. ARTHUR SCOTT BURDEN, JERICHO, LONG ISLAND. N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 122. 




VIEW OF THE G,'\RDENS AT WEST SIDE OF HOUSE 



HOUSE OF MRS. ARTHUR SCOTT BURDEN, JERICHO, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



*i 



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VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 123. 




STEPS TO THE ROSE GARDEN AND LOGGIA 



HOUSE OF MRS. ARTHUR SCOTT BURDEN, JERICHO, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



l\ 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 124. 




VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 12S. 



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VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 126. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE PORTICO 



HOUSE OF JAMES SWAN FRICK, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 127. 




VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 128. 




DETAIL OF BA^• ON SOUTH OR GARDEN FRONT 



HOUSE OF JAMES SWAN FRICK, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 129. 




VIEW OF HALL LOOKING TOWARD STAIRWAY 



HOUSE OF JAMES SWAN FRICK, ESQ., GUILFORD, BALTIMORE, MD. 

JOHN RUSSELL POPE, ARCHITECT 



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VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 131. 




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PLATE 132. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 133. 




VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 134. 




t£3^SLiiT 



DETAILS OF THE SOUTH OR GARDEN ELEVATION 



HOUSE OF GEORGE HEWITT MYERS, ESQ., WASHINGTON, D. C. 
JOHN RUSSELL POPE. ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 8. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 135. 










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PLATE 136. 




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THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF 

EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 



PLATE TWENTY-SEVEN. 







■'^^■'•-'-'-**(B8iii<lll 






CrOA/Eir//AT si»n7ar in plan to Mount Vernon and Wood- 
O lawn, the Colross Mansion is flanked by two zvings, one for the 
sei vice portion and the other for the carriage shed. It was built 
in 1799 by fonathan Swift and is a good example of the country 
house type of Afaryland and } 'irginia Colonial architecture. 

The facade shows a large scaled treatment with good proportions 
and fenestration. The walls are of brick laid in Flemish bond 
with a well proportioned ividth of mortar joint. All the windozvs 
have characteristic Colonial lintels. The entrance porch is spacious 
a?id shows in its design a trace of the Greek influence. The door- 
way is carefully detailed and the leaded fan-light has a segmental 
arched top rather than the usual elliptical form. 

The roof is of gray slate and is embellished by three dormers of 
excellent proportions and a balustradcd deck. Dormers of such 
good proportion and appropriate setting as those still existing in 
Alexandria are seldom foutid in other localities and the ones on 
this house are typical of the best. The ingenious maimer in ivhich 
the same moulding contours were used at diff'erent scales and pro- 
portions throughout the facade is interesting. The main cornice is 
a most effective piece of detail, composed as it is of mouldings deco- 
rated with fine ornament and having a charming profile, all in 
splendid accord ivith the porch and dormer cornices. The frieze in 
the latter has been subordinated to the architrave which is sup- 
ported by delicately fluted Doric pilasters. 

THE COLROSS MANSION, ORONOCO STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VA. 

Built in 1799. 
MEASURED DRAWINGS ON FOLLOWING PAGES. 




205 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




•JIDt-aEVAT[0N- -JECTION- -rRONT-EL£VATION- 

-J-HOW/NG-RrrVRNOr-CORlNCE- 'J'CALE - ONf-HALMNCH'EQVALJ'ONE'fOOT' 



J-JCALE-PETAIl!' 



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dormeH'cscohnice: - colroa^'M^n^ion- 



'J'L'KEIiTEK-'O'J' 
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206 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




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207 



THE BRICKBVILDER COLLECTION OF EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS. 




PLATE. £9 

AVCVSr 1916 



FRONT ' ELEVATION- GOLROi/' MM/ION- 



•PATE • 1799 



ALEXANDRIA'VA- 



DVILT • m ■ JONATHAN JWIfT • 



MEA/V11ED<&- DRAWN W 
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21 IS 



Dome of S. Maria del Fiore, Florence. 

A STUDY OF ITS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. 



By RICHARD FRANZ BACH. 
Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University. 



IN considering a work of great structural initiative, 
standing on the threshold of an epoch in art, such as 
Brunelleschi's dome in Florence, we are confronted 
with two insistent questions, each leading to an inviting 
avenue of study : what are its historical precedents ? and 
what is the type of construction involved ? In the case of 
the present example we can answer both by recording 
briefly the structural history of the dome, referring to 
precedents in parallel and relying upon available contem- 
porary accounts for ex- 
planation, as the struc- 
ture rises to completion 
course on course. 

The story of this dome 
is written in a number of 
slowly moving and 
loosely woven chapters, 
each headed by a 
master's name. These 
it does not behoove us to 
recount within the nar- 
row compass of these 
pages.* Suffice it to say 
that when the work of 
one of these masters, 
Lapo Ghini, threatened 
to fall in 1367, his design 
was revised by a commit- 
tee of eight artists, in- 
cluding Orcagna and 
Taddeo Gaddi . In a time 
of recognized versatility 
we are not surprised to 
find painters on such a 
board of investigation. 
The result of their de- 
liberations was a model, 
supposedly obviating all 
defects thus far dis- 
covered. This showed a 
nave of four square bays 
flanked by narrow 
aisles with shallow 
oblong bays of corre- 
sponding length. The 

measurement from pier to pier was to be 60 feet, and the 
nave height 135 feet — a good indication of the Italian 
liking for breadth and squareness. The total interior 
length of the model was about 480 feet, and the octagon 
proper at the crossing achieved a diameter of slightly 
under 140 feet, while the total width of what might be 
called the crossing, that is, the space between the lateral 
apses, approximated 300 feet. 

The system of support adopted for the dome, which 
may be considered our authoritative guide until the advent 
of Brunelleschi himself, recognizes the value of the 




Dome of S. Maria del Fiore, Florence 

Exterior showing tribunes and other buttressing masses ; 
finished gallery by d'Agnolo at base of dome 



original scheme of Arnolfo di Cambio, the first designer and 
sterling master of the thirteenth century, dated 1296, and 
providing for eight surfaces or severeys — no details as 
yet appearing, however, as to the essential structural sys- 
tem of the dome proper — resting upon four gigantic piers 
bound together by four great cross arches. One of these 
arches leads to the nave, and passages are built into the 
two piers which it spans to permit a continuous line of 
sight along the aisles into the open crossing. The other 

three arches open into 
polygonal, sc. four- 
sided, apses or tribunes, 
which by their covering 
half- domes furnish 
powerful abutment. 
These and other features 
to be mentioned, with 
the exception of the 
dome itself, were exe- 
cuted according to this 
model of the committee 
of eight, and this de- 
scription of the model is 
to that extent, there- 
fore, practically that of 
the completed building. 
The piers receive the 
direct vertical load of the 
dome, but must also be 
counted upon to resist 
the thrust of the great 
arches as aggravated by 
their own effort in the 
actual support of the 
dome, which effort they 
in turn convert into 
thrust. Therefore the 
piers are necessarily of 
enormous perimeter and 
solidity, and other ma- 
sonry features are of 
corresponding mass. 
Five chapels are built 
into the thickness of the 
walls of each great apse 
and a sacristy into each of the eastern piers. To be doubly 
assured of safety the piers are further strengthened diago- 
nally, with reference to the square formed by their bases 
in plan, by means of four smaller polygonal projections of 
masonry, whose crowns rise to the height of the apses, 
i.e., to the upper line of the nave clerestory. It should 
also be noted that the exterior effect of the main apses 
is (|uite that of chapels with ambulatories ; the open space 
of each rises in a separate clerestory, pierced by coupled 
windows, and supporting a half-dome, the five chapels 



also un- 



See biljliuKiapliii- note. 



209 



210 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



y] . T?t/ntii^ c/t //f.ir'yiio cA//e ,pi,t/<' .ri /^uirAt n^/Ai ^ii/^i //f. 
J) . Loqqiato cAc c^nonan La Cupola . 




S. MAKIA DEL FIORE, FLORENCE 
Elevation of dome and substructure. ( From Sgrilli) 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



211 



scAi-E or 'o o 



projecting: from this space rising- only to about half this 
heigrht and separated by solid buttresses frankly expressed 
as wall masses. 

Although a multitude of minor stipulations were made 
at various times and the dome itself was made the subject 
of a separate competition, with reference to its own con- 
struction, it would seem 
that this model of 1367 
furnished so definite a 
line of direction for sub- 
sequent architects that 
their problems became 
increasingly those of ex- 
ecution solely. It would 
also seem feasible to as- 
sume that the original 
plan of Arnolfo, although 
altered in size, still re- 
tained its vitality, and 
that the complete east 
end plan was organically 
final as determined by 
the model of 1367. At 
any rate, an eight-sided 
dome, or, more properly, an octagonal cloistered vault 
for the crossing, had been projected from the outset and 
would seem to have formed part of every acceptable 
suggestion for the entire building in numerous competi- 
tions covering many years. Unfortunately authoritative 
information on this and other points is not available, 
since the design models, the only safe guides, were regu- 
larly destroyed by order when su- 
perseded by better favored designs. 
As based on the new model, the 
nave was completed by 1378, and 
two years later a great access of 
energy drove the Florentines to be- 
gin the four giant piers and the 
three branching apses simultane- 
ously. By 1410 the drum was be- 
gun and, finally, in 1418, a general 
competition was published, a chal- 
lenge to all and sundry to submit 
models, drawings, suggestions for 
the dome construction, means and 
machinery for its erection, center- 
ing, scaffolding, windlasses, der- 
ricks, materials, and the mode of 
their use. 

Lorenzo Ghiberti, al- 
ready known to us as a 
versatile artist, submit- 
ted a number of models, 
one of them of brick, in 
the making of which he 
had employed four ma- 
sons. Brunelleschi sub- 
mitted, according to vary- 
ing reports, either two or 
three models, in one of 
which, probably the sec- 
ond in point of time, he 
counted upon the help of 




S. Maria del Fiore, Florence 

Plan. ( From Simpson ) 



S. Maria del Fiore, Florence 

Transverse section at transept showing j^iant piers, dispusitioii of tribunes, 

relative thickness of concentric shells of dome. (From Simpson) 



Nanni di Banco and Donatello. His first model was his 
own ; the third is hedged about with such doubt that' it 
may here be ignored. The exact relation between the first 
and second it is difficult to establish ; latest researches 
seem to indicate that the first was approved while still un- 
finished and was considered of such value that he was 

commissioned to under- 
take the second with the 
assistance of the two col- 
laborators, who had in 
the meantitne demon- 
strated their ability along 
the line of Brunelleschi 's 
efforts. This was, of 
course, in accord with 
the usual practice in con- 
nection with the cathedral 
fabric, which denied the 
best artists the sole con- 
trol and sought to achieve 
quality in cumulative 
fashion only. At any 
rate, this revised model 
was made of brick and 
was built se>i::a arviadura, without centering. Later, 
we find Ghiberti's name in conjunction with that of 
Brunelleschi in the instructions for the preparation 
of still another model. This was of wood, and the 
general opinion is that the two masters worked to- 
gether in its production. As was the custom, all Flor- 
entines were invited to contribute to a general criti- 
cism of the work. Finally, as 
though submitting for the last 
time to its bugbear of attempting to 
obtain the best results by combin- 
ing the efforts of good men without 
recognized headship, the governing 
Committee of Four appointed an 
architectural triumvirate, consist- 
ing of Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, and 
Battista d'Antonio as builders of 
the dome. It would seem that the 
controlling hand was that of Bru- 
nelleschi — he having jealously 
made the problem his own — and 
that the presence of the others was 
to act as a drag-anchor on his am- 
bition, for his plans were not at any 
time granted more than 
reluctant sanction in the 
popular mind, despite 
their formal acceptance. 
It has been maintained 
that Brunelleschi was 
largely responsible for 
the last general competi- 
tion, and some have ven- 
tured the i)nntcndo that 
he was so certain of his 
own success that he per- 
suaded the committee to 
institute the broadcast 
competition simply to 




212 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



provide a larffe number of designs that might act as foil 
and background to the quality of his own. That his 
scheme of building was a daring one is seen in his 
own statement that he intended to do the work without 
centering. This is not to be construed literally, how- 
ever, for we have an old drawing which purports to be 
a faithful representation of the centering and scaffold- 
ing used in the upper part of the dome. 

Brunelleschi had not counted upon Ghiberti as a men- 
tor. The latter's activity in regard to the dome had at all 
points concerned design and suggestion, but never prac- 
tical construction. Both architects had their supporters ; 
intrigue developed ; finally Brunelleschi even spent a 
short time in jail. His ability was bound to have its effect 
in the end, and, knowing this and fully assured of Ghi- 
berti's vulnerable spot, he rid himself of his estimable 
compeer by a ruse, feigning illness, which promptly 
stopped all building. Battista d' Antonio cut so small a 
figure that his activity soon became merely nominal. 

Whatever these difficulties may have been, the joint 
model of Brunelleschi and Ghiberti for the dome proper 
was definitively accepted and in 1420 a program of con- 
struction or table of specifications for the finished work 
was drawn up. A discussion of these specifications will. 



with certain restrictions, provide an analysis of the con- 
struction of the actual dome. 

II. 

The F'lorentine dome is the first example in Christian 
architecture in which the full sweep of contour* is frankly 
expressed and effective from spring to crown. This is 
due chiefly to the particular type of internal construction 
which made possible the elimination of counterweights, 
or members rising to a given height on its exterior and 
serving as a kind of completely circular anchor buttress, 
as is the case in the Roman Pantheon and, in different 
fashion, in Byzantine drum and dome systems which 
were largely developed out of similar principles. No 
doubt this advantage had formed part of the conception 
of many an earlier designer, possibly even of Arnolfo's. 



* The tiuestion of the contour is considered throughout as the one point from 
which no deviation was permitted. We tind in the specifications the words : la 
iulH>la ha misiiia di quinto aculo. a clause siBnifyinsr that the line of contour is 
set down as the arc whose radius is four-tifths of the diameter of the dome, if., 
from corner to corner of its octagonal base. What is more, to refer to syntax 
purely, it is noteworthy that the indicative mode. has. appears in this statement, 
while in all other i>arts of the proRram involving new work the usual subjunctive 
form, should, appears. From this it would seem that the contour of the dome was 
in general a matter of settled history before Brunelleschi's time, and that at least 
to this extent the founder of the Renaissance in architecture figures more promi- 
nenth' as constructor than as architect proi^er. 




S. Maria del Fiore, Florence 
Diagram sliowing structural system of dome, relative thickness of shells, character of masonry, disposition of main and inter- 
mediate ribs, passages, cincture, and other motives. (From Durm) 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



213 



What is more, the work of the dome building had been car- 
ried up a short distance — its verticality of contour having 
made this possible — when the specifications of 1420 were 
approved, and a decided indication of its prospective sil- 
houette had therefore been at hand 
for some time. It becomes, then, a 
problem of completing: work already 
under way, although this aspect of 
the task does not by any means 
reduce the structural obstacles to 
be encountered. We should not, 
in view of these circumstances, 
hesitate to give proper credit for 
unusual farsightedness to the auda- 
cious fourteenth century masters — 
whose conception the dome as we 
have it really was, and who ingen- 
uously looked upon their task as one 
quite within the possibility of their 
own achievement. 

The specifications called for a 
dome of two shells, with void be- 
tween. The question at once arises : 
had this form of construction any 
definite prototypes, and what were 
its precedents ? While suggestive 
examples existed in a number of places, Florence itself 
included, the structural system of this dome is not in any 
sense a duplication of any building then existing. An- 
tiquity knew no such system, although it has been sug- 
gested that Brunelleschi derived his 
inspiration possibly from Roman 
skeleton rib vaults with horizontal 
bond courses, or more particularly 
from the Baths of Gallienus, which 
show a dome of semicircular section, 
supported on a decagonal substruc- 
ture with ten brick ribs rising from 
the angles and striking against the 
rim of an oculus above, and twenty 
intermediate ribs which, however, as 
though to spoil the 
suggestion, do not 
rise the full distance 
to this rim. The 
prominent example 
of the Pantheon itself 
could offer but little 
in the way of struc- 
tural study, since its 
structural system 
was not then even 
partially understood. 
In effect, however, 
its inspiration must 
have played a con- 
siderable role in Bru- 
nelleschi's ambition 
in Florence, due to 
his study of ancient 
architecture in con- 
junction with Dona- 
tello, although the 




Baptistery of Florence 




Cincture of Chestnut Beams and Mode of 
Making Joint 

See A in section. (From Simpson) 




Brunelleschi's Scaffolding 

(From Nelli) 



desire of Florence was for greater height and for pro- 
nounced exterior effect. In similar fashion the lesson of 
Hagia Sophia, which he had not seen, could be of slight 
assistance. There were good Byzantine examples in 
Italy at no great distance from Flor- 
ence — buildings using domes on 
drums but carrying the latter up to 
a point on the haunch and partly 
concealing the dome curve. There 
were also good medieval examples 
at Aachen, which is covered with a 
sloping roof, and at Pisa, which is 
elliptical in plan and of high section. 
A number of Italian baptisteries 
might have offered more than 
impartial suggestion : Florence, 
Parma, Cremona, for example. Of 
these the one at Florence, with 
which that at Cremona is practi- 
cally identical in construction, is 
perhaps most interesting in this 
discussion. This twelfth century 
building is eight-sided and sur- 
mounted by a pointed brick dome, 
springing from within the drum, 
with eight heavy angle ribs and 
sixteen lighter intermediate ribs, two on each side, 
numerically at least the exact equivalent of those in the 
duomo. The objection to this as a final model for Bru- 
nelleschi was that on each of its faces rise three barrel 
vaults whose height diminishes with 
the rising contour of the inner dome 
until they die against its crown, i.e., 
until their outer uniform plane be- 
comes tangent to the curve of the 
dome ; these vaults are covered by 
a low conical pen roof. This arrange- 
ment eliminated all exterior expres- 
sion for the actual curve of the vault, 
and the Florentine mind had too long 
visualized a bold dome motive on the 
cathedral as the hub 
of the city of the 
arts. Finally there 
was Arnolfo's dome 
as pictured in a fresco 
in the Spanish Chapel 
in S. Maria Novella, 
which shows a dome 
of bolder contour, — 
possibly a painter's 
modification, — but 
indicates the same 
general exterior 
treatment of the 
finished work. This 
was considered the 
actual conception of 
Arnolfo as conveyed 
to his successors, by 
them held inviolable, 
and quite probably 
incorporated in the 



214 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



design of the eight artists of the fourteenth century — 
Orcagna undoubtedly the leading spirit among them — 
whose ability has never been given due credit in this con- 
nection. 

The construction of the dome, then, is supposedly in- 
spired — quite obviously so, to a number of critics — 
from the Baptistery of San Giovanni in the same city, the 
effect being that of the whole baptistery dome con- 
struction elevated upon a drum. It would seem, how- 
ever, that Brunelleschi's modifications were of such 
importance — if modifications they are conceded to be — 
and the magnitude of his problem imposed such aggra- 
vated difficulties that he should be entitled to repute 
beyond that of the copyist. He was distinctly an adapter 
— great architects are always so classified — and he used 
the examples, forms and means at his disposal as the 
legitimate point of departure, in the same 
sense that the Roman adopted and then 
adapted certain Greek features, with- 
out loss of originality — if that precious 
quality be properly construed. Things 
already in general use are common prop- 
erty and cannot, so to speak, be patented. 
It is bootless to attempt to reduce Bru- 
nelleschi's architectural stature on the 
premise that there is nothing new under 
the sun. 

III. 

In actual construction the dome, which 
consists of eight interdependent surfaces, 
is of the cloistered type, involving no con- 
tinuity of surface and therefore not the 
suggested series of superimposed circles 
which give to the uniform dome much of 
its strength. It is built to a very high 
section, and achieves a height of 133 feet 
from its springing, or about 308 feet from 
the pavement, with a maxi- 
mum diameter of 138^1' 
feet. The drum, which 
forms its immediate sup- 
port, measures 40 feet in 
height ; its walls are 16 
feet thick and each of its 
faces is pierced with a cir- 
cular window similar to 
those of the nave clere- 
story. For nearly half its 
height the dome is built 
of carefully selected stones 
clamped and doweled to- 
gether ; the remainder is 
of brick. The two shells 
exist separately above a 
point about 16 feet beyond 
its spring, or nearly 8l4 
feet above the point where 
its curvature begins. The 
inner shell is, obviously, 
the heavier, measuring 
7 feet in thickness, and is 
built in three stages, their 




S. Maria del Fiore, Florence 
Diagram showinjj position and construction of lantern and treat- 
ment of crown and oeulus of dome 



thickness decreasing slightly upward. The thickness 
of the outer shell is practically uniform, varying only 
about 7 or 8 inches between base and crown. The void 
between the shells, which measures from 4 to 5 feet on 
the radius of the dome, is used for the disposition of 
stairways and passages. 

As for the construction in detail, we find again in 
consulting the specifications that the dome was to rely 
upon eight major and sixteen minor ribs, the latter spaced 
evenly two upon each side and all rising the full height 
from drum to oeulus above which the lantern appears, 
and all of the full thickness of both shells plus the space 
between them. Both sets of ribs decrease slightly as 
they rise, both in width and in thickness or depth. By 
this means of construction each dome face, measuring 
at its widest point about 53 feet, is in its free surface re- 
duced to a passive area of an aggregate 
width of only about 13'L' feet, and even 
this is reduced still further as it rises 
toward the crown. To gain further 
strength horizontally and for the fasten- 
ing of the shells to one another, three 
masonry rings were built into the fabric. 
These are of a type of slate known as 
macigno. As though even this arrange- 
ment offered insufficient assurance of dura- 
bility, the original specifications require 
that iron rings be inserted around those 
of niaci^^No, but these were not considered 
necessary as the work went on. In the 
same fashion six instead of the executed 
three belts of slate had been specified. 
The latter serve also to provide easy access 
levels from which all parts of the interior 
may be reached by interconnecting stair- 
ways. Less easily explained are the eight 
series of five segmental arches each, which 
were inserted between the major ribs, and 
which pass through the 
minor ribs; these are 
placed radially with refer- 
ence to the hypothetical 
center of the dome. The 
real effectiveness of these 
arcuated members has yet 
to be discerned. A further 
binding feature in the 
form of an armature of 
chestnut beams was intro- 
duced at a height of about 
10 feet above the first cir- 
cular passage. The pro- 
gram required five of 
these, but their utility 
would have been ques- 
tionable above the haunch 
of the doiTie. As addi- 
tional cinctures, chains 
were embedded in the 
solid masonry of the base. 
The lantern is only casu- 
ally mentioned in the spec- 
ifications. This feature 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



215 



was not a new one, but had never been given its adequate 
scope. There were then extant praiseworthy, though 
hesitating, examples in Pisa and Siena, as well as in 
Florence. The lantern should, in this case, be considered 
a necessary terminal feature for so large and massive a 
silhouette. It also demanded greater projection of the 
major ribs on the exterior, and so established a fine 
unity of leading lines, and more especially of structural 
design. 

New conferences held in 1424-25 led to a new set of 
specifications. Ghiberti's name still appears, and he is 
still credited, as was the case throughout his connection 
with the work, with a higher stipend than Brunelleschi. 
The new program required the small circular openings now 
appearing in the dome, it being stated that these were 
not only for light, but chiefly as 
points of support for the scaffold- 
ings of mosaicists. Experience 
demonstrated from time to time 
in course of construction that 
changes were feasible or advisable 
in the interests of better construc- 
tion and of economy of materials. 
What is more, Brunelleschi, being 
himself responsible chiefly for both 
specifications and execution, was 
permitted to use considerable in- 
itiative. 

The finished dome was dedicated 
in August, 1436, but the lantern, 
for the design of which Brunelleschi 
and (Ihiberti were again in compe- 
tition, was not completed until 
1467. An arcaded loggia around 
the base of the dome was begun 
during the fifteenth century by 
Baccio d'Agnolo ; it was completed 
along one side of the 
octagon when the 
undeserved ridicule 
of Michelangelo ' 
caused it to be aban- 
doned. It should be 
noted that after 1433 
Ghiberti's name no 
longer appears in the 
accounts of regular 
expenditures. In 
1443 we find record 
that Filippo Brunel- 
leschi is to be de- 
clared architect of 
the duomo for life on 
condition that the 
lantern be satisfac- 
torily completed, a 
ridiculous stipulation 
in view of his ser- 
vices up to that time. 
The honor was to be 
accorded him, says 
the Latin text, for 
the building of the 




S. Maria del 
Half section and half elevat 



dome and the lantern. Thus the lion and the mouse 
were brought together as equals. And Brunelleschi had 
been in sole charge of the works since 1423 ! He died 
in 1446, twenty years before the lantern was finished, 
and so forfeited the nominal honor which the quib- 
bling Committee of Four had brought itself to con- 
cede. 

Bibliographic Note. Since it was not possible to in- 
clude in the foregoing any deeper critical discussion of 
the dome fabric, nor to give its history in detail, the fol- 
lowing list of works of reference is added for the con- 
venience of those interested : 

Anderson : Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy, 
London, 1909 ; Cummings : History of Architecture in 
Italy, New York, 1901; Durm : Die Baukunst der Re- 
naissance in Italien, Leipzig, 
1914 {in Handbuch der Archi- 
tektur) ; Durm : Zwei Grosscon- 
structionen der Renaissance in 
Italien, in Zeitschrift flir Bauwesen, 
1887 ; Fabriczy : Filippo Brunel- 
leschi, sein Leben und seine Werke, 
Stuttgart, 1802; Frey : Le vite di 
Filippo Brunelleschi, scultore e 
architetto fiorentino, scritto da Gior- 
gio Vasari e da anonimo autore 
(Manetti), Berlin, 1887; Frey: Vita 
di Lorenzo Ghiberti, Berlin, 1886; 
Guasti : La cupola di Santa Maria 
del Fiore, Firenze, 1857; 
Guasti : Santa Maria del Fiore, la 
construzione della chiesa e del cam- 
panile secondo i documenti, Fi- 
renze, 1887 ; Moore : Character of 
Renaissance Architecture, New 
York, 1905; Nardini : Filippo di 
ser Brunellesco e la cupola del 
Duomo di Firenze, 
Livorno, 1885; 
Nelli : Discorsi di 
architettura, Fi- 
renze, 1753, with 
which is bound: Ce- 
cchini : Due discorsi 
sopra la cupola di 
Santa Maria del 
Fiore; Norton: 
Church Building in 
the Middle Ages, 
New York, 1880 ; 
Sgrilli : Descrizione 
e studi deir insigne 
fabbrica di S. Maria 
del Fiore, etc., Fi- 
renze, 1783; Simpson: 
History of Architec- 
tural Development, 
Vol. 3, New York, 
1911 ; Wenz: Die 
Kuppel des Domes 
Santa Maria del 
Fiore zu Florenz, 
(From Sgiilli) Berlin, 1901. 



Fiore, Florence 
ion of lantern. 



^ S iiiiiiiiii{ «<*<<<i<i<<<<'' ^'^ iSi:^^<^XiXfi^m^ 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

AN DENOTES •? * 

FOR-^THE^M ONTH 




S 



THE architect is primarily an artist no less than the 
painter or sculptor. His first thought in creating 
the design for a building is to have it possess certain 
qualities of beauty, to accord with the vision which his 
imagination brings before his eye. He conceives his 
building in mass with bold shadows and high lights to 
screen the detail, much as the sculptor shapes the contour 
and mass of a sculptural group. Unlike the painter and 
sculptor, however, the architect is not always permitted 
to carry to completion his design by his own personal 
effort, nor is he free to make it represent only his artistic 
ideas. He is surrounded from the first with considera- 
tions which impose severe handicaps upon creative ability. 

The actual production of architecture entails the labor 
of many more persons than that of the designer, yet his 
must be the guiding hand of all if the result achieved is 
to be a correct and sympathetic execution of his design. 
Clients are in general concerned only with securing a use- 
ful and efficient building to meet their needs, and con- 
sequently look upon the architect only as a necessary 
medium through whom they can best secure what they 
want. The architect is rarely consulted as an artist ; he is 
too often employed primarily to direct practical operations 
in a practical way. Since there are, strictly speaking, no 
patrons of architecture as there are of the other arts, and 
but few clients who build with the principal thought of 
giving concrete expression to an architectural design, it 
devolves upon the architect alone, in the average in- 
stance, to find the enthusiasm and desire to make a build- 
ing beautiful. He is by force of these circumstances 
compelled to approach his art in a spirit of compromise : 
on the one hand he has his ambitions as an artist to 
satisfy ; on the other he has certain practical considera- 
tions of planning, accommodation, and cost, determined 
by his client, to satisfy. He plays, therefore, a diffi- 
cult role even when he is fortimate enough to have a 
client who recognizes that profit and pleasure may be de- 
rived from an architecturally beautiful building. Even 
then many of his reasons for employing certain methods 
of treatment or securing scale among component parts 
must be misunderstood because of the lack of a complete 
knowledge of architecture on the part of his clients. 

In the designing of residences he more frequently 
meets with appreciative clients than in other classes of 
work, but even here conditions exist which are a source 
of much distress to his artistic predilections. The design- 
ing of a home has all the elements of interest in it that 
appeal to the creative imagination of the artist, and what 
architect does not experience pleasure when he thinks of 
the country house that he might design under ideal condi- 
tions ? With the attraction that residential design has for 
the architect it would seem that our domestic architecture 
ought to be of a high order. It is given to but few de- 
signers, however, to work under ideal conditions for the 
creation of domestic architecture, and this may in great 



measure be taken as the reason for the lower order of 
architecture that prevails in many instances to-day. 

In the design of important residences where the archi- 
tect meets with fewer restrictions of severely practical 
nature he is able to express in his buildings the personal 
tastes of his clients as he interprets them and provide a 
background for their lives that is in perfect accord with 
their individuality. 

The well informed and appreciative client is eager that 
not alone in the design of the exterior of his house shall 
the architect be the arbiter as to what constitutes pro- 
priety and architectural excellence — he desires the lat- 
ter's influence to extend to the design of each individual 
room and to the selection of the furniture and fittings that 
are to complete its livableness. It is to be regretted that 
such appreciation of the architect's ability and respect 
and admiration for his art are not manifested on the part 
of more clients, for with them the quality of American 
architecture would be immeasurably increased and the 
examples of well designed interiors utterly spoiled by 
association with inappropriate, if not ugly, furniture, and 
hangings would be less frequent. 

Architects, however, have the opportunity to influence 
these conditions for the better, and they should make a 
special eff^ort, in justice to their own work and the stand- 
ards of their profession, to educate their clients to a fuller 
appreciation of the dependence of the architectural design 
of an interior upon its proper furnishing and decoration 
to make a completely satisfactory result. Only with such 
a spirit on the part of the client and a desire on the archi- 
tect's part to furnish his advice in matters of furnishing 
after the structure has been completed can be sure that 
his finished work will truly represent him. 

WHEN the large auditorium at the University of Illi- 
nois was built in 1908 it proved to be unsatisfactory 
in its acoustical properties. Audiences found it difficult 
to hear speakers owing to marked reverberation and 
echoes. Dr. F. R. Watson of the Physics Department 
and James M. White, Supervising Architect, undertook 
to correct this fault by conducting a systematic investiga- 
tion involving a long series of experiments. " Bundles " 
of sound were projected in dilTerent directions and the 
paths of these were carefully traced. Various instru- 
ments, such as a ticking watch, a hissing arc lamp, and 
megaphones were employed, and curtains and draperies 
were hung at critical points suggested by the diagnosis. 

Certain of the walls were then covered with hairfelt 
mounted on thin furring strips, with the result that at 
present a speaker may be heard distinctly by auditors in 
the most distant seats of the large building. 

The investigations are described in detail in an illus- 
trated booklet issued by the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion as Bulletin No. 87. Copies may be had by addressing 
W. F. M. Goss, Director, Urbana, 111. 



216 



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NUMBER 



CONTENTS for SEPTEMBER 1916 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS 



Architect 
-Perktm. Fellowi & Hamilton 




FARMERS' TRUST COMPANY BUILDING, 

South Bend, Ind. 

GAZETTE TELEGRAPH BUILDING, THE 

Pittsburgh, Pa. _ Edward B. Lee and James P. Piper, Assoaaled 

HIDE HOUSE, A. F. Gallun &C Sons, Milwaukee, Wis. Brust & Phtlipp 

JOURNAL-COURIER BUILDING, THE, New Haven, Conn Murphy & Dana 

KENT BUILDING, Chicago, III Pond & Pond 

MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS OF 

Blumenthal Bros., Philadelphia, Pa. Stearns & Castor 

Central Bag Manufacturing Co., Chicago, 111. S. Scott Joy 

Havana American Co., Chicago, 111. George C. Nimmons 

Hump Hairpin Manufacturing Co., The, Chicago, 111 A. S. Alschuler 

Liquid Carbonic Co., Chicago, 111 Nimmons & Fellows 

W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa John T. IVindrim 

Edwin J. Schoettle Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Day & Klauder 

M. T. Silver & Co. and Sunshine Cloak & Suit Co., Cleveland, Ohio. . . J. Milton Dyer 
PRINTING HOUSE, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Chicago, III . Howard Shaw 

SERVICE BUILDING, PIERCE- ARROW, Long Island City, N. Y.^Gnffm & IVynkoop 

TULANE BUILDING, Chicago, 111. . ___ Pond & Pond 

WAREHOUSES OF 

W. Bingham Co., Cleveland, Ohio_ _ Walker & IVeeh 

C. A. Gambrill Manufacturing Co., Baltimore, Md. Parker, Thomas & Rice 

Midland Transfer Co., Chicago, 111. . .„5. Scott Joy 

Reid, Murdoch &C Co , Chicago, 111. George C. Nimmons 

J. R. Watkins Medical Co., Winona, Minn. George Maher 



LETTERPRESS 

PORTRAIT OF MICHELANGELO BUONARROTTI 

DOES IT PAY TO IMPROVE MANUFACTURING AND 
INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS ARCHITECTURALLY? .. 

Illustrations from Plans and Photographs 
THE MODERN MANUFACTURING BUILDING 

Illustrations from Plans and Photographs 
THE NATURAL LIGHTING OF MANUFACTURING 
BUILDINGS 

Illustration! from Photographs 
THE SANITARY EQUIPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 

Illustrations from Diagrams 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 

INDEX TO ADVERTISING ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Author 

George C. Nimmons 
John J. Klaber 

O. M. Becker 

H.L.Alt 



Page 
_ Frontispiece 

217 

231 



239 



243 






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Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 

Advertising Department, 42 West 39th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, payable in advance, U. S. A., Insular Possessions and Cuba ^5.00 

Canada ^5.50 Foreign Countries in the Postal Union 6.00 

Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 
Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 



Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Compa 



fpii n «iiB i m ii n i n ii n i i m'i 



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MUlui 




MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI 

BORN IN FLORENCE, 1474. DIED IN ROME, 1564. ARCHI- 
TECT OF LIBRARY AND SACRISTY OF S. LORENZO, 
FLORENCE: DOME OF ST. PETER'S, FARNESE PALACE, 
AND PALACE OF THE CONSERVATORS, CAPITOL, ROME 






THE BRICKBVILDER. 



VOLUME XXV 



SEPTEMBER, 1916 



NUMBER 9 



Does it Pay to Improve Manufacturing and 
Industrial Buildings Architecturally? 

ILLUSTRATED WITH REPRESENTATIVE MANUFACTURING 
AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS OF THE MIDDLE WEST 

By GEORGE C. NIMMONS. 



THE appeal which this question may make to the 
individual must depend, first of all, upon his esti- 
mation of its importance. In achieving the success 
which the manufacturing industries of this country have 
attained, it seems that they have exhausted almost every 
source which could aid them excepting architecture. 

The manufacturers and owners have not generally re- 
garded the architectural profession as one which could 
help them much in securing practical benefits and advan- 
tages in the planning and designing of their buildings, 
and on the other hand it 
seems as if the architects gen- 
erally have not cared to enter 
this field of work. 

As far as the architect is 
concerned I do not believe 
that he generally realizes the 
importance of the factory 
problem nor appreciates the 
opportunities which he as 
architect has for doing big 
things for one of the most im- 
portant business interests of 
this country. This is a com- 
mercial and industrial nation 
first of all, and yet architects 
generally have not entered 
this field of work to any con- 
siderable extent. The factory 
problem must certainly ap- 
peal to the architect on ac- 
count of the size and nature 
of it. There are altogether 
over six million, seven hun- 
dred thousand people engaged 
in manufacturing in this 
country, and in addition to 
these people are their families 
which average four and a half 
persons to the worker, mak- 
ing a total of over thirty-four 
million people, which is just 
one-third of the entire popu- 
lation of the United States. 




View of Tower; Sears, Roebuck & Co. Plant, Chicago, 111 
Nimmons & Fellows, Architects 



Of course, whatever influences and affects the welfare of 
the worker also extends down into his home and produces 
a corresponding effect there, so that we can truly say that 
the factory problem offers to-day one of the largest and 
one of the most deserving fields in which the architect 
can practise. 

If it is true that the architect is able, on account of his 
training and qualifications, to design and plan a factory 
building so that because of his services it shall be better 
than it otherwise would have been for the welfare of the 

employees and for the eco- 
nomic and profitable manu- 
facture of the product, then 
the architect who enters this 
field is surely doing some- 
thing well worth while. It 
seems, on the other hand, 
that if architects do not assist 
with this problem that they 
are ignoring the spirit of this 
commercial age, and are also 
missing one of the greatest 
opportunities for success 
offered them in our times. 

In spite, however, of the 
general disinclination of archi- 
tects and owners to get to- 
gether for a better solution of 
this problem, there have been 
a few architects and owners 
in recent years who have un- 
dertaken the solution of some 
of these problems together. 
What they have accomplished 
is perhaps only the beginning 
of bigger things to come as 
the work develops. Yet the 
changes that have been 
brought about in these cases 
and the unexpected improve- 
ments that have been made in 
factory and industrial build- 
ings in some instances have 
attracted considerable atten- 



218 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



tion and caused many people to wonder what the real 
reason and motives behind them were. The practical 
business man who is not familiar with them wants to 
know why some of our manufacturers and the heads of 
some of the big industries of the country have undertaken 
such movements and reforms. Is it all for philanthropy ? 
Does it affect the profits of the concern ? Is there any- 
thing to it which would tend to better the quality of the 
product handled ? Does it improve the efficiency of 
the men and the quality of the work they do? Has it 
even a bigger and more far-reaching meaning? Can 
it properly be classed with a movement to benefit hu- 
manity ? These are big questions and yet the reasons 
and the motives behind these men who are doing so 
much to improve factory and industrial buildings and 
the condition of the em- 
ployees seem to be just as 
big and important as the 
(juestions asked. It un- 
doubtedly is true that some 
who have gone in for these 
reforms have been actuated 
by purely selfish motives of 
profit; yet it often happens 
that the prerequisites and 
essential conditions for the 
highest efficiency and suc- 
cess financially nowadays 
are so intimately connected 
with these conditions and 
provision for the welfare of 
the employees and advan- 
tages of a high-class build- 
ing that one cannot be sepa- 
rated from the other, and 
the owner who would make the most 
money is the owner who has adopted 
these big reform movements. 

It does not seem fair, however, to 
attribute the majority of the credit 
for modern industrial reforms to 
selfishness, because the fine things 
that are being done for many big 
plants go way beyond the point re- 
quired for maximum profits. Un- 
doubtedly the cause of humanity still 
has many true friends and adherents, and not a few of 
these can be found among the heads of big industrial plants. 

On the other hand modern competition, aided by science 
and art, in manufacturing has set a pace so rapid and has 
necessarily intensified and speeded up the activities of the 
industries to such a degree that the conditions under 
which employees now work are far more severe and trying 
than they ever were before, and in addition to this the 
manufacturer is obliged on account of this competition 
and the shortening of working hours to secure the great- 
est efficiency in his plant, together with the most economic 
methods of operation in order to succeed in his business, 
so that now we have a situation where the employer is 
eager to take advantage of every agency that can assist 
him, and where the employee is in need more than ever 
of better conditions under which to work. 

A more auspicious time for architects generally to enter 




Rogers & Company Buildins*, Chicago, 111. 

Mundie & Jensen, Architects 




First Floor Plan 



this field could not have been devised, and on account of 
the inviting opportunities for success open to them they 
cannot fail to achieve results well worth the doing. 

Coming now to the discussion of what an architect can 
do for the improvement of factory and industrial build- 
ings, there appears to be more than any one writer could 
suggest or describe. It is the object, however, of this 
article to take up only those things which most obviously 
fall within the scope of an architect's work and to illus- 
trate in a general way some of the results obtained. 

In the study of a factory or industrial building the first 
thing an architect would naturally undertake to do would 
be to beautify the building or at least make it interesting. 
The question would at once arise as to the added cost. 
But before we come to that there is one other thing that 

the trained architect would 
do that stands first in the 
consideration of the prob- 
lem. He would study the 
requirements from all sides 
of the particular industry in 
hand. He would learn at 
least in a general way the 
essential processes and 
methods of handling the ma- 
terial and the product of the 
plant. He would then make 
a comprehensive plan that 
would provide for the future 
growth and would also pro- 
vide for the ideal manufac- 
turing or handling of the 
product, so that there would 
be no waste either in labor 
or the travel of material. 
The lighting, the ventilation, the 
sanitation, the safety, comfort, and 
convenience of employees, the in- 
surance, and the surroundings of the 
plant are also important features 
which he would take up in turn and 
adequately provide for. With these 
problems well in hand the designer, 
then, is in a position to mould them 
around in his plan and work out his 
elevations so as best to secure that 
other quality of the problem, — the beauty of the building 
and its surroundings. 

It is commonly supposed by the laity that whenever an 
architect undertakes to make a manufacturing plant at- 
tractive or beautiful in design, that the cost for construct- 
ing it is immediately increased materially and indeed often 
beyond the means available for such structures. The 
fact that this is absolutely untrue can perhaps best be 
shown by a few statements and the presentation of con- 
crete illustrations of some buildings where costs are given. 
In the first place, attention should be called to the fact 
that there are a great many essential elements in the con- 
struction of every building, such as piers, lintels, sills, 
openings, copings, gables, etc., which, without addingany 
unnecessary expense to the cost of the building, may be 
grouped, moulded, spaced, and so designed that they will 
add great interest to the exterior. Often the skilful 



ijg^— l^IBB 



1' 



t 



__] 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



219 



designer can take the same elements of construction pres- 
ent in a very severe and unattractive fac^ade and by 
transposing them around and moulding them into shape 
make of it a very beautiful building. Beauty in build- 
ings, of course, is not attained by plastering on expensive 
ornamentation, and the architect knows how to secure it 
without resorting to the addition of unnecessary and ex- 
pensive materials. 

There are some architects who are very clever in the 
use of brickwork whereby most attractive designs and 
patterns are secured by placing bricks in and out of the 
common plane of the building. These masses of brick- 
work make projections and depressions which with their 
shadows produce ornaments, or they may emphasize or 
express in a most interesting manner the construction of 
the building or its use. Then again there is the oppor- 
tunity in brick-pier construction of building the offsets of 
the piers outside of the building instead of inside as is 
the general custom. By placing the offsets outside as the 
pier goes up and grows thinner, the effect of a buttress 
construction is made which in itself is a most fertile 
means of adornment, as is so well exemplified in the old 
cathedrals. These methods of securing architectural de- 
sign employ absolutely the same materials as would be 
used in the plainest of buildings and therefore add no 
additional expense as far as the materials are concerned. 
Then comes the question of color. This thing which is 

so sensitive and 
sometimes so eva- 
sive to conquer is 
a thing so power- 
ful in its effect 
that the building 
may be absolutely 
hideous and unat- 
tractive, or it may 
appear perfectly 
suited to its sur- 
roundings and 
functions, and at 
the same time most 

First Floor Plan 






First Floor Plan 




Western Newspaper Union Building, Chicas<o, 111. 
J. C. Llewellyn, Architect 



National Candy Co. Building, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Hewitt & Brown, Architects 

attractive and 
beautiful, just in 
proportion as the 
question of color is 
properly and suc- 
cessfully handled. 
Color, as a rule, 
in these days of 
modern building 
materials is not a 
thing of extra expense, but a thing of good taste and 
proper selection. Brick, terra cotta, and other burned 
clay products can be secured in almost any tint of the 
rainbow at no greater cost for one color than another. 
The architectural palette from which one may choose 
without regard to cost is almost as large as that of the 
painter. The architect may, if he chooses, to suit some 
particular site make the whole building in monotone and 
match to one color the brickwork, terra cotta, and all 
visible materials, or he may undertake the more splendid 
effect of different colors and secure combinations as bright 
and gay as a flower bed. Bright colors properly com- 
bined are often a good antidote for coal soot and dismal 
surroundings. Different shades of color in the 
brick are a most effective means of working out 
patterns and designs in a wall that often make 
it most interesting. Two of the most difficult 
problems in color selection are the widely vary- 
ing carrying qualities of different colors and the 
effect of dirt on them after they are in the build- 
ing for a while. Some colors in certain finishes 
carry a long distance, while others rapidly grow 
dim and change in character as the distance 
from them is increased. It often happens that 
after a most careful selection of colors from sam- 
ples the effect is disappointing in the building 
because certain colors high up or far away from 
the common observation point do not carry, and 
lose their brilliancy and effect, thereby failing 
to produce the combination expected. It pays, 
therefore, to experiment and study the colors at 
long range, similar in distance to the distance 
from which they will be seen in the building. 

Perhaps the most frequent disappointment or 
failure to secure complete success in color selec- 



220 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



tion is that which results from 
timidity in handling brilliant col- 
ors. The more good taste a de- 
signer has, the more he seems to 
fear the possibility of some garish 
combination resulting from color 
selection, and rather than take the 
chance of this he frequently se- 
lects with ultra-conservatism and 
chooses those effects much lower 
in the color scale than the situa- 
tion demands, and the result is 
consequently disappointing, par- 
ticularly in the city atmosphere 
after the first covering of coal 
soot has been deposited. The 
writer has often heard architects 
admit after their buildings had 
been completed, and on which 
the color had not come up to their 
expectations, that they had really 
been afraid to go in for the 
strength of color which the prob- 
lems required. So long as the 
color scheme has to do with the 
combination of complimentary 
colors in their various shades and 
tints, it is usually the case that 
the most beautiful effect is ob- 
tained through a bold handling of 
strong and brilliant colors that 
will have carrying power, and that the dirt in the city 
atmosphei'e cannot screen from view after a few years. 

Then again there are many features of factory build- 
ings which provide opportunities for the designer to 
utilize architecturally without excessive cost. The most 
common perhaps of these nowadays is the requirement 
of the insurance companies for a sprinkler tank for fire 
protection. The insurance requirements for the size of 
the tank and its height 
above the roof of the 
building are nearly al- 
ways such as will make 
a beautifully propor- 
tioned tower in case the 
tank is enclosed with 
walls and roofed over. 
To construct enclosing 
walls and roof around 
such a tank adds com- 
paratively little to the 
cost of the essential 
supports of such a tank, 
for the reason that such 
walls can easily be car- 
ried on brackets or 
shelving attached to the 
tank supports, and the 
walls themselves need 
not be of heavy or ex- 
pensive construction. 
Such a tower, as a rule, 
has the effect of produc- 




Henncberry Building, Chicago, 111. 
Howard Shaw. Architecl 




Jelke Building, Chicago, 111. 
Huehl & Schmidt. Architects 



ing a dominant feature in the ar- 
chitecture of a plant and may be 
of great beauty and attractiveness 
in contrast to the unsightly, ugly 
water tank which often kills the 
architectural design. There are 
practical advantages for such 
towers that are of considerable 
importance. The tank itself is 
protected from the weather and 
the consequent freezing of the 
water, and deterioration of the 
materials and supports of the tank 
are thereby avoided. It also pro- 
vides a place for other water tanks 
such as are often connected with 
the plumbing of a building, and 
the additional area of several 
rooms in the shaft of the tower 
below the tank frequently fur- 
nishes some very useful, quiet, 
and well lighted office space. 

The necessity of constructing 
skylights, monitors, and ventila- 
tors on the roof, again sometimes 
provides a suggestion for the 
architectural design in the ele- 
vation of the building that may 
be moulded into gables, or other 
forms following the sections of 
the skylights, which are correct 
expressions of the structure and function of the building. 
These are only some of the leading features constantly 
occurring in the problems of manufacturing and indus- 
trial plants which give to the architect his opportunity for 
designing fai^-ades of great interest and attractiveness. 

The architect and builder can readily appreciate how 
the constructive elements of a building can be handled at 
small extra expense so as to make the building attractive 

and beautiful ; but the 
owner who is unfamiliar 
with these things usu- 
ally desires something 
more convincing than 
such statements. I do 
not know that any archi- 
tect has ever made pub- 
lic the actual cost in 
dollars and cents of the 
results of his efforts to 
make a building attrac- 
tive in design ; but in 
order to try and throw 
some light on this ques- 
tion I have taken a 
building which I con- 
sider is fairly typical of 
factory buildings in its 
requirements and used 
it as an example to illus- 
trate the extra cost in- 
volved. 

For the purpose of 



g.g^-^fajfjrr '^ 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



221 



making- a comparison an illustration of the C. P. Kimball 
Factory Building- is presented, and in addition a design for 
the same building in which every single thing which might 
add to its attractiveness has been taken away. This de- 
sigfn shows it with its ugly sprinkler tank on stilts above 
the roof and all the characteristic barren boldness of the 
"strictly utilitarian factory design." The contractors, 
Selden, Breck & Co., who built the building made an 
estimate of the cost to build the same building according 
to the "utilitarian de- 
sign" and the results 
are as follows: 

The Kimball Building 
cost approximately 
$326,000. The same 
building, as estimated 
by the contractor, would 
have cost, if built at the 
same time according 
to the "utilitarian de- 
sign," $311,043, so that 
the total saving which 
could have been made 
by adopting the latter 
design would have been 
$14,957. In other 
words, this relatively 
small additional expense 
saved this building from 
being an ugly eye-sore 
in the landscape. 

In the experience of 
the writer there is not 
one owner in a himdred 
who would expect this 
difference in cost be- 




First Floor Plan. C. P. Kimball Building 



tween these two designs to be anywhere near the low 
amount it is. They would more likely assume that such 
a striking difference in the two designs would cost from 
$50,000 to $75,000. 

Take, for instance, another example : the Administration 
Building of Sears, Roebuck & Company illustrated on page 
222. Almost the entire ornamentation of this building 
is secured by the use of terra cotta. The total cost of the 
terra cotta or the amount of the terra cotta sub-contract 

was $34,000 and the 
cost of the building over 
$650,000. The greater 
portion of this terra 
cotta consists of window 
sills, lintels, copings, 
and base courses which 
are essential elements 
in the construction of 
the building, and could 
not be omitted in any 
design for this build- 
ing, no matter how plain 
and unattractive the 
design might be — not 
even if we succeeded 
in getting it into the 
strictly " utilitarian de- 
sign " class. These ele- 
ments are a necessary 
part of the enclosing 
walls of the building. 
The ornamentation 
might be taken off the 
face of the lintels, but 
this ornament is made 
from moulds and its cost 




iKriKIU^^jM^. .Mk. ."t 



C. p. Kimball Manufacturing Building, Chicago, 111. 
George C. Nimmons, Architect 



222 



THE BRICK B. V I L D E R . 



is very nominal. Other material, such as cut stone, 
might be used, but as a rule the cost of cut stone 
sills, etc., is about the same as terra cotta and besides 
this cut stone is more difficult to support than terra cotta 
lintels and does not make as good or as waterproof a 
coping as terra cotta, so that the majority of this terra 
cotta would be necessary for the enclosing walls of the 
building. If, then, we were to make this change in the 
building, all ornamentation would be removed and there 
would be nothing left 
but a plain, severe box 
of a building without 
anything to relieve its 
severity. The total 
cost, therefore, of all 
that is ornamental or 
interesting is only $12,- 
000, or about 1.8 per 
cent of the cost of the 
entire building. 

Other buildings might 
readily be offered for 
further proof of the 
proposition imder dis- 
cussion, as many build- 
ings which are most 
attractive in design are 
dependent almost en- 
tirely, as this one is, on 
the terra cotta and brick- 
work as the material and 
means through which the attractiveness f)f the design is 
secured. In every one of these buildings in mind the cost 
of the ornamental terra cotta which is not essential to 
their construction is relatively very small indeed when 
compared with the cost of the building. 

Among the ornamental featxires of a building previously 
referred to was the enclosing of the sprinkler tank to form 
a tower in connection with the principal fac^ade of the 
building. It was stated that in order to secure low insur- 
ance rates the insurance authorities usually require a 
large sprinkler tank above the roof. It was also pointed 
out that the tank with its heavy load of water, anywhere 




National Cash Register Company Plant, Dayton, Ohio 

F. M. Andrews, Architect 



from thirty thousand to one hundred and sixty thousand 
gallons, required very substantial supporting columns and 
foundations, and that the additional strength in these 
supports necessary to carry enclosing walls was rela- 
tively small. This can readily be appreciated when the 
weight of the walls enclosing the tower is compared with 
the great weight of the water. As an example of 
such a tower the Reid, Murdoch & Company tower is 
shown. This tower is 38 feet square and 200 feet high. 

The water tank is steel 
and contains sixty thou- 
sand gallons of water. 
The estimated cost of 
all work to enclose the 
tank and form a tower 
above the roof was 
$16,000, which is only 
about l',i> per cent of 
the cost of the building. 
The tower is the domi- 
nating feature of the 
principal fat^ade and 
there is no one thing in 
connection with the 
building that could have 
been utilized as eco- 
nomically as this for 
similarly emphasizing 
the design and giving 
character to the build- 
ing. 

The tower in the Kimball Building before referred to is 
28 feet square and 108 feet high and contains a water tank 
of thirty thousand gallons. The cost to enclose this 
tower was $6,488. The water tank shown above the roof 
in the utilitarian design of this biiilding shows more forci- 
bly than words could describe how ugly such a tank is 
and how much it would detract from the appearance of 
any building. Another feature of this tower is that it 
has a belfry in which chimes of four bronze bells play a 
pleasant tune to mark the beginning and end of the 
working hours instead of the usual steam whistle and its 
jarring note. In connection with both towers above de- 




Administration Building, Sears, Roebuck & Company Plant, Chicaiio, ill. 
Nimmons & Fellows, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



223 



scribed, the additional floor 
space added by these towers 
should be taken into account 
when considering the addi- 
tional cost. 

In order to gfet some further 
testimony on this matter, a 
letter was written to Mr. Al- 
bert Kahn of Detroit, Mich., 
who has done so much in im- 
proving the architecture of the 
buildings for the automobile 
industry, and an expression 
of his views was asked. His 
letter in reply is as follows : 

" Replying to your note of 
April 25th, I find no difficulty 
in convincing an owner that 
it pays to build factory build- 
ings attractively, rather than 
without consideration of ap- 
pearance. The difference in 
cost should not exceed 5 per 
cent of the total outlay. This 
means $5,000 on a $100,000 
structure. The interest on 
$5,000 at 6 per cent is $300 
per year — a sum any one would gladly pay for merely the 
pleasure of owning a well designed building, to say noth- 
ing of the advertising value of such or the increased effi- 
ciency of the employees because of such. 

" I really feel that the matter of uninteresting, unarchi- 
tectural factory buildings is more the fault of the profes- 
sion than the owner. With many architects even to-day 
— though less so than formerly — the factory building is 
something to be delegated to the office boy and is not 
considered worthy of their best. That the number of 
these practitioners is growing less is proven by the better 
work being done to-day. 

" The principal thing now to be guarded against is the 
sacrifice of practical requirements in an effort to gain 
architectural results. The very root of good architecture 
is that it serve its function, and this applies to factory 
design as well as the more monumental building. Large 
areas of glass are necessary for proper work inside, 
make a virtue of this 
requirement is the 
problem. Nor is it 
necessary for making 
the factory building 




Albaugh Building, Chicago, 111 
Howard Shaw, Architect 



To 



attractive to lavish costly 
ornamentation, in fact, 
it often suffers in just about 
the proportion that such is 
used. Good mass, proper 
disposition of structural mem- 
bers, interesting skyline, and 
a judicious use in point of 
color and texture of the ma- 
terials employed are the im- 
portant factors, and these do 
not involve excessive expen- 
diture. Therefore, there need 
be little need for convincing 
the owner that good-looking 
factory buildings pay. It is 
distinctlyup to the architect." 
If, then, the opportunities 
are many, and at the same 
time not necessarily expen- 
sive for the architect to im- 
prove the appearance of these 
buildings, why should they 
not all be attractive or at 
least interesting? It would 
seem unnecessary to argue 
that beauty and attractiveness 
in buildings is desirable, as 
that is the distinguishing mark of advanced civilization ; 
but the hard headed business man likes something less 
general and more practical as a basis for his indorsement. 
The beautiful and attractive factory building has some 
very strong, practical reasons for its existence. In the 
first place it is a good advertisement. There is no one 
feature of a business concern, outside of the merit of its 
goods, which is as generally used to create a favorable 
impression among its customers as a picture of its build- 
ing, provided it is substantial and attractive looking. 
Experience has shown that the customer expects a reliable 
and trustworthy firm to succeed well enough to have the 
means to build a suitable building, and if they have the 
means to build and do not, then they lack confidence in 
their own future success. Therefore, one of the essential 

elements of success is 
at least a substantial, 
first-class, attractive 
building. If it is not 
attractive it is no good 







First Floor Plan 



Schulze Baking Company Building, Chicago, 111. 
John Ahlschlager & Son, Architects 



W. Illlllllllll 71 



Second Floor Plan 



224 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




GENERAL VIEW OF EXTERIOR 




VIEW OF ENTRANCE PAVILION 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN AND VIEW OF LOBBY 



MANUFACTURING BUILDING OF RICHMAN BROS., CLEVELAND, O. 
CHRISTIAN. SCHWARZENBERG & GAEDE. ARCHITECTS 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



225 




for advertising- and, on the other hand, the more attrac- 
tive or beautiful it is, the more favorable attention it will 
attract and the more gfood it will do as an advertisement. 
It is hard to estimate the great value which a fine build- 
ing is to the business of some firms. This advertising 
value must vary, of course, with the nature of the busi- 
ness; but as a rule there is an inseparable connection in 
the mind of the average customer between a fine building 
and first-class goods and a bad building and poor goods. 
Therefore if it pays to 
advertise, it pays to ad- f 
vertise through the me- 
dium of an attractive 
building, and the rela- 
tively small amount of 
money which an attrac- 
tive building would cost 
over and above the cost 
of an ugly one can be 
very properly regarded 
as an advertising in- 
vestment which will en- 
sure ample returns. 

A building that is 
beautiful, particularly 
if it is located in attrac- 
tive surroundings, has 
a very beneficial effect 
on the employees and a 
wholesome effect on the 
owner as well. A man cannot help but 
be infli:enced by the character of a 
building and its surroundings which he 
has to go to and work in every work 
day of the year. Every bit of enjoy- 
ment or satisfaction which a person ex- 
periences is just that much uplift and 
assistance for performing the duties 
of the day ; and if the building and 
its surroundings where a man works 
are such as to give pleasure and con- 
tentment on account of their beauty, 
then that building and its site are 
silently and perhaps unconsciously ex- 
erting a beneficial influence on all those around them. 

The feeling of loyalty among workers is also influenced 
by the character of the surroundings. It is much easier 
for a worker, if other things are equal, to pin his alle- 
giance to a place that is beautiful and attractive than to 
one that is ugly and for which he could not have any feel- 
ing of pride. The esprit c/c corps of a body of workmen 
has a strong influence on the character of their work, 
therefore the pride which they may have in their work- 
shop and the allegiance to their plant is a very important 
matter. 

The benefit which every beautiful building is to a com- 
munity and to a city has long been recognized, and it is 
always through the united efforts of the citizens in im- 
proving their buildings that a community or a city is 
made to grow and prosper. Every beautiful factory 
building benefits the owner by reason of the civic pride 
it fosters and the prosperity which it helps to bring to the 
community and the city in which it is located. 



Administration Building, Eastman, Gardiner & Co., Laurel, Miss. 
Frank Arnold Colby, Architect 




First Floor Plan 



The improving and perfecting of factory and industrial 
buildings architecturally have as much to do with the 
conditions siirrounding the workmen as with the beauti- 
fying of the buildings. The principal objects to be at- 
tained for the benefit of the employees are provisions for 
their safety, health, convenience, contentment, and the 
most favorable conditions for executing their work. A 
great deal has been done by many states and cities in re- 
quiring certain stairways and fire-escapes for exits in case 

of fire or panic. There 
is also the requirement 
of fire walls to act as 
a cut-off against the 
spread of fire into the 
different parts of the 
building. Yet in most 
cases the laws govern- 
ing these things have 
been the result of some 
awful catastrophe where 
the loss of life has been 
sufficient to stir up pub- 
lic sentiment requiring 
action on the part of the 
public officials. Then 
these officials, usually 
the aldermen of a city, 
frame up some law to 
prevent the recurrence 
of the particular acci- 
dent which happened in their locality. 
This law may not be comprehensive 
and usually is not sufficient to provide 
completely for the safety of the em- 
ployees under all reasonable circum- 
stances. The result is that laws vary 
in different localities, and there is hardly 
any locality which provides against all 
of the various horrible things that have 
occurred from time to time in different 
places. The benefit of the experience 
of the various localities might be gath- 
ered together and standardized for the 
whole country. At any rate, the archi- 
tect can and will very likely provide for safe exits whether 
the law in the locality compels it or not. There is one 
absolutely vital requirement for the safety of workers in 
a wooden floored building of any particular height, and 
that is that there should always be not only fire-escapes, 
but real, ample, fireproof stairways enclosed in substantial 
fireproof walls. 

In the fireproof building the architect can see to it that 
the fireproofing is really sufficient in case of fire to actually 
take care of the supporting and the load-carrying parts of 
the building. The prevention of accidents by machinery 
can be provided for in connection with the mechanical 
engineering. 

The health of the employees is a matter for which the 
architect can do much. The three things in every build- 
ing which are, of course, essential but which are not by 
any means always provided are good air, sanitary provi- 
sions everywhere, and proper plumbing. The various 
apparatus available for ventilation are so perfected that 



226 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



a good, clean atmosphere 
full of oxygen, at any de- 
sired temperature and of 
any required humidity, can 
be provided for almost any 
building. Sanitary condi- 
tions can usually be secured 
by the use of proper mate- 
rials, and designing and ar- 
ranging the parts of the 
building involved, and as 
far as plumbing goes Amer- 
ica leads the world in the 
perfection and excellence of 
its fixtures. 

Another most valuable 
feature for the workers is 
the hospital in connection 
with the factory, whether it be a complete one in charge 
of a physician and nurses or whether it consists only of a 
room with a cot and a cabinet of medicines. At any rate 
it is a most humane institution and is often the means of 
saving lives and relieving much suffering. 

To provide for the convenience of employees in a factory 
is just as much an architectural problem as j^roviding for 
the convenience of members of a family in a house. 
There is nothing that frets workers so much as the failure 
to have things conveniently arranged, particularly when 
it puts them to extra trouble and annoyance. The need- 
less climbing of stairs, or the unnecessary traveling of 
distances in the performance of their duties, and the 
failure to have things arranged for the convenient, eco- 
nomic handling of the product are frequently hindrances 




Jewel Tea Company Building, Ciiicago, III. 
Nimmons & Fellows, Architects 



which prevent the operation 
of a plant to the best advan- 
tage. The matter of con- 
venient arrangement in a 
building is one of the im- 
portant things an architect 
is trained to do. No one 
can possibly eliminate de- 
fects of this kind in a plan 
more readily than an archi- 
tect because it is part of his 
business to do so. 

There are many contribu- 
ting causes to the creation 
of a feeling of contentment 
among employees, yet it is 
most essential to have in 
order to secure their best 
work, their loyalty, and permanent service. Satisfactory 
wages, of course, is the first requirement, but in addition 
to that there are other things that are essential and some 
that have an important influence in securing contentment. 
Their safety, health, and convenience, as above argued, 
are essential ; and among the important influences should 
be mentioned their recreation, their entertainment and 
enjoyment. A workingman gets little time away from 
the factory for these things, and it has been found by those 
who have given the matter a fair trial that it pays to make 
provisions for the recreation, entertainment, and enjoy- 
ment of employees. 

The old saying about boys working all the time 
applies in these da>s to men more than it ever did to 
boys because of the intensity of things and the nerve- 






H"^ 



X 



First and Typical Floor Plans 

Arthur C. Dixon Building 



-r 



Typical Floor Plan 



Ham Building, Chicago, 111. 
Perkins. Fellows & Hamilton, Architects 



' ' ■ u ■ ■ ■ ' 

I Ml A — a — #^ '-L — ■— ■ — >— I 





First Floor Plan 

Ham Building. Chicago, 111. 



Arthur C. Di.wn Building, Chicago, III. 
Nimmons & Fellows, Architects 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



227 




ENTRANCE TO Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, SEARS, ROEBUCK & ENTRANCE TO AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY BUILDING, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



COMPANY PLANT, CHICAGO, ILL. 
NIMMONS & FELLOWS, ARCHITECTS 



N. MAX DUNNING, ARCHITECT 




ENTRANCE TO SEARS, ROEBUCK & COMPANY BUILDING, 
KANSAS CITY, MO. 

GEORGE C. NIMMONS, ARCHITECT 



ENTRANCE TO STEIN, HIRSH & COMPANY BUILDING, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

NIMMONS & FELLOWS, ARCHITECTS 



228 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



racking methods characteristic 
of most modern day industries. 

In addition to the above pro- 
visions for employees, the pro- 
viding and arranging of the 
facilities of the building most 
favorable for the execution of 
their work is of course a most 
important matter which affects 
the owner as well. A bviilding 
may be made to suit the work 
done in it most perfectly, or the 
reverse maj' be the case. The 
writer once saw a building so badly 
arranged that goods during the 
process of their manufacture were 
made to travel four times up and 
down the building before they were 
completed, while the fact in that 
case was that the material might 
have readily been assembled on the 
fifth floor and completely manufac- 
tured in one trip down to the ship- 
ping and stock rooms on the first 
floor. There is a great deal of lost 
motion and much time wasted both 
by machinery and men because 
many buildings are not arranged 
properly to suit the men or proc- 
esses of manufacture. Poor light 
at the critical places in a building 
where the important work is being 
done has a great deal to do with the 
quality of the work; weak floor con- 
struction which does not safely per- 
mit things to be piled at points 
where it is desired to concentrate 
goods, posts in the road and ceil- 
ings too low — all such things and 
many more are the result of igno- 
rance and inability to plan and ar- 
range a building properly on paper 
before it is built, and yet these 
are the very things an architect is 
trained to do and provide for better 
than any one else. 

We might continue and 
say a great deal more about 
defective factories and in- 
dustrial buildings and point 
out the damaging effect they 
have upon the output and 
the success of the concerns 
occupying them, but it 
might not be interesting and 
we want to add a word more 
about the workman himself, 
and then we are done. The 
value of a workman does 
not depend alone upon his 
ability or dexterity in his 
trade. The uniformity, 
the quality, and the quan- 




Plot Plan, W. B. Conkey Plant, Hammond, Ind. 

GeortJc C. Nimmons, Architect 




Central Bay ol Kngine House. St. Louis. Mo. 
Klipstein c& Rathmann, Architects 



tit.\- of his product depends to 
an important extent on whether 
or not he is contented ; whether 
he is well, happy, and interested 
in his work. It might be ar- 
gued that those things have lit- 
tle to do with labor capacity, 
and the man only works because 
he is obliged to make a living ; 
yet we positively know that the 
human machine will never oper- 
ate at its best under force or 
compulsion alone. It will wear out 
sooner and can never perform its 
functions ideally unless there is at 
least contentment, satisfaction, and 
an interest in the work. 

The sordid, unattractive, unsani- 
tary workshop cannot, from the 
very nature of the case, produce 
the quality or quantity of work by 
the men which a first-class, prop- 
erly equipped shop can. The hu- 
man machine must have the right 
conditions in which to work at its 
best, and therefore it is absolutely 
true that every single thing which 
a manufacturer can do within reason 
to improve the conditions and sur- 
roundings of his men is adding just 
that much profit to his business, 
and, at the same time, adding just 
that much benefit to the lives of his 
employees. The rapidity and in- 
tensity with which a man nowadays 
is compelled to work absolutely 
demand for the best results that his 
condition and surroundings be 
greatly improved over the old state. 
Again the workman's worth as a 
citizen in a community, and his true 
merit as a husband and father in his 
home, depend to a considerable de- 
gree on what his daily life is and the 
conditions surrounding it. There 
are at least eight hours to 
the working day, and they 
are sometimes long and 
weary ones. When these 
dreary times come it is a 
wonder that more men do 
not give up and succumb to 
j the alluring freedom and 
» independence of the vaga- 
bond. Nature evidently 
never intended a man to 
work quite as hard for his 
daily bread as factory work- 
ers do, and it is strange that 
they can resist as well as 
they do that inborn, persis- 
tent, and natural longing for 
freedom and the beauties 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



229 




of nature which were 
all intended for man, 
but which the factory- 
worker hardly ever 
enjoys. 

A man is swayed 
sometimes by small in- 
fluences and it often 
only needs the slightest 
overbalancing influence 
of good to keep him 
steady and faithful to 
his duty. The factory 
and its surroundings 
are often responsible for just that needed influence for 
good or bad. In one case it may mean the ruination of a 
man and also his home, and in the other it may mean his 
salvation. This may seem to be enlarging the influence 
which the factory exerts over its employees, and yet any 
one who has seen the dreadful conditions of not only a 
few, but a great many, factories in this country knows 
differently. Some of them are so bad that the wonder is 
that human beings can exist under their conditions as 
long as they do. 

This, then, I believe, presents some of the principal 
phases and aspects of the factory and 
industrial building problem. The field 
is wide open to the architect — in fact, 
it invites him, because of his peculiar 
fitness for the work, and I do not be- 
lieve that there is any agency that can 
do as much now for this big problem of 
our times as the architect. 

Finally, we might very properly, in 
connection with this whole subject, 
undertake to summarize the results of 
those employers who have done the 
most for improving the conditions of 
workers and who have taken the lead 
in having their own plants developed 
architecturally, yet generalizing these 
results would be difficult and probably 
not as effective as 
the presentation of 
some concrete ex- 
amples of the way 
these problems have 
been handled. We 
will, therefore, give 
a brief description 
of a few instances of 
these cases which 
may be taken as 
illustrations of what 
some of the most 
progressive con- 
cerns have done in 
this direction. 

Eighteen years 
ago the printing and 
book publishing 
firm of W. B. Con- 
key Company moved 



Diamond Manufacturing Co. Building, Detroit, Mich. 
Smith, Hinchman & Grylls, Architects 




First Floor Plan 




Arthur Colton Manufacturing Building, Detroit, Mich. 
Mildner & Eisen, Architects 



from an ordinary seven- 
story building in Chi- 
cago to a new plant 
which had been spe- 
cially designed and 
erected for them at 
Hammond, Ind. Up to 
that time the sawtooth 
roof which had been 
used with relatively 
small lights of glass in 
weaving sheds had not 
been applied to other 
kinds of factories in this 
country as far as known ; but in Belgium a firearms 
plant, and in Paris an automobile factory, had been built 
with sawtooth roofs with successful results, and it was 
decided to use them for this printing plant. The entire 
working part of the factory was covered with a sawtooth 
roof with the glass surfaces 11 feet high facing north 
everv 28 feet. The result was that the entire printing 
plant was almost as light as day. The press room was 
located in the center of the building and the activities of 
the plant revolved more or less in a circle around this 
press room and terminated in the stock or shipping room 
located next to the railroad tracks, as 
shown by the plan. As a part of the 
scheme for the building, it was decided 
to introduce some features which at that 
time were more or less novel in the 
printing business, at least. First were 
the long lavatories, absolutely sanitary, 
the locker rooms with individual lock- 
ers, the lunch rooms with hot coffee, 
the bicycle storage rooms for the help's 
wheels, the rest rooms, the library, the 
little hospital with its ready dressings 
and medicines, the recreation room with 
the piano and dancing floor, and, best 
of all, the little five-acre park in the 
front of the plant with its flowers and 
walks, its lily pond and recreation 
ground for the 
amusement and en- 
joyment of the em- 
ployees. Recently 
the writer called on 
Mr. Conkey and 
asked him, " How 
about this park in 
front and all these 
things you have 
done for your peo- 
ple ? After eigh- 
teen years' trial, 
can you say that it 
pays ? " He replied, 
"If I were to do 
it all over again, 
I wouldn't change 
a thing, and I 
wouldn't omit a 
single thing that we 



230 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



have done for our people; it has paid and paid big." 
Testimony of this kind might be gathered from the owners 
of many plants where things of this kind have been done, 
but it would be few of them who could date their expe- 
rience back as far as Mr. Conkey, as eighteen years ago 
there was very little welfare work done among employees. 
They were left to shift for themselves. Now it is not at 
all uncommon and it shows a growing concern and regard 
for the welfare of employees by the owners. 

As an exception to the rule in a class of factories which 
have been proverbially bad in their lack of provisions for 
employees, the Havana-American Tobacco Company's 
plant in Chicago may be of interest. The employees of 
cigar factories are usually drawn from the poorest class of 
people, and the interior of these factories are about as 
dirty and unsanitary as any that can be found. The odor 
of the tobacco in the cigar-rolling rooms of all these fac- 
tories has a peculiar effect on the workers. It is inclined 
to make them go to sleep, particularly where the ventila- 
tion is poor. In the .South, in Cuba and Florida, the 
workers have an entertainer in each room who keeps 
them awake while they work by reciting or reading some- 
thing to them, usually a tragedy of some kind which 
is delivered with all the emotion and fire of a genuine 
.Shakespearian performance. In the Havana- American 
plant the workrooms were made light, airy, and sanitary. 
In fact, the workers operate under saw-tooth skylights with 
fine mechanical ventilation . They are provided with plain , 
well lighted, and sanitary lavatories, locker rooms, and 
lunch rooms with hot coffee. Cigar makers are paid on 
the piece basis, and in the old plant they seemed to come 
and go pretty much as they pleased under the rules of 
their union. The difficulty was to get them to work long 
enough in a day to produce the number of cigars desired. 
The interesting feature of the new plant, however, is that 
they do not want to go home when the closing hour comes. 
They are so much more comfortable at work in this new 
shop than they were accustomed to be, and so much more 
so than many of them would be at home, that they have 
to be turned out in the evening when it is necessary to 
close down the i)lant. 

There are two great industrial ])lants at which this wel- 
fare work for employees has been developed to a higher 
state and carried on at a larger scale than in any other 
places in the country. These are the plants of Sears, 
Roebuck <S: Company of Chicago, 111., and The National 
Cash Register Company of Dayton, Ohio. Sears, Roe- 
buck & Company's plant occupies a site two blocks wide 
and half a mile long. A street runs the long way through 
the property, dividing it into two parts. The buildings 
occupy the ground largely on one side of this street, and 
the land on the opposite side is taken up by the gardens 
and recreation grounds. There are ten thousand em- 
ployees to care for. Provisions are made for serving 
them all with lunch in the plant. There are cafeterias, 
lunch counters, and restaurants where anything from a 
sandwich to a porterhouse steak can be bought at a price 
intended to cover only the actual cost so that there is no 
incentive on the score of economy to take time from their 
recreation hour in going to or from home at noon. When 
the weather is fine, there is diversion outdoors to suit 
almost any taste. In the sunken garden opposite the Ad- 
ministration Building there is a pond and pleasant walks 



and paths along which some of the best flowers of the 
different seasons are kept in bloom. There are green- 
houses in another part of the grounds. Next to the gar- 
den is the athletic field where they had an audience of 
twenty thousand people at their last Annual Field Day. 
The field contains a regulation baseball diamond, a run- 
ning track and grounds for various other outdoor sports, 
together with separate field houses for men and women 
with lockers, shower baths, and the usual ecjuipment. 
Next to the athletic field are the tennis grounds containing 
thirteen of the finest kind of tennis courts — tennis and 
baseball being the favorite outdoor sports. At the other 
end of the grounds is the Sears, Roebuck & Company De- 
partment V. M. C. A. Building, where there is a large 
gymnasium with running track in the gallery and all the 
modern apparatus in addition to a regulation swimming 
tank, bowling alleys, billiard rooms, etc. In the interior 
of the various buildings almost everything that could be 
devised has been furnished for the safety, health, com- 
fort, and convenience of employees. They used to keep 
statistics on " headaches " and other ailments that occur 
to employees, and they found a surprising diminution of 
all these things after they moved from the old buildings 
into the new ones where modern ventilation, lighting, and 
good food at lunches were provided. There is a fully 
equipped hospital department done in white tile and sani- 
tary materials in charge of a regular practising physician, 
nurses, and a dentist where a lot of good work is done 
continually. There are rest rooms, a library, and now 
plans are being considered for a banquet hall and place 
for holding large meetings. The employees are urged 
to save their money and at convenient places there are 
United States mail boxes into which they can drop their 
pass-books and savings. In connection with this there is 
a regular savings bank with receiving clerk, paying teller, 
and the other officers where they can transact almost 
any kind of banking business. 

The National Cash Register Company of Dayton, Ohio, 
has, almost since its inception carried on a most praise- 
worthy welfare work among its employees. It is an 
immense plant, consisting of substantial and attractive 
buildings located in beautiful grounds. Almost every- 
thing which modern science and skill could do for the 
health and comfort of the employees in its plant has been 
done. It was not only done at first as the result of a 
kindl\ impulse, but it is a sincere and iiermanent policy of 
the firm which has resulted in keeping this work up with 
the development of the plant. The most striking thing 
perhaps which the firm has done for its people is the 
manner in which the.\ have encouraged them to own their 
own homes and to beautify them with flowers and gardens. 
Certainly the city of Dayton ought to, and probably does, 
appreciate the great benefit of this plant to the city. 

In conclusion the writer wishes to call particular atten- 
tion to the work of other architects which has been very 
kindly contributed for illustration in this article. It is 
representative of present work in the Middle West and 
shows beyond doubt a wonderful improvement over what 
was formerly done. It clearly indicates that an earnest 
movement has been started in this locality to improve 
and perfect the architecture of factory and industrial 
buildings, and it illustrates well many of the arguments 
for which the writer has contended in this article. 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 137. 




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VOL. 25. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 138. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



SIXTH FLOOR PLAN 



FARMERS' TRUST COMPANY BUILDING, SOUTH BEND, IND. 
PERKINS, FELLOWS & HAMILTON, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 139. 




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VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 140. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE COURT 



THE HUMP HAIRPIN MANUFACTURING COMPANY BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 
A. S. ALSCHULER, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 141. 



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GENERAL VIEW FROM CHICAGO RIVER 




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FIRST FLOOR PLAN 





DETAIL OF CLARK STREET WING 



BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN 

REID, MURDOCK & COMPANY WAREHOUSE, CHICAGO, ILL. 
GEORGE C. NIMMONS, ARCHITECT 



DETAIL OF TOWER 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 142. 




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VOL. 25. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 143. 




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CENTRAL BAG MANUFACTURING COMPANY BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 

S. SCOTT JOY, ARCHITECT 




VIEW OF UNIT FRONTING ON WESTERN AVENUE 



MIDLAND WAREHOUSE, CHICAGO, ILL. 
S. SCOTT JOY, ARCHITECT 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 144. 










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THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 145. 




FACTORY BUILDING OF M. T. SILVER & CO. AND THE SUNSHINE CLOAK & SUIT CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO 

J. MILTON DYER, ARCHITECT 




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WAREHOUSE OF THE W. BINGHAM COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO 
WALKER & WEEKS, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 146 







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THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 148. 



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VOL. 25. NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 150. 




GENERAL VIEW FROM REAR 




VIEW OF PRINCIPAL FACADE 



FACTORY BUILDING OF BLUMENTHAL BROS., FRANKFORD, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
STEARNS & CASTOR, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



PLATE 151. 





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PIERCE-ARROW SERVICE BUILDING, LONG ISLAND CITY, N. Y. 
GRIFFIN & WYNKOOP, ARCHITECTS 




WAREHOUSE OF THE C. A. GAMBRILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, BALTIMORE, MD. 

PARKER, THOMAS &. RICE, ARCHITECTS 



VOL. 25, NO. 9. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



PLATE 152. 




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The Modem Manufacturing Building. 

ITS DEVELOPMENT AS REPRESENTED IN RE- 
CENT STRUCTURES IN THE EASTERN STATES. 

By JOHN J. KLABER. 



THE factories built in recent years in the United 
States are very different from those of fifteen or 
twenty years ago. Then almost any structure with 
four walls and a roof was usually considered adequate for 
factory use ; now, on the contrary, it is becoming gener- 
ally recognized that the building of a factory is as deserv- 
ing of study as that of a church or a residence. 

The problem is, of course, very different from that pre- 
sented by most other types of building. Early factory 
buildings followed closely the prevailing forms of private 
dwellings, with small windows, complicated planning, 
and inappropriate types of ornamentation, and it is only 
within the last few years that the true requirements of 
the problem have come to be at all generally understood. 
The purpose of a factory building is, essentially, to 
conduce in every way to the most profitable manufacture 
of some article, be it shoes, electric lamps, or baby car- 
riages. This point must never be lost from view in the 
preparation of the design, and everything else must be 
subordinated to it. But this does not mean that there 
must be nothing in a factory but the bare essentials of 
manufacturing. Other elements, of a more personal 
nature, may well enter, in so far as they are of value, 
either directly or indirectly, to the essential purposes of 
the building. 

For this reason an interesting architectural treatment, 
provided it does not involve undue expense, is of great 
psychological value. The providing of pleasant and 
cheerful surroundings for the workman has been found to 
increase his output by stimulating him mentally *^o a 
higher degree of interest in the work in hand, and is 
therefoi'e an excellent investment, even considered from 
a strictly selfish standpoint. And, apart from this, it is 
hard to understand why any manufacturer should refuse 



himself the personal gratification of owning a handsome 
building rather than a sordid and uninteresting one, par- 
ticularly when, as is usually the case, the difference in 
cost is relatively small. 

Nevertheless, one still finds that the majority of fac- 
tories are constructed without any serious or intelligent 
effort at good design, and even where this has been at- 
tempted it has often been unsuccessful, because the de- 
signer has proceeded along lines fitted only to other 
classes of building. The better buildings, however, are 
often of great merit, and their example should be of value 
to others who have occasion to design similar structures. 

It is in the Middle West, and particularly in such cities 
as Chicago and Detroit, that the most striking progress 
has been made. This is easily understood, in view of the 
more rapid growth of this section and its less degree of 
dependence on traditional types of design. But in the 
East, also, many excellent factories have been erected in 
the past few years. 

The principal types of building that are used for manu- 
facturing have become fairly well differentiated and may 
be divided, generally speaking, into three groups — the 
machine shop, the weaving shed, and the loft building. 
The last named is by far the most generally used and is 
that in which, architecturally speaking, the most interest- 
ing factory work has been accomplished. There are also 
various special forms of buildings, including powerhouses, 
coal bunkers, and the like ; but there are few of any 
architectural interest, for these types have received even 
less attention from the architect than the factory. 

Plamiiyig. The machine-shop and weaving-shed types 
of factory, both one story in height, have usually been 
constructed only where land was of small value, and have, 
in consequence, been generally of the baldest and most 




Otis Elevator Company Plant, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Green & Wicks, Architects 
231 



232 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



utilitarian character. Their plans have, in general, been 
desigrned by engineers rather than architects, and based 
almost wholly on structural considerations. The neces- 
sity, in machine shops, for the use of traveling cranes to 
transport heavy machinery has produced an arrangement 
of wide bays that is familiar to all, but that has seldom 
received any architectural treatment, the structural forms 
being left in their most primitive and unadorned state. 

The weaving-shed type is equally utilitarian, being 
used not only in textile mills, for which it was originated, 
but in various other types of manufacturing. The two 
types are frequently used in conjunction with each other 
and with other buildings several stories in height, the 
height tending to increase with the cost of the ground. 

It is only in the multi-story or loft-building type that 
the plan becomes a matter 
of architectural interest. 
Here it is no longer a ques- 
tion of erecting sheds com- 
posed of simple posts and 
trusses, designed by an 
engineer, for in the loft 
building problems arise 
with which the engineer 
is altogether unfamiliar, 
and which only an architect 
is accustomed to solving. 

The greatest and most 
frequent error is that of 
covering too great a per- 
centage of the area of the 
lot, particularly in more 
or less congested cities. 
This inevitably results in 
defective lighting, with 
consequent poor work- 
manship and large bills 
for electric light, and often 
causes the abandonment of the building after a short 
period of occupancy. In New York City the losses to in- 
vestors from this form of misguided enterprise have been 
enormous, and yet the same mistake continues to be 
made in new developments, each individual owner trying 
to put upon his neighbors the burden of providing the 
necessary open spaces. Where a single owner — indi- 
vidual or corporation — develops a large area at one time, 
this mistake is less likely to occur ; but in smaller build- 
ings it seems that there is no way of preventing it except 
by drastic legal methods, and these are gradually being 
introduced in many cities. 

Natural light from a fairly clear sky will seldom pene- 
trate into a building more than 30 or 40 feet with suffi- 
cient strength for manufacturing purposes, although the 
use of diffusing glass — prisms or factory ribbed • — is an 
aid in this matter. Sixty feet, where the light comes 
from both sides, may be taken as an average width for 
maximum effectiveness, with the ordinary 12 to 14 foot 
ceilings, though in congested sections this is often ex- 
ceeded, the less lighted parts being used for storage, cir- 
culation, or other suitable purposes. 

The plans of typical factories show, in different degrees, 
this conflict between the necessity for adequate lighting 
and the desire for the maximum utilization of the avail- 




HiKlson Companies Power House, Jer.sey City 
Robins & Oakman, Architects 



able space. In many cases the ground floor almost 
completely covers the lot, the central portion having top 
light only, while in the upper stories courts have been left 
between the wings of the building. The arrangement of the 
Pierce- Arrow Building is somewhat special in that only 
the front part of the structure has as yet been carried to 
its full height, the wings being left for future develop- 
ment. This gives unusually good light for the time 
being, but when the building is complete, the lighting will 
be somewhat less excellent, though still far superior to 
ordinary standards. 

The Auerbach Candy Factory shows unusually wide 
floors, exceeding 100 feet. This, no doubt, is due to the 
nature of the industry, enabling a large part of the space 
to be used for purposes requiring little natural light. 

While it is evident from 
these examples that cer- 
tain industries require 
more abundant light than 
others, there can be no 
doubt that in the vast ma- 
jority of our factories the 
floor widths are excessive 
and that the output suffers 
in consequence. This is 
particularly true of the 
commercial loft building 
or tenant factory, a type 
that is becoming more and 
more general in the manu- 
facturing districts of large 
cities. 

The internal arrange- 
ment is, in general, deter- 
mined by economical col- 
umn spacing, since the 
partitions usually carry no 
weight, being merely re- 
movable divisions of light construction, adopted as a mat- 
ter of convenience and capable of being shifted about as 
the development of the business may require. For the 
usual fireproof construction, with average loads, a spacing 
of columns from 16 to 25 feet on centers is ordinarily the 
most economical, and such a spacing has practically be- 
come the standard for the best practice. There are, 
however, many exceptions to this rule, as in the Pierce- 
Arrow Building, where the exceptionally wide spacing of 
v30 feet has been used in order to accommodate large 
automobile trucks. But this wide spacing has necessi- 
tated the use of very heavy girders and would not be 
advisable except in a special case of this nature. 

Where the floor areas are very large, they are often 
divided by fire walls, and although this hampers superin- 
tendence to some extent, it is a valuable measure from 
the standpoint of fire protection. Where such fire walls 
are used, all openings in them must of course be pro- 
tected by adequate self-closing fire doors, otherwise their 
entire value disappears. These details, however, are usu- 
ally controlled by law, the practice varying in different 
cities and states ; and in the absence of local regulations 
the rules of the insurance underwriters may be taken as 
standard. 

The planning and location of stairs and elevators are 



IN. J. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



233 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



among the most difficult problems in buildings of this 
type. They should be located so as to be convenient to 
all parts of the building, and at the same time to interfere 
as little as possible with lighting, and to form the least 
possible obstruction to floor space. The solution of this 
problem must be determined specially for each individual 
case, depending on the requirements of the building and 
the shape of the ground. The location of stairs and ele- 
vators along party walls, where these exist, is a natural 
and obvious solution and one that is generally adopted. 
Where, however, the floor areas are very large, additional 
means of exit must be introduced, their location varying 
according to individual conditions. 

The size of elevators depends mainly on the bulk of the 
materials to be handled and the number of employees to 
be cared for, and may be determined for passenger eleva- 
tors by rules similar to those currently used for office 
buildings. The stairs, on the other hand, are usually 
fixed by law, being required as fire exits. The New 
York State Factory Law, for instance, requires that all 
stairways in factories erected after the passage of the law 
shall be at least 44 inches in clear width, with treads of 
at least 10 inches and risers not over 7% inches. Winders 
in stairs are prohibited, the stairs must be entirely 
enclosed in fireproof partitions for their full height, and 
must, in general, be continuous from the roof of the 
building to the street. They must also be proportioned 
to the floor area and to the number of employees, so that 
their planning is a matter requiring the greatest care. 

For the support of overhead shafting the usual method 
is to install inserts in the underside of the floor slabs, 
spacing them from 18 inches to 2 feet or more on centers. 
To these inserts the shafting hangers are bolted. In 
other cases the hangers are bolted to wood strips, which 
are similarly fastened to the under side of the concrete 
beams, as in the Pierce- Arrow Building. 

In another building a very ingenious and unusual de- 
vice for supporting shafting has been used. Grooves 
have been cast in the sides of the concrete beams and 
girders, so as to allow the suspension of hangers at any 
point, by means of hooks clamping around the lower 
flange of the beams. 

Fire Protection. Even when the building itself is of 
fireproof construction, its contents and fittings are often 
of an inflammable nature. For this reason precautions 
must be taken to protect the contents against the spread 
of fire, since insurance, while it may repay actual mate- 
rial loss, can never make up for the loss of time and good 
will caused by any serious interruption of an industry. 

It has therefore been generally accepted as good prac- 
tice that all openings should be .protected as fully as 
possible. Windows in modern factories are almost imi- 
versally provided with steel sash, which avoid the fire 
risk of wood sash at practically the same cost ; and where 
wire glass is used, as is very generally the case, this pro- 
tection may be considered almost perfect. 

Doors are also made of metal or of metal covered wood, 
with wire glass panels where necessary. The doors lead- 
ing to stairs are of particular importance in this respect. 
It is generally accepted that these doors should open out- 
ward, but it often happens that they swing into the pas- 
sage, so that the crowd from upper floors prevents the 
opening of the door on the floors below. The fire towers 



of the Auerbach Candy Factor\- show an arrangement by 
which this danger is avoided by enlarging the stair land- 
ings at this point — a device worthy of more general adop- 
tion. 

Elevator doors are usually made to slide and are as 
substantially built as is possible without undue expense. 
It is important that they should close their openings com- 
pletely so as to prevent the spread of fire from one floor 
to another. 

In addition to the above measures, automatic sprinklers 
are usually installed where complete protection is desired. 
These greatly lower the insurance rates, the reduction 
being enough to pay for their installation in a very few 
years. The pipes, in factory buildings, are suspended 
from the ceilings, no attempt being made to conceal them, 
as is often done in office buildings and stores. 

The layout of sprinkler pipes must of course be ar- 
ranged to fit the spacing of the ceiling beams, which varies 
considerably in diff"erent examples, but it should be as 
simple as possible while allowing a sufficient number of 
automatic heads. A fioor area of 80 to 100 square feet 
per head is generally accepted as standard practice. 

Where the buildings are heated, the pipes are kept con- 
stantly filled with water ; but where there is danger of 
freezing, the dry pipe system is employed. Here the pipes 
are filled with air under pressure, so that the melting of 
one of the heads allows this air to escape and admits water 
to the pipes. When properly installed, an automatic 
sprinkler system is undoubtedly the most efficient fire 
protection, as it puts out the fire before it has time to be- 
come a serious danger. In some cases, however, goods 
have been seriously damaged by water from sprinklers, 
and there may be some types of industry where the dam- 
age from water would be so much greater than that from 
fire that their installation would be inadvisable. 

Heating. Steam heat is generally employed in factory 
buildings, the exhaust steam from the power plant being 
the ordinary source of heat, so that the cost of heating is 
almost nothing. Where power is taken from the outside, 
a separate heating system must be installed, and the ex- 
pense is accordingly greater, although the low cost of 
electric power service, in some localities, may make this 
arrangement more profitable. Ordinary radiators or pipe 
coils are used, depending on the available wall space, and 
where the floor area is large, additional radiators are himg 
on the interior columns. Pipes are also run around the 
skylights to prevent condensation and keep them clear of 
snow. 

Architectural Treatment. It is only within recent years 
that the necessity of any architectural treatment for in- 
dustrial buildings has begun to be recognized in America, 
and even now this recognition is far from general. In 
this matter we are less advanced than some of the coun- 
tries of Europe, where artistic factory design is compara- 
tively common. Nevertheless, we can show some ex- 
amples of good design, though most of them are 
characterized by careful study rather than by originality of 
conception. 

The materials used in factories lend themselves readily 
to certain types of decorative treatment, with an expense 
that is trifling, relatively to the total cost of the building. 
Concrete is, without a doubt, the most intractable of these 
materials. Used alone, it is difficult to obtain a pleasing 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



235 




GENERAL VIEW OF EXTERIOR 





THIRD FLOOR PLAN 

— ' F" 



FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



DAIRY BUILDING OF THE SHEFFIELD FARMS, SLAWSON-DECKER CO., NEW YORK, N. Y. 

FRANK A. ROOKE, ARCHITECT 



238 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




INTERIOR VIEW OK MAIN Mwt l.DING SHOP 



rHIS building is one-half of a complete unit which will 
be 800 feet long and 115 feet wide. The design of the 
facade expresses the structural principle of the building, 
for in contour it follows the form of the roof and wall 



trusses which are so designed that a continuous glass area 
is had from wall to wall in the sides of the lantern. The 
double line of columns beneath the central bay makes pro- 
vision for a traveling crane. 



MALLEABLE IRON FOUNDRY BUILDING. GENERAL ELECTRIC WORKS, ERIE, PA. 

HARRIS & RICHARDS, ARCHITECTS 



Natural Lighting of Manufacturing Buildings. 



By O. M. BECKER. 



NEXT to the selection of the site — with which the 
architect commonly has little if anything- to do — 
and the determination of the type of building re- 
quired by the location and nature of the productive proc- 
esses therein to be carried on — with which the architect 
should have much to do — perhaps the most important 
single element in the desigfn of industrial buildings is the 
provision for good lighting. The almost universal past 
indifference to the value of good and sufficient light, both 
directly in larger output and better product, and indi- 
rectly in better health and increased 7noralc of the work- 
ers, only emphasizes the 

important duty of archi- WI'.flW'i"|i|il I'iW'H" '!>" 'I'' 
tects charged with in- 
dustrial designing in 
this respect. 

The modern factory 
plant is not merely a 
shelter for workers, 
tools, and materials ; it 
is itself a tool. Not in- 
frequently it is a greater 
factor in production effi- 
ciency than the ma- 
chines or tools which it 
houses. Certain it is 
that dark, ill lighted 
work rooms are not only 
unhealthful for the 
workers in them, but 
are pretty sure to be 
dirty, ill kept, slovenly, 
and that the workers in 
greater or less degree 
become the same. Well 
lighted shops, on the 
other hand, unquestion- 
ably make for good 
health, relieve eye 

strain, tone up a working corps, ensure a better product 
with less waste, and reduce the accident hazard. Inas- 
much as window area is usually less expensive than blank 
wall, certainly no more so with single glazing, it would 
appear that the only consideration that could be urged in 
ordinary work rooms, in limiting the lighting area, is 
that of loss of heat during the winter months. While 
there is some ground for this, it in no wise compares with 
the advantages already cited. 

It may be stated as a general proposition that all the 
wall area of a work-room building not essential as support 
for the structure should be given over to window open- 
ings. Wood-frame buildings can scarcely be considered 
for industrial purposes. Next to these the mill-construc- 
tion building with brick walls permits of the least win- 
dow area. The modern steel-frame or reinforced concrete- 
frame building with brick or concrete curtain walls is 
not only the most desirable industrial building, generally 




Effective Side Lighting 

Wrought steel sash permits maximum strength for large openings with 
minimum obstruction. Movable sash may be designed to operate in any 
convenient way desired. This building, used in the manufacture of a food 
product, will bear studying for other features also. 



speaking, but permits and makes convenient the largest 
use of glazing. 

In some instances architects appear to have gone almost 
to excess in this matter, the result being literally houses 
of glass built around steel frameworks. If kept reason- 
ably clean, such buildings would approximate outdoor 
daylight conditions and would be desirable for some 
kinds of production activities perhaps. Allowed to become 
begrimed with dust and dirt, however, they soon reach the 
point where the object of such construction not only is 
defeated, but at all times presents the difficulties inherent 

in a hothouse, trapping 
the sun's heat and creat- 
ing uncomfortable con- 
ditions on hot, sunny 
days. 

The area required for 
satisfactory lighting 
naturally varies with 
conditions, not only of 
production, but of loca- 
tion. Where but little 
of the skylight is shut 
off by adjacent build- 
ings, the window area 
should be at least 50 
per cent of the wall 
surface exposed to the 
interior, and it may 
well be as much as 80 
per cent. If light is 
cut off by surrounding 
buildings, the glass area 
requisite must be pro- 
portionately larger than 
would otherwise be 
necessary, according to 
the obstruction, and not 
infrequently may need 
to be all not essential to supporting the structure. In this 
connection it is necessary to consider also the possibility 
of future obstructions to light, and to make provision so 
far as possible to take care of contingencies. 

The width of the floor also must be considered . If greater 
than 40 or 50 feet, all available wall space would better 
be glazed. It is, however, very undesirable to make use 
of floors of a width very much greater than this, not only 
because of the difficulties in the way of good lighting, but 
because of fire hazard and certain difficulties in ventila- 
tion, if not in heating. Experience has shown that 60 
feet in multi-story buildings intended for general manu- 
facturing purposes is quite satisfactory. This width is 
sufficient to permit the arrangement of machinery to good 
advantage, and satisfactory lighting if light can be ad- 
mitted from both sides. With this width, however, ceil- 
ings must be 12 to 15 feet above the floors, and window 
openings are to reach from about the ceiling line to a 



239 



240 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Effects Obtainable with Sawtooth) Roof Ligliting 

In spite of the forest of belts and wilderness of transmission and coun- 
tershafting here, the daylight effect is remarkable. 

point say 3 feet above the floor. In the case of ware- 
houses less light is essential, and where it is desir- 
able to store materials against side walls the windows may 
have their sills considerably higher. Even in buildings 
intended for this use, however, care must be taken not to 
shut out light to the point where obscurity results. 

The form and location of window areas will depend 
upon the type of building and materials of construction. In 
best recent practice in the case of reinforced concrete frame 
structures the light openings cover all the space enclosed 
by the structural members except low curtain walls for 
some distance above the floor level. In steel frame build- 
ings, whether covered by brick or concrete, a similar 
area is feasible and generally desirable. In a brick 
structure where the walls form the supporting members, 
obviously the openings must be reduced to a point where 
there will be adequate strength in the masonry walls. 

The form and style of sash is 
equally important with the size and 
location of light areas. The cus- 
tomary styles of wood sash, or of 
wood protected by metal sheathing, 
are scarcely feasible where open- 
ings are so large. Besides being 
clumsy in operation and difficult, 
in such situations, to design with 
architectural effect and strength at 
the same time, they take itp a con- 
siderable proportion of the opening. 
Pressed metal sash are open to a 
similar objection, althotigh they 
avoid the fire hazard of the wood. 
Wrought steel sash are, all things 
considered, most desirable in in- 
dustrial buildings. They admit 
something like 20 per cent more 
light than the ordinary form of 
sash, are stronger and stiffer, offer 
excellent fire resistance when suit- 
ably glazed, do not stick in opera- 
tion, and permit almost unlimited 
ventilation. 

The matter of ventilation is one 



that must be considered in connection with win- 
dows. While it is entirely feasible to design and 
install reversible heating plants so that the same 
may be used for providing suitably conditioned air 
during the warm season, owners are slow to see 
the need for this, and in most instances it is neces- 
sary to provide for summer ventilation through a 
large use of movable sash. Sliding sash are fea- 
sible but permit at the best, under customary con- 
ditions, but half of an opening being utilized. 
Furthermore they require balancing either by use 
of weights or springs, or by being counterbalanced 
one against the other. Pivoted sash are to be 
preferred on both accounts, as well as because 
simpler mechanically, less expensive, and more 
easily operated, either singly or collectively. 
A vertical swing permits adjustment so as to obtain 
greatest advantage from outside breezes ; but in 
most situations the horizontal pivot is preferred. 
This is especially the case where light-diffusing 
glass is used in the sash. 

Both side walls should be provided with windows, un- 
less of course the building is much narrower than already 
indicated as allowable. Much has been said in recent 
years of the ill effects of cross lighting. The ill effects 
may be admitted ; but they result not so much from the 
admission of light from two directions as from misdirec- 
tion of the light. It is essential that there be an even 
diffusion, no shafts of light, and obscure depths. With a 
moderate width of room and a large glazed area this will 
usually take care of itself. Where these conditions are 
impossible, or where adjacent structures shut off light, it 
is necessary to make use of diffusing glass. For this 
purpose ribbed or prism glass is most satisfactory and 
easily kept clean. The latter is better than the former. 
The ribs or prisms are to run horizontally — never verti- 
cally unless it is necessary to direct light into some corner 




Method Combining Advantages of Sawtooth Roof and Lantern Lighting and Ventilation 



Supporting trusses and continuous sash, as here applied to the sawtooth, in combination 
with large side lighting area, make it possible to get the much desired north light effect in 
buildings of the foundry and erecting shop type. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



241 



not otherwise illuminated. Maze glass breaks up 
light more effectively, or rather diffuses it more 
completely in all directions, and is to be used in 
comparatively narrow buildings, say up to 25 or 30 
feet wide, to break up direct sunlight and secure 
an effect somewhat resembling the much desired 
north light. In such buildings so glazed the win- 
dows should be on one side only. In wider rooms, 
say to 60 feet, factory ribbed glass is required ; 
and in still wider rooms, sheet prismatic glass is 
required. The ribs as mentioned are to be parallel 
to the floor. 

In specifying glazing the mistake should not be 
made of setting the whole window area with trans- 
lucent glass. Work people at all sorts of employ- 
ment, whether manual, clerical, or mental, are sub- 
ject to eye strain and headaches, and the train of ills 
consequent if they have no relief for the eye 
muscles. Such relief is most simply had by fre- 
quent looks away from the work in hand, prefer- 
ably out of a window. The lower portions of all 
windows therefore should be glazed with plain 
glass. It may be pointed out also that plain glass 
is much more easily kept clean and is cheaper — two very 
good reasons for its use where diffusing glass serves no 
purpose. It should be borne in mind likewise that pro- 
vision facilitating cleaning should not be omitted. In 
some types of building it may be necessary to provide 
platforms or supports for platforms. In most cases, 
however, it will be sufficient to require hooks or bolts 
for portable scaffolds or platforms, or for the cleaner's 
harness. 

Facing the light, even when well diffused, is very fa- 
tiguing to the eyes, as universal experience should teach. 
The consequence of work benches and machines being 
disposed so that workers must face windows therefore is 
pernicious and mischievous and results in measurable 
loss in production and spoiled materials. It is entirely 





Example of Roof Lighting by Means of Flush Skylights 



In this foundr}- the chief dependence foi' illumination is the large area of flush skylights 
These can be made very effective, but involve some difficulties and disadvantages also. 



Direction of Light Has Much to Do with Fatigue and Consequently with 
Efficiency in Production 

Work benches and machines ought not be so placed as to compel workers 
to face the light, or to receive it on their backs. This arrangement is 
good. A better would be to set benches at an acute angle with the light 
source, so as to permit momentary glances outside with least effort and 
distraction from work. 



feasible to arrange both machines and work benches so 
the light will fall upon the work from the side instead of 
from front or back, which latter is almost as bad as the 
former. A still better method is to dispose them at an 
angle less than a right angle, to make it possible for work 
people to glance out the window momentarily to relieve 
the eye strain with least effort and loss of attention to the 
work in hand. This, of course, applies in the case of side 
lighting such as is necessary in multi-story buildings. 

Another matter that must receive cognizance, especially 
in buildings of the type thus far under consideration, is 
that of possible additional buildings so nearly adjacent as 
to interfere with the influx of light. When adjacent land 
is in the control of the owner of the plant involved, this 
can usually be taken care of. Otherwise it is necessary 
to plan against the contingency of 
another owner disregarding the 
light needs of your buildings. 

There can be no question of the 
superiority of well designed 
methods of lighting from the roof ; 
and wherever feasible, as mani- 
festly it is not in multi-story build- 
ings except for the top story, this 
should be utilized to the full either 
as a sole method or to supplement 
side lighting. Two objects are of 
primary importance in roof light- 
ing : the avoidance of the glare and 
heat of direct sunlight and even 
suffusion of the working area. The 
latter can be accomplished by almost 
any method that really takes advan- 
tage of the diffused light of the sky, 
and as previously pointed out both 
can in considerable measure be se- 
cured by proper installations of side 
lights, although not to the same 
degree as well designed roof 
lighting. 



242 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



Until recently the usual method of lighting from the 
roof, used in large buildings of the foundry or erecting 
shop type, was by use of "monitors," improperly so 
called, or "lanterns" surmounting the roof angles. 
Usually this method has been used in combination with 
side lighting, and frequently some such method is neces- 
sary yet in very wide and high buildings. Such lanterns 
perhaps facilitate ventilation, but certainly lack in effec- 
tive illumination. A recent modification of the lantern 
method is a great improvement in that it takes advantage 
of a sky exposure either by swinging batteries of sash, 
or by being set at an angle to the vertical, or by both 
methods. The sides of such a lantern, when it has more 
than one glazed side, 
are set much farther 
apart than has been cus- 
tomary, and the effect is 
virtually that of a saw- 
tooth roof with a limited 
number of teeth . A shop 
of this type can be as 
well ventilated and 
about as well lighted 
as out of doors. Ex- 
perience has shown that 
in a foundry so designed 
the moulders tire less 
and produce consider- 
ably more output. 

The flush skylight, of 
comparatively recent 
origin, is an improve- 
ment upon the ordinary 
lantern or monitor light- 
ing. So far as amount 
and intensity of light is 
concerned over the area 
penetrated this method 
fills the requirements. 
The difficulty generally 
is that the light is too 

intense and along with it there is much of the hothouse 
heat effect of captured direct sun rays, making the work- 
ing areas frequently uncomfortable and at times intoler- 
able. Of course in hot seasons the under surface can be 
whitewashed or otherwise covered so as to intercept some 
of the light. All these methods, however, have disadvan- 
tages and are not recommended. The substitution of 
more or less translucent fabrics or similar materials is not 
satisfactory either. The use of diffusing glass in consider- 
able measure reduces the ill effects, but introduces another 
difficulty in maintaining the same in a sufficiently clean 
condition. Non-leaking settings are now available and 
are essential. There must also be provision for taking 
care of the drip of condensation in buildings for most 
purposes. The necessity is obvious in most kinds of 
manufacture. 

Where such a roof is feasible, glass tile in combination 
with clay or cement tile are available, as are cement tile 
with water-tight glass settings. This forms a very satis- 
factory roof for many purposes. 

The sawtooth roof introduced into this country a few 
years ago, when properly designed, is imdoubtedly the 




In Very Wide Buildings it Is Necessary to Diffuse the Liglit Admitted so as to 
Reach and Evenly Illuminate the Central Portions of Work Rooms 

Tills is accomplished by use of various styles of moulded glass. Ribbed 
or even prismatic sheet jjlass is required in case of very deej) rooms. The 
ribs must run horizontally ; and the lower portions of the sash should be 
glazed jilain, so as to permit workers to relieve their eyes by looking out. 



best method of lighting now available in buildings to which 
it is adapted. It is, however, of prime importance that 
such a roof shall conform to the requirements of good 
sense, otherwise as has not infrequently happened the 
very object is defeated. 

A sawtooth roof, then, takes advantage of light from 
the north in the northern hemisphere, avoiding direct 
sunlight so far as possible. The teeth are not so small 
that the structural and unglazed parts cover so much area 
that the aperture is greatly reduced. And the glazing is 
set at a suitable angle to the perpendicular — in the lati- 
tude of New York approximately 30 degrees. The angle 
may be greater farther north, the purpose being to make 

it maximum without at 
the same time permit- 
ting direct sunlight to 
enter in appreciable 
amount. Setting the 
sash vertically, as has 
been done in many in- 
stances, practically de- 
feats the purpose of such 
a roof. 

In early roofs of this 
type there were difficul- 
ties arising in connec- 
tion with the drainage 
of the valleys. The 
simple expedient of 
short valley slopes drain- 
ing through the roof by 
conductors followingthe 
supporting columns or 
other structural mem- 
bers reduces this diffi- 
culty. The use of hori- 
zontally ribbed glass 
here also aids in dis- 
tributing light thor- 
oughly. For reasons 
previously mentioned — 
the relief of eye strain in the workers — it is desirable 
that all buildings lighted from the roof should have also 
some plain glazed side windows if the work carried on 
is at all exacting. In rnany kinds of industries of course 
this is unnecessary. 

A word is desirable as to the conservation of light also. 
In many work places the interior soon becomes grimy, if 
not dirty, even if the surfaces and contents of the rooms 
originally were light colored. Dark surfaces absorb light, 
whereas light tints reflect and diffuse. It is therefore 
important to keep interior surfaces clean and light colored. 
Whitewash is most commonly used, and if sprayed on the 
walls is the cheapest material. It either flakes off, how- 
ever, or in time becomes thick with repeated coatings 
and is not so desirable as flat paint or other coating that 
adheres closely and is practically non-absorbent. Ma- 
chinery, customarily painted black, should likewise be 
light colored. White is not so effective or desirable as a 
greenish gray, for color also bears a direct relation to 
fatigue resistance and it has been proven by carefully 
conducted tests that gray tones promote the maximum 
efficiency. 



The Sanitary Equipment of Industrial Buildings. 



By HAROLD L. ALT. 



L 






"7^ 



Screen 



^ 



Fig. L 



INDUSTRIAL buildings 
may be roughly classified 
— as far as sanitation gfoes 
— into two distinct groups. 
First, those in which high 
class work is performed by 
more or less skilled operators, 
some of which are likely to be 
women ; and, second, those in 
which rough and heavy work 
is done, these usually being 
occupied entirely by men. To 
the first group belong all the 
factories for small metal 
parts and devices, clothes, 
cameras, and so on ; to the 
second belong such buildings 
as foundries, planing mills, car 
shops, shipyard buildings, 
steel works, and similar estab- 
lishments. 

The architect will find him- 
self more at home in the de- 
sign of plumbing for buildings of the first class, the fix- 
tures for them being more or less in accord with stand- 
ard plumbing practice for all good buildings ; whereas 
in the second class the employees, from the rough and 
begriming nature of their work, do not appreciate nor 
need elaborate fixtures, and to any one accustomed to 
what is commonly termed "first-class work " the fixtures 
and substitutes for fixtures (which are sometimes found to 
give the most satisfaction in buildings of this kind) are 
rather startling in their apparent crudeness. 

In designing sanitary work for such buildings the fol- 
lowing requirements must be considered : state labor 
law, local building requirements, city plumbing ordi- 
nance, number of employees, sex of employees, locations 
of larger groups of employees, distance to toilet facilities, 

initial cost and ,^ 

£3. 
upkeep. ^ 

The buildings Ll! 

of the first class 
employ good, sub- 
stantial fixtures 
with some modi- 
fications for serv- 
ing a large num- 
ber of employees. 

The state labor 
law usually pro- 
vides for the 
number of fix- 
tures, ventilation 
of rooms, number 
of lockers, etc. 
The building 
code generally 
covers the type 



of construction, thickness and 
material of floors and walls, 
and other details of construc- 
tion, while the plumbing code 
is likely to cover the piping of 
the fixtures and methods of 
venting same. These may 
overlap or interlock in a more 
or less confusing manner, and 
a careful study of each must 
be made in order to meet all 
the interrelated provisions. 

In general the toilet-room 
floors should be of a water- 
proof substance, concrete 
being the material commonly 
employed ; this should be fin- 
ished around the wall with a 
sanitary cove base and the 
[^ walls should be of non-absor- 
bent character, if possible. 
The toilet-room partitions 
should also be of an imper- 
vious nature, the favorite materials being iron and slate — 
iron generally considered the more serviceable. 

The number of fixtures is always a subject for discus- 
sion, but the labor law of one of the greatest manu- 
facturing states in the union allows a sliding ratio of 
water closets to occupants running from 1 to 17 for small 
numbers up to 1 to 30 for 300 or over. Urinals are al- 
lowed to be substituted for men's water closets up to 
one-third of the total men's fixtures required ; thus : 



Typical Arrangement of Toilet Rooms in Buildings of 
the First Class 



For 1000 men, 



HMI()<, 



;!0 equals thirty-four fixtures re- 




Fig. 2. Detail of Piping for a Battery of Lavatories 

243 



quired, of which one-third can be urinals, or eleven, and 
the remaining twenty-three fixtures water closets. If the 
employees consisted of 500 men and 500 women, then the 
number of fixtures for men would be •"'"Kso, or seventeen 
fixtures, of which one-third, or five, would be urinals and 

twelve water 
closets. For the 
women the num- 
ber required 
would be •"'"%o,or 
seventeen water 
closets. 

The lavatories 
under the same 
law are based on 
from 1 to 20 to 1 
to 25 employees 
unless lead, 
chemicals or 
other poisonous 
substances are 
used where the 
ratio is made 
1 to 10. The 
writer personally 



244 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Fig. 3. 



believes that the ratio of 1 to 20 is entirely too high and 
that 1 to 10 should be used at all times to encourage per- 
sonal cleanliness among the employees. 

Among buildings of the first class the tendency is to 
separate the lockers and washing facilities, placing the 
lavatories or wash sinks either in the toilet rooms or adja- 
cent thereto, as shown in the typical arrangement given 
in Fig. 1. In these better class buildings it is the custom 
to provide separate porcelain lava- 
tory bowls, — often buff in color, — 
although enameled iron can be se- 
cured at less cost. 

The piping of a large number of 
bowls with a separate trap, waste, 
and vent for each bowl rapidly runs 
into a considerable expenditure. 
Permission can usually be secured 
from the local authorities for work 
of this kind to place from one up to 
six lavatories on one 2-inch trap. 
This dispensation is often obtained 
on account of the local influence pos- 
sessed by the owners of a large plant 
and the realization of the authorities 
that such work is not rightfully sub- 
ject to all the refinements included 
in the scope of modern sanitation. 

The piping for a battery of lavato- 
ries such as is shown in Fig. 1 is 
given in Fig. 2, where two bowls are 
shown connected to each trap. This 
arrangement can be enlarged by con- 
necting more bowls on the end of 

the 2-inch waste until the limit of six is reached. Over 
this limit the stopping up of a single trap would inca- 
pacitate so many bowls as to make such economy unwise. 
The individual enameled iron lavatories are similarly 
piped, and an end 
elevation of the pip- 
ing is given in Fig. 3. 

In buildings of the 
second class the 
lockers and washing 
facilities are usually 
combined in one 
room so as to make 
the fixtures as handy 
as possible. Under 
these circumstances 
an arrangement such 
as shown in Fig. 4 is 
used, and sinks of 
galvanized iron are 
generally substituted 
in place of the lava- 
tories. In this room 
are shown two sides 
with 27 lockers each, 
or 54 lockers, a double 
middle row of 40, one 
row of 23 along the 
outside wall , two rows 
of 7 each along the 



inside wall, and 48 in the groups adjacent to the two 
sinks, making a total of 179. 

Where sinks are used, 20 inches of side, not counting 
the ends, is considered the equivalent of one lavatory, so at 
the ratio of one lavatory to every 10 men there will be re- 
quired 179/10 equals 18 lavatories, or 18 x 20 inches equals 
30 lineal feet of sink. Each sink having two sides this 
means the overall length of sink equals 15 feet. This 
amount of lavatory space can be ob- 
tained in stock sizes, as two sinks 
each 6 feet long, or two each 8 feet 
long; but as the ratio of 1 to 10 is 
low, the two sinks 6 feet long would 
be enough. 

These sinks are supplied through 
convenient faucets, but have only one 
waste and vent. They are installed 
with non-syphoning traps as shown 
in Fig. 5, wherever the local restric- 
tions can be modified to permit such 
an arrangement. It is advantageous 
to adopt this arrangement if pos- 
sible, as it obviates the carrying of 
a vent up to the ceiling at every 
fixture. 

In the toilet rooms it is customary 
to arrange the fixtures together as 
closely as possible, water-closet stalls 
being seldom over 30 or 32 inches 
wide and 2 feet 6 inches deep, with- 
out doors. In the women's toilets, 
doors are, of course, often used and 
are even required by the factory laws 
In such a case the stalls are necessarily 
Entrances to toilets in buildings where 



W//////////}//?///. 



End Elevation of Piping for a Battery 
of Lavatories 



n 



K 



El 



Z7 LocKcs 



m some states. 

made 4 feet deep. 

both sexes are employed should be carefully screened, 

and toilet rooms for ditlferent sexes should be separated 

by solid partitions of 
full height. 

For the 187 em- 
ployees whose locker 
and wash sinks are 
shown in Fig. 4 a 
toilet room somewhat 
as shown in Fig. 6 
is suggested. The 
number of fixtures is 
obtained as follows : 





























































MLocfers WZoc/TefS 
ZoLocXerj 
























































































ZO LocXers 

















,^ — 

































X^I^OCffers 



lOLcclfers 



Z7Locffe>'3 



m 



Typical Arrangement of Lockers and Washing Facilities in Second 
Class Buildings 



187 divided by 20 equals 
9 fixtures required. 

9 divided by 3 equals 
3 urinals. 

9 minus 3 equals 6 
water closets. 

One lavatory and a 
slop sink are also 
usually placed in each 
toilet room. Were 
these employees fe- 
male, a toilet room 
somewhat as indi- 
cated in Fig. 7 would 
make a good arrange- 
ment. 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



245 



Water closets of the wash-down type either with or 
without the jet are much used, generally with a flush 
valve. The automatic compression tank closet makes a 
more ideal fixture, but it is more expensive. Both these 
closets are of such common type as to make a discussion 
of their characteristics unnecessary here. The low and 
high tank types of closet are little used, owing to their 
being subject to troubles from tampering. Water-closet 
ranges are in use in ^-^ ^^^ 

some of the steel mills §1 br— ^"'O^'- 

and foundries where 
a large part of the 
force is formed by 
ignorant and careless 
foreigners on whom 
up-to-date accommo- 
dations would be, to 
a large extent, a 
waste of money. 

The best type of 
urinal is undoubtedly 
the 18-inch stall fix- 
ture such as is shown in 
a better and 
fixture 




^^^^^^^^???^???^ y//////////y////yyy/////////////y. 

< 

Fig. 5. Detail of Plumbing for Wash Sinks in Second Class Buildings 



Fig. 8, this keeping the floor in 
cleaner condition than any other style of 
The slate urinal of trough type with an inclined 
back and perforated flush pipe is also much used, although 
when all things are considered it is, if anything, more ex- 
pensive than the fixture shown. Where slate urinals are 
installed on upper floors, lead safes have to be provided to 
prevent leakage troubles. The lip urinal is not satisfac- 
tory for industrial use and on a trough urinal 24 inches of 
length is considered equal to a single stall fixture. 

The location of toilets should be determined to permit 
the employees' access to them without too long a walk in- 
volving loss of time from their work. In a long narrow 
building two toilets, one in the middle of each section, are 
preferable. The length of travel should not exceed 200 
feet unless abso- 
lutely necessary. In 
shops where men 
only are employed 
much time is saved 
by installing urinal 
stations at various 
points in the shops 
and making the men 
travel to the toilet 
rooms only when 
water closets are 
required. 

Similar principles 
apply to the location 
of drinking water 
fountains except 
that the length of 
travel should be 
kept down to as 
near 100 feet as pos- 
sible. Because the 
fountains are often 
provided so fre- 
quently they come pig. 6. Toilet Arrangement for 
in locations, in 187 Male Employees 




many buildings, where soil and waste stacks are a great 
distance from them and even the sanitary sewer may 
be inaccessible. From this has developed the practice of 
running a drinking fountain waste stack with the bottom 
connected into the nearest leader line and the top carried 
through the roof. Into this stack the fountains on the 
various floors are trapped. The fountains themselves 
are most satisfactory when of the pedestal type with a 
^^^ ^^ heavy cast iron base 

^ -■ ^ — 1 ^ and vitreous bowl and 

bubbler, similar to 
the one shown in 
Fig. 9. These can 
also be secured with 
a small ice tank in 
which a coil is placed, 
the water to the foun- 
tain coming through 
the coil. 

Shower baths are 
most economically 
constructed of slate, 
with a concrete trough lined with zinc, lead, or copper. 
The bathers stand on wooden gratings, and a slate step 
or curb is provided to form the front side of the trough. 

Fig. 10 shows a six-stall shower of this construction 
and will ofl^er a basis for modifications to suit the various 
conditions encountered. Generally speaking, showers 
should be provided where there is any process of manu- 
facture involving either dust or high temperatures to 
which employees are exposed during their labors. The 
client, in the majority of cases, is familiar with the matter 
of whether showers are desirable or not. 

Hot water for showers and lavatories is very desirable, 
there being no place where cleanliness is more needed 
than by persons spending eight to ten hours in the dust, 
dirt, and heat necessarily accompanying seme of the 

industrial pro- 
i I .1 \ cesses. In spite of 

this the hot water 
system is often in- 
stalled only after 
considerable protest 
is made against its 
omission. Owing to 
the out-of-the-way 
and widely sepa- 
rated locations fre- 
quently selected for 
the various fixtures 
automatic gas heat- 
ers are becoming 
quite popular. With 
them long runs of 
steam pipe are 
avoided, the prob- 
lem of returns is not 
encountered, and 
the heaters them- 
-j selves require little 
A attention . They do 
require flues, how- 
ever, which must 



L 



X 



Set 



n^ 



V 



h^o men's Toi/et 



Fig. 7. Toilet Arrangement for 
187 Female Employees 



246 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



be carried up through the building and above 
the roof — an item of no small importance, 
especially in concrete structures. 

The most common method of heating hot 
water is by an instantaneous steam hot water 
heater supplied with steam through a special 
reducing valve and not connected to the steam 
heating system in any way. The returns go 
to a trap — of the lift type if necessary — and 
can then be retiirned to the feed water heater. 
The reason for not connecting to the low 
pressure heating mains and using exhaust 
steam is that during the summer these lines 
will not be in operation and the hot water 
heater would be thrown out of commission. 

In the larger buildings say of 500,000 sciuare 
feet or over it is hardly practical to consider 
gas heating, unless natural gas is obtainable, 
owing to the expense of operation. Coal at 
$4.00 per ton (a high rate) will supply about 
8,000 B. T. U. per pound for heating water at 
a cost of $.002 per pound, or 8,000 B. T. U., 
while even natural gas contains only about 
1,000 B. T. U., of which not more than 90 per 
cent could be available, or 900 B. T. U. per 
cubic feet at .40 per M means $.0004 per cubic 
feet, or 900 B. T. V., which is just one-fifth the 
cost for one-ninth the heat. Transmission losses 
in the steam and return lines will reduce this 
probably to a point where the cost of gas heating 
will about equal that of coal. 

It is the regular practice to run all pipes of 
every kind exposed, except the house drain, 
which is usually of cast iron soil pipe and buried 
under the lowest story. Owing to the fact of 
all piping being exposed, replacement at any 
time is comparatively easy and it is, therefore, 
not made of as permanent and lasting a charac- 



Aufomaf/c 
riush 7bn/f 




Fig. 8 




Fig. 9 



ter as would otherwise be the case. Black 
iron roof leaders are often used, brass pipe 
for hot water but seldom, and plain steel in 
the place of genuine wrought iron almost 
invariably. 

On the inside leaders conductor boxes are 
commonly omitted, the flat copper flashing 
extending out about twelve inches all around 
the top of the copper funnel to which it is 
soldered. This funnel tapers from two inches 
larger at the top than the nominal size of the 
leader pipe to the same diameter at the bot- 
tom ; a neck piece about three inches long 
projects from the bottom of the funnel and 
is slipped into a common pipe coupling at the 
top of the leader pipe. Between the end of 
the neck and the top of the pipe a space of 
about one inch is left for expansion, settle- 
ment, etc., the neck sliding up and down in- 
side of the leader coupling. The joint be- 
tween the neck and the leader pipe must not 
be made tight, otherwise trouble is sure to 
result. The writer is personally familiar 
with a large factory of only one story height 
where the architect specified tight connections 
between the top of the leader and the copper 
funnel, and as a result of the contraction and 
expansion of the pipe, combined with settlement 
of the structure, every funnel was broken off at 
its point of connection to the flashing inside of 
three years from the date of completion of the 
building. If a tight connection must be used, a 
short piece of D-lead pipe just below the funnel 
will aid in absorbing some of the movement. 

The above is indicative of the practical side 
of industrial sanitation and should serve as a 
suggestion from which a solid and economical 
installation can be intelligently developed. 



0>>^M^}:^:<:yMy'm^Mm>^m^^^^^ 




^3- WasU 

Fig. 10. Detail of Six Stall Shower Baths 



PLATE DESCRIPTION. 



Printing House of R. R. Donnelley & Sons Com- 
pany, Chicago, III. Plate 137. This building is 
planned to eventually cover an entire block and is so de- 
signed that it may be carried to an ultimate height of 
seven or eleven stories. It is of reinforced concrete 
construction with mushroom columns placed 24 feet 4 
inches by 24 feet 10 inches on centers to permit the 
largest modern presses to be placed in the bays. The 
diameter of the columns in the lower stories is 39 inches 
and they are belled at the top to a diameter of 5 feet 9 
inches. The story heights are 11 feet for the basement, 
14^/^ feet for the first story, and I2V2 feet for the remain- 
ing stories, the floor slabs being 11 inches thick, fig- 
ured to carry a live load of 350 pounds to the square 
foot. Fire escapes are provided in brick towers at the 
corners of the building, cut off from all floors and entered 
through a communicating balcony. 

Farmers' Trust Company Building, South Bend, 
Ind. Plates 138, 139. This building is designed for 
offices above the main story and for bank and store pur- 
poses on the street level. It is entirely of fireproof 
construction, the exterior piers being of masonry rein- 
forced with steel, and the interior columns and girders 
of steel and concrete. The floors are of reinforced con- 
crete and tile. The two end pavilions have no center 
columns and provide areas 34 feet wide by 84 feet long. 
The building has a capacity of 1,330,000 cubic feet and 
cost 21 cents per cubic foot. 

Hump Hairpin Manufacturing Company Building, 
Chicago, III. Plate 140. This building is entirely of 
fireproof construction, the outside walls being of brick 
with a facing of medium gray rough textured brick. The 
floor and roof are of reinforced concrete construction. 
The floor spans are large, being 24 by 36 feet so that 
there would be least interference of columns with contin- 
uous lines of machinery. The building covers an area of 
175 by 192 feet, and has a clear story height of 16 feet. 
In addition to side lighting it has sawtooth top lighting 
and is provided with a large amount of mechanical venti- 
lation. The cost was about 12 cents per cubic foot. 

Reid, Murdoch & Co. Warehouse, Chicago, III. 
Plate 141. This building is of reinforced concrete con- 
struction on a wood pile foundation, the floors designed to 
carry a load of 250 pounds per square foot. Structural steel 
was used for the tower roof construction and for the 40-foot 
span trusses in the second story over the railroad shipping 
court. The story heights are 9 feet 6 inches for the sub- 
basement, 14 feet for the basement, 16 feet 8 inches for 
the first floor, and 12 feet for other floors. The total area 
of all floors is 443,300 square feet. The building cost, 
including dock and plumbing work 12 cents per cubic foot. 

Havana American Company Building, Chicago, 
III. Plate 142. This building is used for the manu- 
facturing of cigars and is of mill construction with brick 
walls. Supporting posts and girders spanning 15 foot 8 
inches are of wood and the 5-inch splined flooring spans 
14 feet. The special truss roof construction spans 28 feet 
and carries sawtooth skylights. The floors are designed 
to carry 150 pounds live load, and they have a total area 
of 103,000 square feet. The building is two stories high, 
455 feet 10 inches long and 112 feet 5 inches wide. The 



first story height is 15 feet 10 inches, the second story 
14 feet to the bottom chord of the skylight trusses. The 
totalcostof the building, including mechanical equipment, 
was 7.9 cents per cubic foot. 

Liquid Carbonic Company Plant, Chicago, III. 
Plate 142. This group of buildings is used for the man- 
ufacture of soda water fountains. The main building- 
consists of two 4-story wings, extending west and south 
from the corner tower, and a 1 -story marble shop running 
west from the south wing. The tower is 28 feet square, 
the west wing 630 feet long by 80 feet wide, and the 
south wing 316 feet long by 80 feet wide. The marble 
shop is 144 feet wide by 399 feet long. The main por- 
tions of the plant are of reinforced concrete construction 
with brick exterior facing. The typical story height is 
14 feet. The cost of the buildings without equipment was 
7.5 cents per cubic foot. 

Kent Building, Chicago, III. Plate 144. This 
building is occupied entirely by a clothing manufacturer. 
The general offices are located on the first floor, the power 
plant and shipping room in the basement, and the display 
room on the top floor, which is unusually high and lighted 
from the roof. Stairways and elevators are enclosed 
with fireproof partitions. Foundations are of concrete 
on piles and exterior walls are self-supporting above the 
fourth story. Interior columns are cast iron, carrying 
steel beams and girders and flat tile floor arches. The 
typical girder span is 17 feet to column centers and typical 
beam span 18 feet to girder centers. The building has 
a total capacity of 2,184,000 cubic feet and cost 17.4 cents 
per cubic foot, including a sprinkler system. 

Factory Building of M. T. vSilver & Co. and 
the Sunshine Cloak & vSuit Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Plate 145. This building is used for the manufacture of 
clothing by two different firms, each occupying half of 
the building. It is constructed with brick exterior walls. 
Columns and floor slabs having a span of 20 feet are of 
reinforced concrete. Finished floors are of maple. 

Warehouse of J. R. Watkins Medical Company, 
Winona, Minn. Plate 146. This building is of rein- 
forced concrete construction and is faced on the exterior 
with light gray pressed brick. The total height of the 
building is 120 feet, with a tower rising to 190 feet from 
the grade line. It contains two water tanks each having 
a capacity of 25,000 gallons. The floor spans are 17 feet 
3 inches by 19 feet and the floor slabs are 10 inches thick, 
designed to carry 450 pounds live load throughout the 
building. All sash is steel, glazed with wire glass. The 
cost of the building was 15Vi.' cents per cubic foot. 

Factory Building of Blumenthal Brothers, Frank- 
ford, Philadelphia, Pa. Plate 150. This building is 
used for the manufacture of chocolate and cocoa. The 
material is handled in a direct route from the top to the 
lower stories, and through the length of the structure to 
the shipping point. The building is of slow-burning 
construction with fireproof floors where safety requires. 
The exterior walls are of brick faced with a deep red brick 
with dark headers and trimmed with terra cotta. The 
story heights are 14 feet from floor to floor and supporting 
columns are spaced 20 feet on centers in each direction. 
Cost for construction alone was 5.8 cents per cubic foot. 



247 



m}?m^iiiiiiiiii<<<<<<<<<<<iii^^i^Mii<ii<iiS^^ 



§ 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

AN D<fN OTES ^ * 

FOU^THE'^ MONTH ^^^_ 




THE ENGINEER AND THE ARCHITECT. 

THP> architect is always an engineer ; but the engineer, 
even though he has charge of the construction of a 
building, is seldom an architect. The greater always in- 
cludes the lesser. Both the engineer and the architect 
have had their share of the world's work. The great 
spectacular achievements such as railroads and canals 
have fallen to the engineer and his practice has crystal- 
lized into an exact science. Architecture, on the other 
hand, always has been an art. That is what makes archi- 
tecture more than engineering and keejjs it perennially 
alert and ready for changes — a condition which rarely 
exists in the engineering profession. It is but fair also 
to admit that because of the readiness with which the 
architectural profession welcomes new ideas, because of 
its constantly changing point of view, it is apt to lag be- 
hind in attention to the exact sciences and the so-called 
practical work. This has been strikingly manifested dur- 
ing the past generation. The architectural profession 
was offered the enormous possibility of steel constriiction. 
The aesthetic side of it was immediately appreciated and 
developed to an extent which has produced results of 
which we may well be proud ; but the so-called engineer- 
ing features were in a measure ignored, not because 
architects could not master them, but because the really 
architectural solution had first to be sought. The engi- 
neers speedily usurped one side of the architectural prob- 
lem, and our earlier steel frame buildings were designed 
wholly by engineers, with the result, unfortunately, that 
sometimes the construction was made more of than the 
architecture, and efficiency of 'the hidden was substitiited 
for complete efficiency of the whole. During the last few 
years the conditions have been changing and to-day it is 
fair to say that in most of the properly organized archi- 
tectural offices the mechanical and so-called engineering 
problems in building construction are handled by the 
architect, and handled in a better, a more consistent, a 
more economical, and a more logical manner than the 
same problems were handled by the engineers in the 
earlier years. This is not saying that all architects are 
qualified to do their work. A profession is not judged by 
even its average attainment, but by its best work; and 
applying this measure to architecture it is fair to say that 
architects have outgrown any necessity of depending upon 
the engineers for construction. 

On the other hand the engineers themselves have 
changed in their attitude toward architects. Structural 
engineering as a profession has not been very profitable 
of late years, and this fact has awakened many engineers 
to the possibilities of combining architecture with their 
own work. Since, unfortunately, the only requirement to 
be an architect is the ability to pay for a sign on the door, 
any one who can get a job can call himself an architect, 



and we have in many of our cities engineers who simply 
hire draftsmen, trust to their artistic luck, and get by with 
a good deal of building. In a few cases such engineers 
have developed real architectural talent, which the pro- 
fession has been glad to recognize ; but in more cases the 
result has meant a distinct lowering of architectural stand- 
ards, and it is to be regretted that men who could be good 
engineers should choose to be poor architects for the sake 
of a little increased earning capacity. Most property 
owners would very naturally and very rightly prefer a 
good engineer to a poor architect, and as so many people 
fail to appreciate that architecture is not merely con- 
struction, heating and ventilating, plumbing and electric 
equipment, but is fundamentally an orderly, logical, and 
artistic solution of a practical problem, it is not to be 
wondered that the engineer-architect has thriv^en of late 
years ; but this does not mean a limitation of architecture. 
Anything that makes for better building of any kind, prac- 
tically or artistically, is welcomed by any right-minded 
architect ; and if an engineer can do better work than an 
architect, it is up to the architect to mend his ways, 
though, as we said before, the thoroughly well equipped 
architect to-day needs very little help from the engineer. 

The architect has learned his constructive lessons, and 
the relation now between the professions is that the engi- 
neers are learning to follow the architects' footsteps and 
striving to clothe engineering with a thin veneer of archi- 
tecture. That, as far as it goes, is good. Anything 
which relieves the crass materialism and crude efficiency 
of an engineering structure' is a benefit to the commu- 
nity, and we would hope that the relation between the two 
professions may continue to be one in which the architect 
will point the way to better, more orderly, and more logi- 
cal building, without any sacrifice of the innate architec- 
tural properties, and the engineer will be more willing to 
appreciate that real efficiency does not stop with a well 
constructed skeleton ; that no amount of good mechanics 
can atone for a bad design, and that good looks consti- 
tute a commercial asset. 

BEAUX ARTS INSTITUTE OF DESIGN. 

IT IS under this title, and incorporated under the Board 
of Regents of the State of New York as a school to 
teach design in Architecture and also Sculpture and Mural 
Painting in their relation to Architecture, that the educa- 
tional work hitherto conducted by the Society of Beaux 
Arts Architects will henceforth be known, this society 
having voluntarily surrendered the educational privileges 
of its own charter so that a new institution, controlled, 
however, by the same principles and persons as the former, 
might extend itself into fields broader than those of a 
purely architectural association. Circulars of information 
for courses may be obtained by writing to the Beaux Arts 
Institute of Design, No. 126 East 75th street. 



248 





PORTRAIT OF DOMENICO FONTANA. 

THE DOME OF ST. PETER'S, ROME 

A Study of its Structural System 

Illustrations from Photographs and Drawings 
"FROM TWENTY-THIRD STREET UP" 
The Architectural Development of 
Fifth Avenue and Intersecting Streets 
in New York City 

Illustrations from Photographs 

THE CHICAGO MUNICIPAL PIER Ira W. Hoover 

Charles S. Frost, Architect 
EARLY AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS 

XXX. Porch and Doorway of the Barton-Myers House, 
Norfolk, Va. .]. L. Keister 

XXXI. Doorway of the Hodges- Webb-Meek House, 
Salem, Mass Gordon Rohb 

DECORATIVE PLASTER WORK A. D. F.Hamlin 

I. The Work of the Greeks and Romans 
Illustrations from Photographs 

PLATE DESCRIPTION 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND NOTES OF THE MONTH 
INDEX TO ADVERTISING ANNOUNCEMENTS 



m 



Published Monthly by 

ROGERS AND MANSON COMPANY 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 

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Single Copies 50 cents All Copies Mailed Flat 

Trade Supplied by the American News Company and its Branches. Entered as 

Second Class Matter, March 12, 1892, at the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Copyright, 1916, by Rogers and Manson Company 



<lllHI ^ I«Wi| l " ^)|M "IWIi'IBIi" lliiMHililtfiiiBiMHiiiMiiii 







18 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



'A % 







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II 



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POME IM GUASTAVINO COy^STLUCTlOi^ 



DOME \1\ 5TEEL CQNSTR-UCTIO;^ 



GUASTAVINO CONSTRUCTION 



\JS, 



i 



% '/,. 



■ STEEL FOR DOMES 



STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION FOR DOMES IS COMPLICATED (SEE DRAWING), EXPENSIVE 
AND SUBJECT TO ANNOYING AND COSTLY DELAYS IN DELIVERY. 

GUASTAVINO CONSTRUCTION IS SIMPLE (SEE DRAWING), IS ECONOMICAL AND THE 
NECESSARY MATERIALS CAN ALWAYS BE DELIVERED PROMPTLY. 

LET US SHOW HOW OUR SYSTEM CAN BE APPLIED TO THE PROBLEMS NOW IN YOUR 
OFFICE. SEND US YOUR DRAWINGS FOR SUGGESTIONS. THERE IS NO CHARGE FOR THIS 
SERVICE. 



R. GUASTAVINO CO. 



Boston, Mass. 



Fuller Building, New York 



11 

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I 






1 







D O M ENICO FONTANA 

ITALIAN ARCHITECT. BORN 1543. DIED 1607. ARCHI. 
TECT OF WORK AT .ST. PETERS. ROME. INCLUDI\'G 
COMPLETION OF MICHELANGELOS DOME AND TRANS- 
PORTATION AND ERECTION OF OBELISK IN THE COURT 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOLUME XXV 



OCTOBER, 1916 



NUMBER 10 



The Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. 

A STUDY OF ITS STRUCTURAL SYSTEM. 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH. 
Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University. 



I. 



RENAISSANCE architectural history is writ large in 
the fabric of St. Peter's. From the attempt on the 
part of Rossellino in 1450 under Pope Nicholas V 
to rebuild the Gothic cathedral, to the completion of the 
colonnaded atrium by Bernini, and the lantern and altered 
dome contour by Delia Porta and Fontana is a space of 
over one hundred and fifty years, comprising the full 
sweep of the risorgimento from faintest traceable begin- 
nings to the Gargantuan orders of Michelangelo that con- 
tained the germ of a megalomaniac decline. The crowded 
chapters of the history of this building, beginning 1506, 
fall, however, within the resplendent pontificate of the 
warlike Julius II, whose sepulcher it was first designed to 
house. The story of the building as a whole cannot here 
be given space.* It car- 
ries us through a succes- 
sion of memorable ca- 
reers, each at its zenith 
and each at some time 
granted the sole gui- 
dance of the undertak- 
ing: Rossellino (1409- 
61), Bramante (1444- 
1514), Giuliano da San 
Gallo (1445-1516), Raf- 
faelle (1483-1520), Fra 
Giocondo (1435-1515), 
Peruzzi (1481-1537), An- 
tonio da San Gallo the 
Younger (1482-1546), 
Michelangelo (1474- 
1564), Del Vaga (1500- 
47), Ligorio (1530-86), 
Vignola (1507-73), Delia 
Porta (d. 1601), Fon- 
tana (1543-1607), Mader- 
na (1556-1629), Bernini 
(1598-1680), more than 
half the number being- 
responsible for new plan 
suggestions in the course 
of which the conception 
of a mausoleum for the 
pope was early lost in 
that of a monumental 




*See bibliographic note, p. 254. 



Dome of St. Peter's, Rome 
249 



central church of Christendom. Bramante's plan formed 
the nucleus of most that followed, and its relegation has 
often been regretted by students of the work. From the 
first the scheme of Julius II had been vaguely that of a 
domical building, and the dome feature as a central motive 
retained its vitality to the end, abetted by the comple- 
tion of the fine project of Brunelleschi at Florence, as 
well as the example of numerous other domed churches 
in Italy, which gave to the motive a growing vogue of 
importance as a dignified crowning mass for a building 
of churchly use. As design succeeded design, a rivalry 
arose between the Greek and Latin cross type of plan for 
the entire edifice, — the first favored scheme by Bramante 
being of the former, — the two forms then gaining sup- 
port in alternation, until 
the quarrel was seem- 
ingly set at rest by 
Michelangelo, whose 
plan was fully executed, 
only to be modified in 
turn by Maderna's addi- 
tions to the eastern arm.t 
which restored the Latin 
cross type at the expense 
of the effectiveness of the 
dome, which as a result 
of the increased nave 
length cannot be seen to 
advantage for a distance 
of over 1,300 feet beyond 
the front of the building. 
Bramante's dome proj- 
ect promised a "Pan- 
theon hung in heaven," 
its base forming an artic- 
ulated drum surrounded 
by a peristyle as its prin- 
cipal motive, the whole 
surmounted by a lan- 
tern, and the diameter 
of the plan being equiva- 
lent to that of the ancient 



t St. Peter'.s main fai,'ade faces 
eastward, as in the early basilicas, 
and contrary to the usual mode 
of orientation involving a "west 
front." 



250 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



Roman building — about 142 feet. Bramante completed 
the four jrreat piers and pendentives and had, before his 
death in 1514, turned the enormous arches that spanned 
them and were to form the primary square (resp. octa- 
gfon) of support. Raffaelle's work, and that of a number 
of others, was chiefly on paper, for the project never 
ceased to attract the pencils of a large number of fertile 
brains, whose qualifications were far beneath the require- 
ment for bringing the work to execution. 

The task was distinctly beyond Raffaelle's grasp. Al- 
though interested to the extent of leaving well studied plan 
solutions, Peruzzi's contribution and also that of both San 
Gallo was largely that of making good the defects due to 
Bramante's haste, for the latter was anxious to gratify 
Julius II by completing at least the essential portion of 
the building that was to shelter his tomb, upon the 
sculptural decoration of which Michelangelo meanwhile 
was wasting valuable years. The piers were found to 
be too weak and the arches had begun to show fissures. 
Fortunately building activity did not go forward on such 
large undertakings with the speed required in more recent 
times; calamity would surely have followed any further 
execution on Bramante's understructure, erected upon 
hastily made ground, bearing piers of insufficient and 
inferior masonry. 

Michelangelo's work upon the building dates from 
1546. He repeatedly maintained that he could do no 
better than carry to completion the splendid work of Bra- 
mante ; although the two had not been 
upon very amicable terms due to certain 
differences in regard to the Sistine 
Chapel decorations, Michelangelo freely 
admitted Bramante's high architectural 
grasp. He adopted a simplified sugges- 
tion from his predecessor's Greek cross 
plan, but not without due care for the 
strength of his piers. These had orig- 
inally been treated with large niches on 
all faces ; San Gallo had filled them in 
for the most part to gain the_ additional 
bearing surface and vol- 




ume. It is also recorded 
that sunk masses of ma- 
sonry with interconnect- 
ing arches were built 



beneath two of the piers, in order to equalize the foun- 
dations, which in the other two bore directly upon parts 
of the old Roman circus. 

Michelangelo is chiefly responsible for the dome, its 
construction and massive effectiveness, but the actual sil- 
houette and contour are due to a remodeling of Michel- 
angelo's design in wood by Delia Porta and Fontana, 
tending toward a more pointed section. Michelangelo set 
his mind singly upon the completion of this masterwork, 
as did Brunelleschi upon the Florentine cupola before him, 
and as though the myriad commissions for statues and 
paintings and other buildings did not exist. Like his 
predecessor, he, too, was beset with intrigues and obstruc- 
tionism to the end. For seventeen years, having accepted 
full direction of the work at the age of seventy-two, and 
throughout refusing all remuneration, he conducted the 
undertaking almost single handed, as he did also the 
Sistine frescos and a multitude of other commissions, leav- 
ing no broadcast heritage to pupils fostered in his power- 
ful mode of art interpretation, and thus largely contribut- 
ing to the alien mannerisms that helped to hasten the 
decline of a great period. 

While the building as a whole is so generally regarded 
as a failure, due to its simplicity exaggerated by a giant 
scale of all minor motives as well as of leading lines, its 
egregious orders and the bungling additions of Maderna, 
whom Ferguson delights in calling " a very second-class 
architect," the dome itself cannot be censured in this re- 
spect. In this feature the simplicity is 
duly varied by structural unity gained 
in the exterior projection of ribs, carried 
down by the strong parallelism of the 
peristyle buttresses below and finding 
a fitting finial in the detail of finely 
wrought lantern above. Considered fea- 
ture by feature, however, we may find 
an incongruity of mouldings in the treat- 
ment of the three rows of windows in the 
outer surface or in the projections of the 
attic wall set forward above the coupled 
columns of the peristyle as 
in a Roman rcssanl. The 
extension of the nave east- 
ward destroyed the near 
view of the dome, giving 



Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Elevation of entire building as completed, including final dome contours, altered front, and atrium with colonnade 

{From Letarouilly and Simil) 



~\ 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



251 



from that direction the impression of a giant "with head 
pressed down between his shoulders"; but the full curve 
of its contour is adequately to be gauged on the axis of 
either transept arm, on that of the principal apse, or 
from the direction of the intermediate 
angles. Its substructure does not 
profit by its garment in the form of 
a 108-foot order surmounted by a 
further height of 39 feet in an unin- 
teresting attic motive. A hopeless 
attempt at variety is witnessed in the 
frames of windows in two stories be- 
tween grouped pilasters and in four 
stories within the groups, the motives 
being of negligible aesthetic value, 
except as a deterrent may have such 
value. One senses to a certain degree 
the curious handicap which so readily 
characterizes Michelangelo's minor 
works in the architectural field — the 
Farnese Palace cornice being a shining 
exception — a field which according 
to his repeated assurances he would 
gladly have eschewed for that of sculp- 
ture — a curious lack of taste difficult to analyze or ex- 
plain, unless it be called lack of architectural sense or 
poise, and which is exemplified in remarkable fashion in 
the Porta Pia in Rome, to which, fortunately, the name 
of Pirro Ligorio (who together with 
Vignola assisted Michelangelo on the 
dome project when the climbing be- 
came too difficult for his years) has 
also been attached. 

Yet it may be truly said that the dome 
seen as a whole is not lacking in im- 
pressiveness and majesty, both within 
and without — qualities not generally 
within ''the compass of 
human comprehension 
in this example upon 
first view, and not even 
carried home to us when 
we are told that the 




Dome of St. Peter's, Rome 
Plan of Michelangelo's design 



Corinthian capitals bear 7-foot acanthus leaves and that St. 
Luke in one of the pendentive mosaics writes with a pen 
at least as long. When regarded from this angle of scale 
alone, one is prompted to favor the suggestion that uni- 
formed vergers be obliged to wander 
about the building carrying the ac- 
cepted 10-foot scale wands, as an index 
of the "human scale" which has been 
so consistently disregarded throughout . 

II. 

Logically the plan of the church is 
mainly dependent upon its central 
feature, which so insistently prompted 
the Greek cross plan type. Apart 
from the damaging additions, Michel- 
angelo's solution was that of a nave 
and flanking aisles intersected by a 
similar arrangement, the dome ap- 
pearing as a culmination at the cross- 
ing. The dimensions of the dome 
space were immediately fixed by Bra- 
mante's desire to emulate the Pan- 
theon ; the piers, cross arches, and 
pendentives being in position, however faulty ; the abut- 
ting construction likewise offered but little opportunity of 
variation except in repetition of bays, at least up to the 
level of the final circle closed by the upper pendentive arcs, 
and Michelangelo's changes therefore 
affected the disposition of the broader 
elements of the plan, all of which he 
considered tributary to the cen- 
tral domical area. The construction 
above this level assumes a decided 
interest for us in view of the solu- 
tions offered for it. 

Faithful to his adopted prototype, — 
in which to be sure there 
are no pendentives, for 
the dome is supported 
upon a continuous circu- 
lar wall, — Bramante 
modeled a dome of solid 




Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Michelangelo's design for entire building. {From Letarouilly and Simil) 



252 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



masonry and of semicircu- 
lar section, surmounted by 
a lantern frankly suggested 
from Brunelleschi's in Flor- 
ence. Antonio da San Gallo 
likewise proposed a solid, 
single shell dome 42 feet 
thick at the base and 17 feet 
thick at the crown. One 
marvels at the intentions 
of both when it is consid- 
ered that the very skeleton 
began to give way of its 
own weight, before even 
the drum had been begun. 

The Florentine example * 
should be regarded as a 
precedent and inspiration 
throughout the whole his- 
tory of St. Peter's dome. 
It embodied marvelous 
structural results, the fruit 
of many scores of experi- 
ments, and the concrete evidence of study of Italian ex- 
amples. Bramante and Michelangelo were both familiar 
with this dome in detail, but each had also studied ancient 
Byzantine and other examples in Italy ; San Gallo is even 
known to have had a sectional study of Hagia Sophia at 
Constantinople. But while Bramante was a firm adherent 
of the Pantheon as a particular model in this case, Michel- 
angelo was not similarly bound, but distinctly favored 
Brunelleschi's results and processes. In fact, it may be 
said that the final result is a sort of precipitate resulting 
from a composition of the elements of the Pantheon and 
Hagia Sophia, through the me- 
dium of Italian Byzantine exam- 
ples, but always with the direct 
influence of Brunelleschi's Flor- 
entine dome. In this connection 
we have the quotation referring 
to Florence, "Like you I will not 
build, ' ' and again in one of Michel- 
angelo 's sonnets, 
" I shall surely 
make thy sister 
larger but not 
more beautiful 
than thou . ' ' 

The desire for 
height and exte- 
rior impressive- 
ness prompted 
Bramante to raise 
his proposed dome 
upon a peristylar 
drum set high on 
a base which, al- 
though corre- 




Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. View looking downward to altar 
from oculus 



•The Dome of S. 
Maria del Fiore. Florence, 
is discussed and illustrated 
in detail in The Brick- 
BVILDER for August. 1916. 
pp. 209-215. 




Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Section showing shells and location of original cinctures, at left 
Half section showing location of chains added to correct ruptures in 1743-1748, at right 

(From Durrri) 



spending to the circular 
wall of the Pantheon, did 
not offer the same struc- 
tural advantages, because 
of its lighter construction 
and its elevation, the latter 
being such as to reduce 
measurably the effective- 
ness of his abutments for 
the dome in the body of 
the building and probably 
to make cinctures impera- 
tive in the dome itself if 
this were to retain its semi- 
circular section. He re- 
turned to his prototype, 
however, in the stepped 
circular buttressing mass 
on the lower haunch of the 
dome, but set the spring 
of the latter considerably 
higher in the edifice, al- 
though much below the top 
of the drum, which in turn he allowed to rest directly 
upon the pendentives. Some dimensions might be noted 
in this connection. Allowing for later efforts to counter- 
act weakening, the piers of Bramante forming the main 
support are giant shafts of masonry, trapezoidal in plan, 
measuring about 61 feet in their greatest width and 39 feet 
on the shorter sides, thus achieving a perimeter — with 
due allowance for projections of about 285 feet — providing 
an area of support capable of bearing six and three- 
quarter thousand tons, and giving, despite their uncertain 
history, a splendid effect of structural stability. The 
; form of the piers gives the pen- 

dentives a direct bearing and per- 
mits a slight projection beyond 
the inner pier face. 

Michelangelo's avowed approv^al 
of Bramante 's work seems, how- 
ever, to have been insufficient to 
lead him to execute it unaltered. 
In fact, we are 
driven to the con- 
clusion that he 
"" considered the 

dome of Bramante 
a risky undertak- 
ing, since his piers 
and arches had al- 
ready given such 
a poor account of 
themselves, and 
any strengthening 
of these by means 
of additional ma- 
sonry applied as a 
cloak to their ex- 
terior to carry the 
enormous weight 
of the solid dome 
would gain for 
them a further 




X.' 



I--J- 



U 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



253 



supporting strengfth in inferior ratio to the material 
added, besides destroying the effectiveness of the original 
design. Michelangelo therefore devised a different struc- 
tural system, whose precedent it is not difficult to dis- 
cern, abandoning the Pantheon suggestion, using a more 
pointed section, and basing the whole upon the shell type 
of construction elaborated by Brunelleschi. 
He retained the peristylar drum, very thick at 
its base, but reduced by more than half in the 
entablature of the peristyle proper. The latter, 
instead of being continuous, i.e., with equal 
intercolumniations as designed by Bramante, 
he planned as an arrangement of coupled col- 
umns alternating with large windows capped 
with alternately triangular and segmental 
pediments. The order was set high upon a 
continuous circular pedestal, which in turn 
rested upon a flat octa- 
gon whose base was 
level with the roof line 
and bore directly upon 
the pendentives. Above 
the peristyle appeared 
a heavy attic with in- 
verted consoles leading 
its frontal plane back to 
the actual circle of the 
dome. The coupled 
columns represented the 
ends of a series of six- 
teen radiating buttress- 
ing walls, the attic 
story broken out above, 
each leading the eye 
upward to the sixteen 
strongly projecting and 
thoroughly well pro- 
filed ribs forming the 
skeleton of the cupola. 
In Michelangelo's 
lifetime the work was 
completed to the dome 
springing only, the 

dome itself and the graceful lantern were executed pos- 
thumously, but closely followed his design, the inverted 
consoles above the attic having been omitted. It is note- 
worthy that the detailed model left by Michelangelo com- 
prised a system of three shells, — two 
arranged as in the finished building, 
the third shell being of semicircular 
section with large oculus in its crown 
and having nothing to do with the 
structural work of the fabric beyond 
helping to counteract by its weight 
the lateral thrust of the other shells 
and providing heavier masonry at 
their spring. It demonstrated his 
sanction of Bramante 's inspiration 
from the Pantheon for interior effec 
tiveness — a quality which he had 
found lacking in the Florence cathe- 
dral. This inner shell was not ex- 
ecuted, and since the model was 



5. peters: 

ROME, PIER 
VAiDER DOn& 



3CMLE OF 



completed at least six years before Michelangelo's death, 
it has been surmised that at the last he himself may have 
decided upon its elimination. Delia Porta and Fontana 
later gave the dome an even more pointed section. 

As completed, the dome consists of a framework of six- 
teen ribs of solid Tivoli stone projecting from the vault 
with moulded extrados or summits and abut- 
ting against the rim of an oculus above, the 
latter forming the direct base for the lantern. 
The ribs rise from the solid mass of brick 
which forms the lower quarter of the hemi- 
sphere, 139 feet in diameter at its spring; they 
are all of equal dimensions, are much reduced 
in width as they rise, but in thickness increase 
to nearly double that of the wall at the spring- 
ing. They are narrowed, as they rise upward, 
three stages or levels. There are no bond- 
ing courses of any kind 
between them, but they 
extend through the full 
thickness of both shells, 
which are not concen- 
tric as in Florence. 
Passages are contrived 
by cutting steps in the 
extrados of the inner 
shell, and a circular 
passage is also arranged 
for beneath the lantern 
base between the shells, 
using the back of the 
inner one as a floor. 
Both shells are of brick 
laid in herringbone 
fashion, the void be- 
tween them being 
lighted by three rows 
of loopholes. The total 
height of the structure 
is 435 feet. The lan- 
tern has almost the 
same dimensions as 
Brunelleschi's, but is 
of much heavier materials and is supported on a vault of 
slighter section, the rim diameter being also somewhat 
less. Buttresses and windows in the lantern, which has 
also been designed upon a sixteen-sided plan, correspond 
to those in the peristyle. 

Michelangelo's structural system — 
however true or false his dome may 
be according to those who insist upon 
absolute structural integrity and the 
full and frank outward expression of 
all structural expedients — evidently 
did not stand the test of time, for it 
showed signs of cracking in drum 
and dome alike shortly after his 
death. No little of this damage may 
have been due, to be sure, to the fact 
that the whole of the dome was com- 
pleted under Michelangelo's succes- 
sors within a period of twenty-two 
{From Simpson) months — a decided contrast to earlier 




Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Diagram indicat- 
ing ribs, shell, and cinctures, base of lantern and 
general construction. (From Durm.) 




254 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



tardiness — and the magnitude of the undertaking is seen 
in that eight hundred men were employed about the work 
during this space of time, and these often worked at night. 
In such haste inferior materials crept into the construc- 
tion and these brought about unequal consolidation of the 
mass. The defects were at first ignored and glossed over 
by papal request in a treatise by Fontana. In 1742-47, 
however, greater danger impended, and an investigation 
by the three foremost mathematicians of Europe at the 
time brought serious ruptures to light. Poleni then made 
a detailed study on the basis of which Vanvitelli was in- 
structed to insert in the dome five cincture chains. Two 
had been built into the solid masonry at the dome spring- 
ing, and at one-half its altitude ; being embedded in the 
construction, it was not possible to ascertain if they, too, 
had given way. The new chains were placed respectively 
at the base of the drum, at the attic 
level, at the dome springing, at a 
point above the haunch, and at the base 
of the lantern, the locations being in 
accord with the findings of the com- 
mittee of three, who showed that the 
weight of the lantern had caused the 
ribs to buckle outward at the haunch, 
thus directly affecting the spring, which 
in turn disrupted the circle of the 
drum. Since the time of these correc- 
tions the structure has given no further 
trouble.* 

Like many another 
large undertaking, the 
dome of St. Peter's is 
fraught with numerous 
indications of vahie to 
those who now make its 
study a part of their prac- 
tice. It was a project of 
stupendous magnitude 
and was correspondingly 
shackled by conflicting 
intentions, indecision, in- 
capability, and vaulting 
ambition. In the work 
as it stands — its culmina- 
tion was announced to the 
world in 1647 — we have 
perhaps the most remark- 
able example of 
the conglomerate 
result of the work 
of many great men 
that the Renais- 
sance has to show. 
In that measure, 
at least, it is a ',. 
splendid master- ^ 
piece and as such f 
cannot be passed 
over because of j 





r ,J^,H,!,I,J,I ^,, 


V-~r 


r' 


1 




r' 








1 f:y 


-■ mA 







•With the exception 
that a sixth chain was in 
serted in 1748 between thu 
second and fourth men- 
tioned above. 




the alleged incompatibility of abstract beauty and incon- 
sistent internal anatomy, or because of " lack of organic 
unity," or dismissed with the words " out of scale." It 
may be safely regarded as great enough to have its own 
scale, which it should be the part of our humble ineptitude 
to study for what there is in it. 

( The next paper in this series will appear in the November 
issue and consider St. Paul's, London?) 

Bibliographic Note. It should be borne in mind that 
within the brief compass of these pages it is not possible 
or feasible to consider various controversies as to structural 
methods or attribution of designs, which invariably arise 
in regard to so important a building, or even in connec- 
tion with its major mass, the dome. For the benefit of 
those who desire to consider the sub- 
ject in detail the following suggested 
list of works is appended : Anderson, 
Architecture of the Renaissance in 
Italy, New York, 1901 ; Durm, Die 
Baukunst der Renaissance in Italien, 
Leipzig, 1914 (/« Handbuch der Archi- 
tektur) ; Durm, Zwei Grossconstruc- 
tionen der Renaissance in Italien {in 
Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, 1887) ; Fon- 
tana, II tempio vaticano e sua origine, 
Rome, 1694; Geymiiller, Die ur- 
spriingliche Entwiir fe fiir 
Sanct Peter in Rom, Wien 
and Paris, 1875-80 ; Gos- 
set, Les Coupoles d'Orient 
et d'Occident, Paris, 1889; 
Gotti, Vita di Michelan- 
gelo, Firenze, 1876 ; Isa- 
belle, Les Edifices circu- 
laires et les Domes, Paris, 
1855 ; Jovanovits, For- 
schungen liber den Bau 
der Peter skirche, Wien, 
1877; Letarouilly & Simil, 
Le Vatican et la Basilique 
de Saint Pierre de Rome, 
Paris, 1882; Moore, Char- 
acter of Renaissance 
Architecture, New York, 
1905; Poleni, Memorie 
istoriche della 
gran cupola del 
tempio Vaticano, 
Padua, 1748; 
Simpson, History 
of Architectural 
Development, vol. 
3, New York, 
1911 ; Symonds, 
Life of Michel- 
angelo, London, 
1899 ; Vasari. Le 
vite de pin eccel- 
lenti pittori, scul- 
tori e architetti, 
many editions. 




Dome of St. Peter's, Rome. At left half 
section of lantern and oculus, showing 
position of shells at crown of dome. 

At right, half elevation of lantern and 
crown of dome. (From Letarouilly and 
Simil.) 




Main Entrance to Pennsylvania Railway Station, New York City. McKim, Mead & Wiiite, Architects 

''From Twenty -Third Street Up/' 

THE ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF FIFTH AVE- 
NUE AND INTERSECTING STREETS IN NEW YORK CITY. 

By AYMAR EMBURY II. 



THERE has probably never been in the course of the 
history of any city a more interesting ard radical 
development and change than that which has taken 
place from 23d street up, in New York, during the past 
ten years. It is possible that the monumental im- 
provements effected in Paris by Baron Hausmann are, in 
their cost and in their far-reaching effect upon the char- 
acter of localities, comparable to the change which has 
taken place in New York ; but the causes and purposes of 
the two changes were in all respects different, and the re- 
sults are very unlike. There has been in New York no 
re-location of streets, no opening of new streets, and little 
essential change in the transportation problem to account 
for the enormous transformation which has taken place 
in the two miles from 23d street to Central Park ; nor 
has there been any extraordinary increase in the num- 
ber of businesses, or in the nature of the businesses 
which the city is housing. The reasons for the change 
are thei-efore obscure and difficult to isolate, so that they 
may be recognized as reasons. 

Let us, in the first place, review briefly the progress of 
construction and the character of the businesses which 
are housed in new buildings in New York at this time 
and in the district which we are considering. Fifteen 
years ago, perhaps even ten years ago, the manufacturing 
districts of New York's largest industry, the making of 
ready-made clothing for men and women, were scattered 
about the lower East Side, the warehouses for dry goods 



of all descriptions were in the side streets opening off 
Broadway immediately north of the City Hall, and there 
were solid blocks of buildings in Wooster street, Leonard 
street, Murray street, and Worth street devoted to the 
storage and wholesale distribution of woolen goods, knit 
goods, silks, and the like. The great retail shopping dis- 
trict was to the south of the center of 23d street, curiously 
enough the south side of 23d street being alone utilized 
by the department stores, and the few blocks between 
14th and 23d streets and Broadway and Sixth avenue in- 
cluded all the great department stores , — Arnold Constable , 
Lord & Taylor, and Aitken on Broadway, in the neighbor- 
hood of 18th street; Macy's, Siegel-Cooper, O'Neill- 
Adams & Company, and Altman & Company on Sixth ave- 
nue, below 23d street ; and Stern Brothers, LeBoutillier, and 
other smaller stores on the south side of 23d street itself. 
Every one of these stores has since changed its location, 
with the single exception of the Siegel-Cooper Company. 
The other store buildings are either idle or are partially 
filled with manufacturing industries. 

The theaters at that time were practically all below 
34th street, and the one new element of business, the 
smart, small shop, had not yet developed into its present 
prominence. 

The first part of the district above 23d street, in which 
a definite change occurred, was in the neighborhood of 
Fourth avenue. The dry goods trade moved practically 
en masse from lower Broadway to Fourth avenue, between 



255 



256 



THE BRICKBVILDER, 



20th and 34th streets, and to the side 
streets immediately adjacent to Fourth 
avenue, partially invading: Madison 
square and Madison avenue, once one 
of the pleasantest residence streets of 
New York. The buildings in which the 
woolen trade was housed under former 
conditions were old four or five -story 
stone buildings, usually built on lots of 
25 feet frontage, and where a business 
expanded, openings were cut from one 
building to another to take car ? of the 
increase. In the new district practically 
no buildings were built with less than 
40 feet frontage, and probably the great 
majority of all the buildings run from 
40 to 60 feet in width and from 10 to 
14 stories in height. The expansion in 
business is now provided for by increase 
in the space occupied vertically instead 
of horizontally. Many of these new 
buildings are of considerable architec- 
tural interest, and since their designers 
have had time to see the results of the first experiments, 
the office and loft buildings of steel construction have 
settled down more or less into two separate types so far as 
fai^-ade treatment is concerned : one type derived from 
Classic architecture, and the other from (Gothic work, in 
which the vertical motives have been utilized to encase the 
columns, with a pseudo-Gothic treatment of detail. The 
number of good buildings 
of both types is quite amaz- 
ing, and the few which have 




Irving Press Building, East 31st Street 




been selected to illustrate this article, 
while sufficiently typical of them all, 
were not chosen because they were the 
best, but because they were both good 
and typical. 

The building at 103 Madison avenue 
and the Burton Building at Fifth avenue 
and 29th street are both designed with 
classic motives and are buildings for the 
dry goods trade, the Burton Building 
housing a single business and its em- 
ployees, while the building at 103 Madi- 
son avenue is let out in separate floors. 
The Crompton Building at 31 East 31st 
street is, on the other hand, treated with 
some reminiscence of (iothic detail ; but 
solid block fronts on Lexington, Fourth, 
and Madison avenues, as well as on the 
side streets between them, repeat varia- 
tions of these motives in a greater or 
lesser degree of excellence. 

Occasionally residences have been 
remodeled into business buildings for 
those people who prefer to have some individuality about 
the space which they occupy, and here and there we find 
one of them, temporarily at least, surviving the invasion 
of loft buildings in a way which leads us to hope that 
more of the old construction may be similarly managed. 
The Irving Press Building, in East 31st street, is an ex- 
cellent example of such treatment of an old residence, 

but it is one of the few sur- 
viving, and even the lovely 
building for the Colony Club 



i: 



^ A. ^ Uiii^i 

^ ■ ■ ur 




I '11 





Crompton Building, East 31st St. 
Wallis & Goodwillie, Architects 



Burton Building, 267 Fifth Avenue 
Starrett & Van Vleck, Architects 



Apartment House, Lexington Ave. 
P. C. Hunter, Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



257 



now lies vacant and desolate, awaiting 
the time when it may be removed to 
give place to a stark, uncompromising 
business structure. 

The second phase of the development 
in the district, and one which has been 
without any real reason, so far as can 
be seen, is the development of the loft 
building for manufacturing purposes 
in the square enclosed by Fifth and 
Seventh avenues and 23d and 36th 
streets. The manufacture of clothing 
was for many years confined to the dis- 
tricts bordering the lower East Side, 
where the conditions existing were per- 
haps neither sanitary nor proper for the 
work people, but the location was acces- 
sible to their homes, as well as on cheap 
land in a district not already occupied 
by other industries. Just why the man- 
ufacturing loft buildings should have 
sprung up in such numbers in the dis- 
trict they now occupy is incomprehen- 
sible ; land was not particularly cheap, 
transportation facilities to the lower 
East Side are very poor, and the dis- 
trict was already occupied by retail 
businesses of fairly high class. Now 
these streets from Fifth to Seventh 
avenues are pretty solidly built 
up with ten and twelve-story loft 





|- -- 17 7^ 

Ills 




Loft Building, 103 Madison Avenue 
Sommerfeld & Steckler, Architects 




buildings, which at noon and at night 
pour many thousands of workers into 
the surrounding streets. These people 
have little purchasing power for the 
shops which they necessarily pass, the 
crowd is so dense and at times so un- 
pleasant as to destroy the custom of 
these shops, which therefore have been 
compelled to move, and being compelled 
naturally gravitated to districts "on 
the avenue," beginning shortly above 
23d street and continuing by degrees to 
59th street. About the first of the big 
specialized shops to move were the 
jewelry houses of Tiffany & Company 
and The Gorham Company, whose pres- 
ent familiar buildings face each other 
diagonally across Fifth avenue at 36th 
street. Following them came a host of 
smaller shops, for many of which ex- 
tremely attractive small buildings were 
built, such buildings as those occupied 
by Costikyan & Company and Schanz 
at 12 and 14 East 40th street, respec- 
tively ; by Huber & Company at 13 
East 40th street ; a little building at 
13 West 38th street ; Hardman-Peck's 
Building at 433 Fifth avenue ; the 

Jaeckel Building, 384 Fifth ave- 
-^ nue ; the Edison Building, 473 

Fifth avenue, and many others 




Hardman-Peck Building 

433 Fifth Avenue 
Harry Allen Jacobs, Architect 



Architects' Building, 101 Park Avenue 

Ewing & Chappell and La Farge & Morris 

Associated Architects 



H. F. Huber Building 

13 East 40th Street 

J. H. Freedlander, Architect 



258 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



of equal architectural merit and of equal 
importance as retail houses. 

Besides these, certain other shops 
which had small begfinnings have grad- 
ually grown into large businesses, so 
that Fifth avenue between 23d and 59th 
streets is now, perhaps, the most in- 
teresting and the most gorgeous shop- 
ping district iathe world. The tendency 
has been to treat these buildings with 
a constantly diminishing area of show 
window, and to beautify these show 
windows as much as possible, so that 
the windows along Fifth avenue are in 
many cases color compositions 
of as great merit as very many ..5 

pictures. Lord & Taylor's, in- 
deed, has not hesitated to make 
the background of their show 
windows of very delightful 
mural decorations by Arthur 
Covey — an experiment which 
is thus far uniqiie, but certainly 
worth imitation. The shop- 
keepers, in general, seem to 
realize that it is almost impos- 
sible to show enough of their 
goods in their windows to ex- 
plain very fully the purposes 
of their shops, and they have 
endeavored to impress the buy- 




Old Residence, 442 Fifth Avenue 





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OLD IHTtRWRO SU&WAT 



ing public of the character of their 
shops by the architecture and general 
artistic handling of the building, using 
that as an index or expression of pur- 
pose of the goods within. This has 
definitely caused builders of the new 
shop buildings to seek out good archi- 
tects and good designs, so that the shop 
architects of New York have received 
an impetus apparent nowhere else in 
the world, and which is bound to carry 
shop design very far. 

Before the steady influx of business 
into the district from 23d to 42d streets, 
the other activities have neces- 
sarily retired; lower Fifth 
avenue used to be a consid- 
erable club district ; to-day it 
has none but the Union League 
Club left, although West 40th 
street facing on Bryant Park 
has afforded a place of refuge, 
perhaps only temporarily, for a 
number of these organizations 
including the Engineers' Club, 
the Republican Club, and the 
New York Club. Opposite the 
Union League Club remains a 
handsome old red brick and 
brown stone house, 442 Fifth 
avenue, which is one of the few 



i?^-^ 



Map of New York, " From Twenty-Third Street Up ' 



The Edison iiuilding 

413 Fifth Avenue 
Shape & Brady, Architects 




Jaeckel Building 
384 Fifth Avenue 

McKim, Mead& White, Architects 



Loft Building 
13 West 38th Street 

E. W. Nast. Architect 



Daly's IvcStutiiaiU 

20 East 42d Street 

John I'h. Voelker, Architect 



THE BRICKBVILDER 



259 



surviving residences in the lower dis- 
trict. This building- has a rather in- 
teresting: little story connected with it : 
it was the home of one of the wealthiest 
men in New York, a man who controlled 
an enormous amount of property and 
whose office door bore the sigfn, "No 
real estate for sale." For very many 
years he had lived at the corner of 39th 
street and Fifth avenue with a vacant 
lot on either side, and it is said that he 
refused enormous sums for these pieces 
of property because he wanted a place 
for his dog to run. Aside from the 
story, the house is in itself interesting 
to the architect because it is a survivor 
of the brown stone era, which we are 
all accustomed to condemn wholesale 
and without much thought on the sub- 
ject. There were, as a matter of fact, a 
very large number of houses of excel- 
lent design built in New York in this 
brown stone era, which was after all a 
period when the Italian was the source 
from which most of the architects drew 
their inspiration, just as to-day in their 
city work they are looking to the Italian 
precedent, and it is very doubtful if 
much of the Italianesque work of the 
present time is better in proportion, 
in handling of detail, or in choice of 
material than were the old brown stone, 
or brown stone and red brick houses, of 
which 442 Fifth avenue is 
but a single example. 

The residence district, 
too, has largely moved 
north of 42d street ; in 
fact, south of 59th street 
there are but few new 
residences (whether sin- 
gle houses or apartment 
houses) being built and 
in the lower district from 
23d to 42d streets, there 
is but one large new apart- 
ment house with which 
the writer is familiar — 
that at Lexington avenue 
and 38th street. While 
the restrictions still pre- 
serve certain parts of 
Murray Hill in their orig- 
inal residential character, 
numerous incursions into 
this territory have been 
made by the invading 
army of business, and 
unless the re-districting 
scheme for the city goes 
through, Park and Madi- 
son avenues and their 
side streets will be lost to 




Schanz Building at Left, Buctiman & 
Fox, Arciiitects ; Costikyan Building at 
Right, Mann & MacNeille, Architects 




Lord & Taylor Building, Fifth Avenue 
Starrett & Van Vieck, Architects 



US in their traditionary form as strong- 
holds of afHuence. It is in this district 
that the excellent Yale & Towne Build- 
ing and the Johns-Manville Building 
have been built ; the Architects' Build- 
ing is on the fringe of the district, as 
well as other commercial buildings, 
both tall and low. 

Nor could the lighter side of New 
York's life stand the pressure of busi- 
ness any more than the residential. The 
old Tenderloin and the old theater dis- 
trict have moved, and it must be a 
favorable enthusiast on the preserva- 
tion of things as they were who would 
not have been glad to see them go. 
Wallack's Theater has been torn down ; 
Daly's Theater, Weber's Theater, and 
Proctor's old Fifth Avenue Theater 
are movie houses ; the old Lyceum has 
been gone for ten years, and the Madi- 
son Square Theater, too. While a few 
new theaters have been built in the 
neighborhood of 42d street, notably 
the 39th Street Theater and Maxine 
Elliott's Theater, the latter, by the 
way, a very lovely example of theater 
architecture, for the most part the the- 
atrical business now centers to the 
north, and the hotels have moved with 
the theaters, with the exception of the 
Waldorf-Astoria, which seems to be im- 
pregnably entrenched in its present 
location, and which, once 
the smartest and gayest 
of all our hotels, is now 
looked upon as a staid, 
old-fashioned sort of 
place, where the food and 
service are as good as 
ever, even if the decora- 
tion is no longer bright. 
Fortunately with the 
theaters and hotels have 
gone the dirty nest of 
dives which used to make 
vSixth avenue and 28th 
street hideous ; and while 
we cannot assume that 
vice in New York has 
been lessened in amount, 
at least it is freshly 
gilded and wears a more 
decent expression upon 
its face. 

Another great factor 
which has just begun to 
influence the character of 
the city is the location of 
the Pennsylvania Station 
at Seventh avenue and 
33d street and the ap- 
proaching opening of the 



260 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




Hotel Pennsylvania, Seventh Avenue 

McKim, Mead & White, Arciiitects 



new subway line along Seventh avenue. The erection 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Station was expected to be 
followed by an era of reconstruction in that part of the 
city, and two department stores, coming- from other 
cities, — Gimbel's and Saks', as well as Macy's, — 
secured locations where they expected the traffic to be 
most heavy ; but aside from these buildings about the 
first fruits of regeneration in 
that former negro quarter 
have been the excellent 
Press Crafts Building at the 
corner of 34th street and 
Eighth avenue, and the new 
hotel, now just begun, front= 
ing the Pennsylvania Sta- 
tion on vSeventh avenue. 
It would seem, however, as 
if the district between 
Seventh avenue and Fifth 
avenue, thus bounded by 
currents of travel of high 
quality, would eventually 
become New York's most 
important business district 
unless some movement as 
irrational and unforeseen as 
that which has caused the 
building up of this district 
causes its decline. It is to 
prevent such a movement 
that the re-districting 
scheme above mentioned 
has been proposed, and the 
city, as a whole, is earnestly 
hoping for its adoption. Office Building, 8 West 40th Street 

This scheme roughly pro- Starrett & van Vleck. Architects 



poses that the whole city 
be divided into zones or 
districts which may be re- 
stricted for residence pur- 
poses, or for business pur- 
poses, or for manufacturing 
purposes ; and while it is 
proposed that residences 
and offices may continue in 
business districts, it is in- 
tended to permit no manu- 
facturing in business dis- 
tricts, and no business or 
manufacturing in residence 
districts. This would sta- 
bilize real estate values to 
an extent which has been 
hitherto unknown, so that 
while the opportunity to 
amass great fortunes 
through acquiring property 
to be held until the city 
grows up to it will be much 
lessened, at the same time 
there will be no such loss 
as that which occurred on 
23d street and on lower 
Broadway, where enormous sections of property, once 
both valuable and' remunerative, now lie idle and a 
burden to their owners. The law will not disturb exist- 
ing conditions, but the movement fostered by retail mer- 
chants and known as "Saving New York" has already 
secured one benefit — the removal of small manufac- 
turers from the streets adjacent to upper F~ifth avenue. 



Printing Crafts Building, Eighth Avenue 
E. L. Larkin, Architect 




New Law Office Building, 42d Street 
Jardine, Hill & Murdock, Architects 



JMinrihaiBiuiuiu i u i iiM iiiii M p iaiifp if ^ yliiaMWi 



BBi^BlBiHiB.IHMg'lijBHBillW^ 




The Chicago Municipal Pier. 



CHARLES S. FROST, ARCHITECT. 
By IRA W. HOOVER. 



AT the foot of Grand avenue and terminating the 
recent extension of Lake Shore Drive is located 
the new Municipal Pier, Chicago's latest con- 
tribution to the social and economic welfare of its 
citizens. As seen from the Drive, extending out in a 
low-lying mass into the green 
waters of Lake Michigan, it is a 
splendid example of combined 



entering the narrow Chicago River, thus avoiding bridge 
delays to vessel interests, street vehicles, and pedestrians 
alike. The promised relief from these conditions was a 
strong factor in creating public sentiment in favor of an 
outer harbor, and when, in the spring of 1912, a bond 
issue of $5,000,000 for its development was placed before 
the voters, it met with their unmistakable approval. 

Previous to the referendum, tentative plans for a combi- 
nation passenger, freight, and recreation pier had been 
prepared by the Harbor and Subway Commission to ac- 
company their report to the City Council Committee on 
Harbors, Wharves, and Bridges. The Commission now, 
under the chairmanship of Mr. E. C. Shankland, an engi- 
neer of wide experience and national reputation, began a 




ClIIC KliO lll\ III 



civic utility and popular recreation. Its purpose is 
primarily utilitarian, and federal authority for its con- 
struction, as the initial development of "Outer Harbor 
District No. 1, " was obtained on that basis ; the recre- 
ational features being, so far as the government was 
concerned, entirely unofficial. 

The port of Chicago, handling over 2,000,000 passen- 
gers annually, has been for years lamentably behind the 
times in its dockage facilities for passenger and package 
freight carrying boats, and the pier was designed to over- 
come the necessity for large steamers of these classes 



serious development of the problem authorized by the vote 
of the people. The dimensions of the pier were estab- 
lished; the substructure and freight and passenger 
buildings designed. In 1913 Mr. Charles S. Frost, archi- 
tect, was invited by the Commission to prepare plans for 
the head-house and buildings of the recreation end of the 
pier. So much for the history of the undertaking. 

By reference to the block plan it will be seen that the 
pier consists of three distinct sections : the head-house, 
the freight and passenger building, and the recreation 
group, the latter including the terminal building, shelter, 
and concert hall. 

The head-house contains the offices of the harbor mas- 
ter and pier officials ; also utility rooms for electrical con- 
trol, heating, etc. Pedestrians gain access to the pier 
through the head-house, ascending by broad and easy 
ramps to the passenger deck of the freight and passenger 
building, and by stairs to the board-walks above. The 



261 



262 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



r" 



towers contain gravity tanks of 60,000 gallons capacity 
each, supplying the sprinkler system protecting the entire 
freight section. 

The pier extends into the lake, beyond the head-house, 
a distance of 3,000 feet, having a width of 292 feet. The 
freight and passenger building, occupying the bulk of the 
structure, consists of two sections, each 2,340 feet long by 
100 feet wide. A roadway, ,,^^^ 

80 feet in width, divides f "" •" 

these sections, being used 
for trucking and motor ac- 
cess to the recreation end 
of the pier. As freight 
traffic develops, tracks will 
be laid, flush with the sur- 
face, to provide for freight 
transfer by rail . The lower 
or freight deck, 3V2 feet 
above the roadway, ex- 
tends 6 feet beyond the 
building line, forming a 



I 



First Floor Plan of Terminal Building 



freight wharf having a total length of nearly 5,000 feet. 
The upper deck is for the exclusive use of boat passen- 
gers and pier visitors, who reach it either by the ramps 
before mentioned or by trolley. Cars enter the pier at 
this level, run to the extreme end of the freight and 
passenger building where they loop to the opposite side, 
giving equal service to both sections. Passengers are 
^^ discharged at their par- 

ticular steamer, which 
they conveniently board at 
the upper deck. This por- 
tion of the pier is available 
only to steamship lines 
having a combined pas- 
senger and freight traffic. 
Docking rights, when en- 
tirely sold, will yield 
about 5 per cent on the 
entire pier investment. 

Leaving the cars at the 
loop, at the termination of 



mm* ««- •«« «i|p«l 



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r 1 J 




^^' 


--^ 


r^S 


^ ^ 







Cross Section Through Freight and Passenger Portion of Pier 




View from Head-House Looking Down Roadway to Terminal Building 



THE BRICKBVILDER. 



263 



the freight a.nc\ passenger 
building, we enter the ter- 
minal building, the first 
unit of the recreation group. 
This section is used for gen- 
eral circulation, broad stair- 
ways giving easy access to 
the various levels. Here 
are located information bu- 
reaus, toilet rooms, a well 
appointed emergency hos- 
pital, and on the third floor 
a restaurant, 30 feet by 245 
fee